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Full text of "Two centuries in the history of the Presbyterian Church, Jamaica, L.I. : the oldest existing church, of the Presbyterian name, in America"

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The ''Oli Ctcne Clvarc-h.'"' fii 



TWO CENTURIES 



IN THE 



HISTORY OF THE 



PRESBYTEEIAlJi CHURCH, 

JTAJS^A^HCA., L. I.; 

THE OLDEST EXISTING CHURCH, OF THE PRESBYTERIAN 
NAME, IN AMERICA. 



BY JAMES M. MACDOMLD, D. D, 



"One generation passeth away, and another generation cometli; but the earth 
abide th for ever." — Sol. Ecc. 1, 4. 

"Nescire, quid anteaquam natus sis, acciderlt, id est semper esse puerum." — Cic. 
in orat. c. S4. 



Mit\ n gjfpnH^, 



CONTAINING DISCOURSES DELIVERED, AND AN ACCOUNT OP THE SERVICES 

HELD, IN COMMEMORATION OF THE 200TH ANNIVERSARY OF 

THE FOUNDING OF SAID CHURCH, ON THE 7TH, 8TH 

AND 9TH DAYS OF JANUARY, 1862. 



NEW YORK: 

ROBERT CARTER & BROTHERS, 

No, 530 BROADWAY. 

1862. 



EDWARD 0. JENKINS, 
No. 20 North "William St. 



TO 



NATHAN SHELTON, M.D., 

rOE MORE TUAX FIFTY TEARS A PRACTISING PlITSICIAN IN JAMAICA, AND FOtt 
MORE THAN FORTY TEARS 



i: 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH 



OF THAT PLACB, 



Th.is 'Voliinxe 



IS RESPECTFULLY INSCEIBED. 



" 



CONTENTS. 



CHAP TEE I. 



POLITICAL HORIZON TWO CENTURIES AGO — CROMWELL — CHARLES II. — CONDI- 
TION OF THOUGHT AND KNOWLEDGE — BAXTER, BUNTAN, OWEN, HOWE, EL- 
LIOTT — HARVARD COLLEGE — NEWSPAPERS — MINISTERS IN NEW YORK AND 
BROOKLYN — SCHOOLMASTERS — THE FIRST IN JAMAICA — RELIGIOUS HORI- 
' ZON — THE FIRST COMPANIES OF PURITANS LEAVE ENGLAND — CHARLES AND 
LAUD — THE SCOTTISH COVENANT AND CIVIL WAR — PRESBYTERIANS AND 
CAVALIERS — CHARLES II. INVITED TO THE THRONE — HIS INGRATITUDE TO 
THE PRESBYTERIANS — JEREMY TAYLOR — ACT OF UNIFORMITY — ATTEMPT 
TO ESTABLISH PRELACY IN SCOTLAND — MONUMENT IN GRAYFRIARS CHURCH- 
YARD — REVOLUTION 1688 — A " MUSTARD SEED " — THE "EAGLE WING " — 
PROVIDENCE OF GOD, PAGES 17-24: 

CHAPTEK II, 
1656-1670. 

SETTLEMENT OP JAMAICA — PETITION — LEAVE GIVEN BY GOVERNOR AND COUN- 
CIL — FIRST ENTRY IN THE RECORDS — DECLARATION OF PROPRIETORS — 

TALL TREES TO BE SPARED THE TENTHS— YEMACAH — SELLING STRONG 

DRINK TO INDIANS PROHIBITED — CARE AS TO THE CHARACTER OP SET- 
TLERS — FIRST MAGISTRATES APPOINTED — EARLY PREACHING — ARRANGE- 
MENTS FOR A MINISTER — A MINISTER'S HOUSE TO BE BUILT — MR. WALKER 

— BEATING THE DRUM ON SABBATH DAYS — AGREEMENT WITH MR. WALKER 

— MEETING-HOUSE TO BE BUILT — MR. WALKER REQUESTED TO PROCURE 
ORDINATION — REMOVES TO CONNECTICUT — HIS DESCENDANTS — STYLE OP 
DWELLINGS — FOOD — CATTLE — HABITS — INDUSTRY — WOMAN — INCREASE 
IN WEALTH — COMPARATIVE ESTATES OF INDIVIDUALS — DANIEL DENTON — 
HIS HISTORY — SETTLEMENT OF ELIZABETHTOWN, N. J. — SOCIAL LIFE OP 
THE PEOPLE — SABBATH AND WORSHIP — DRESS — FUNERALS — THE BURY- 
IJiQ GROUND, :■ 25-52 

CHAPTEK III. 
1670-1692. 

REV. JOHN PRUDDEN — A CONVENIENT PEW TO PREACH IN — PERMISSION GIVEN 
TO MR. PRUDDEN TO BUILD ON THE MINISTER'S LOT — THE TOWN " FURTHER 
THE COMING INTO A CHURCHWAY" — MR. PRUDDEN LEAVES — REIV. WM. 



6 CONTENTS. 



WOODROP — FORTY ACRES APPROPRIATED FOR THE USE OF THE MINISTER 
IN 1676 — MR. PRUDDEN RETUaXED, AND ARTICLES OF AGREEMENT WITH 
HIM — " RULES OF THE GOSPEL IN THIS TOWN " — WAS THE CHURCH PRES- 
BYTERIAN OR CONGREGATIONAL ? — REV. RICHARD DENTON — TESTIMONY OF 
DUTCH MINISTERS THAT HE WAS A PRESBYTERIAN — PRESBYTERIANS AT 

FLUSHING AND NEWTOWN — DR. WOODBRIDGe's HISTORICAL DISCOURSE 

GOV. STUYVESANT TO THE MAGISTRATES OF HEMPSTEAD — PRESBYTERIANS 
IN NEW ENGLAND — COTTON MATHEr's ACCOUNT OF MR. DENTON — 
CHURCH GOVERNMENT ACCORDING TO THE SYNOD OF DORT — MR. PRUDDEN's 
PETITION TO THE GOVERNOR TO ALLOW HIM TO BE MINISTER OF CON- 
GREGATIONALISTS — MR. P. BECOMES A PRESBYTERIAN — GEORGE SCOT — • 
ARCHIBALD RIDDELL — THE TOWN VOTES IN FAVOR OP PRESBYTERIAN 
ORDINATION IN 1700 — REV. GEORGE m'nISH — THE CHURCH FOSTERED BY 
THE DUTCH PRESBYTERIANS — THE OLDEST CHURCH OF THE PRESBYTERIAN 
NAME IN AMERICA — VOTE RESPECTING THE ERECTION OF A MEETING HOUSE 
1X1689 — MR. PRUDDEN GOES TO NEWARK — HIS DEATH AND EPITAPH, 53-80 



CHAPTEE lY. 
1692-1699. 



FIRST MOVEMENT TOWARDS ERECTING THE STONE MEETING HOUSE — APPLICA- 
TION TO THE ASSEMBLY — VANE A TARGET TO BRITISH SOLDIERS IN THE 
REVOLUTION — DATE ON IT — STYLE OF THE BUILDING — JEREMIAH HOBERT 
— GEORGE PHILLIPS — HIS " DYOTT " PAID FOR — PEOPLE SEND TO THE 
"main" FOR a minister — MR. JONES, LATE OF DANBURY — SUBSCRIPTION 
LIST FOR THE SUPPORT OF A MINISTER — VOTES OF THE TOWN RESPECT- 
ING MEETING HOUSE AND MR. PHILLIPS — THE GOV. PETITIONED RESPECT- 
ING THE SETTLEMENT OF MR. HOBERT — DISPUTE RESPECTING MEETING 
HOUSE SETTLED — ACCOUNT OF MR. HOBERT — HOUSE FINISHED,.. 81-93 



CHAPTEE Y. 
1700-1724r. 

JOHN HUBBARD — ORDAINED IN THE PRESBYTERIAN WAY — VESTRYMEN AND 
CHURCHWARDENS ELECTED — SILAS WOOD, ESQ. — REV. MR. THOMAS, HEMP- 
STEAD — COTTON MATHER ON JAMAICA — CHIEF JUSTICE SMITH ON THB 

JAMAICA TROUBLES — " WATCH TOWER," LIVINGSTONE, SoOTT AND SMITH 

CORNBURY's ORDERS TO INQUIRE INTO THE RIOT, AND TO MR. HUBBARD TO 
VACATE THE PARSONAGE — ORDER TO WARDENS AND SHERIFF TO SELL THB 
CORN — ORDER TO LAY TAX AND FINE THE WARDENS AND VESTRY FOR RE- 
FUSING — REV. MR. Bartow's account of the riot — mr. hubbard's 

DEATH — rev. p. GORDON BURIED UNDER THE CHURCH — REV. W. URQUHART 

REV. F. GOODHUE'S CALL AND COMMISSION — HIS EARLY DEATH — ELEGANT 

LATIN LINES ON HIM — REV. G. m'nISH CALLED — THE CHURCH TAKEN POS- 
SESSION OF BY THE PRPSBYTERIANS — ACCOUNT OF MR. m'niSH — THE PER- 
SECUTION CONTINUES — MEMORIAL OF THE PEOPLE TO THE GOVERNOR 

S. CLOWES INFORMS OF THE RIOT JN 1710 — ORDERS AND FINES IN RE- 
SPECT TO IT — REV. THOS. POYER — MEMORIAL OF THE CLERGY IN RE- 
SPECT TO HIM — GOV. HUNTER, COL. MORRIS AND COL. HEATHCOTE ON THE 
CHURCH DIFFICULTIES — SUBJECT BROUGHT BEFORE THE QUEEN IN PRIVY 
COUNCIL — THE LAWSUIT — MR. m'mSB'S CHARACTER AND SERVICES — HIS 



CONTENTS. 7 

DEATH — REV. ROBERT CROSS — EJECTMENT SUIT DECIDED AGAINST MR. 
POTER — GOV. BURNET TO BISHOP OF LONDON — MR. POYER AND MR. 
CAMPBELL TO SECRETARY — THE CHURCH RECOVERED, 94-153 



CHAPTER YI. 
17Q4.-1774r. 



FREE SCHOOL — THE TOWN TAKE POSSESSION OF THE CHURCH — MK. CROSS 
CALLED TO PHILADELPHIA — THE PEOPLE STRENUOUSLY OPPOSE HIS RE- 
MOVAL — HIS REMOVAL — HIS EPITAPH — WALTER WILMOT — PUT IN POS- 
SESSION OF THE PARSONAGE — MRS. WILMOT — HER DEATH — MR. WHITEFIELD 
VISITS THE PLACE — HIS PREACHING ON REGENERATION TROUBLES MR. 
COLGAN — EFFECT — MR. WILMOt's DEATH — EPITAPH — MR. COLGAN RE- 
JOICES — DAVID BOSTWICK — TOWN FORMALLY SURRENDERS CHURCH PROP- 
ERTY TO THE PRESBYTERIANS — THE RECORD — MR. BOSTWICK CALLED TO 
NEW YORK — COMMITTEE OF SYNOD MEET AT JAMAICA ON HIS REMOVAL — 
MR. BOSTWICK APPOINTED TO SUPPLY NEW YORK — COMMITTEE OF SYNOD 
MEET AT PRINCETON — VOTE FOR HIS REMOVAL — HIS MINISTRY IN NEW 
YORK — HIS PUBLICATIONS, CHARACTER AND DEATH — ELIHU SPENCER — 
ORDAINED AS A MISSIONARY TO THE INDIANS — HIS KNOWLEDGE OF THE 
INDIAN LANGUAGES — SETTLES AT ELIZABETHTOWN — REMOVES TO JAMAICA 
— CHAPLAIN IN THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR — SETTLES AT ST. GEORGE's 
DEL. — REMOVES TO TRENTON, N. J. — HIS READY TALENT — EPITAPH — HIS 
DESCENDANTS — B. BRADNER — WM. MILLS — NUMBER IN COMMUNION — RE- 
VIVAL OF RELIGION — EFFECT OF AN ACCOUNT OF THE REVIVAL AT EAST- 
HAMPTON — MR. WHITEFIELD VISITS JAMAICA, THE SECOND TIME — PREACHES 
IN AN ORCHARD — A TRACT BY MR. MILLS — MR. SEABURY VS. MR. WHITE- 
FIELD — MR. MILLS DECLINES A CALL TO PHILADELPHIA — HIS DEATH — 
HIS DISEASE — HIS CHILDREN — HIS MSS. — PEOPLE STILL RESIST THE TAX 
TO SUPPORT THE EPISCOPAL MINISTRY — MR. BLOOMER ON THE POLITICAL 
TROUBLES OF 1776 — SHUTS HIS CHURCH FOR FIVE SUNDAYS UNTIL THE 
king's TROOPS ARRIVE, 154-189 



CHAPTER YII. 
1775-1815. 

MATTHIAS BURNET ORDAINED — MARRIES IN JAMAICA — THE REVOLUTION — 
PRESBYTERIAN MINISTERS SUPPORT THE CONTINENTAL CONGRESS — REVO- 
LUTIONARY INCIDENTS — MR. BURNET HAS INFLUENCE WITH THE LOYALISTS 
— SAVES THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH FROM DESTRUCTION — HIGHLANDERS 
ATTEND HIS PREACHING — THE SCOTCH WOMAN AND HER BOTTLE OF 
WATER — MR. ONDERDONk's REVOLUTIONARY INCIDENTS — ELIAS BAYLI3 
ARRESTED — SENT TO THE PROVOST — SINGS IN PRISON — HIS DEATH — 
OTHER WHIGS SEIZED — WHIGS RETURN AT THE CLOSE OF THE AVAR — MR. 
BURNET LEAVES, AND SETTLES AT NORWALK — DEATH — GEORGE FAITOUTE 
INSTALLED — ONE OF THE ORIGINAL TRUSTEES OF U. H. ACADEMY — THE 
OLD STONE CHURCH TAKEN DOWN, AND A NEW ONE BUILT — MR. 
FAITOUTE's DEATH, 190-211 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTEEYIII. 
1815-186S. 

R. WEED — REMOVES TO ALBANY — S. P. FUNCK — DISSEXSIOX — REV. A. NET- 
TLETON — GREAT REVIVAL — DISSENSION HEALED — MR. NETTLETOx's METHOD 

E. W. CRANE — mS USEFUL MINISTRY — DR. MURRAY'S SKETCH OF HIM — 

HIS DEATH — J. M. MACDONALD — THE NEW ERA IN THE HISTORY OF THE 
CHURCH UNDER MR. WEEd's MINISTRY — THE HIGHLY PROSPEROUS STATE OF 
THE CONGREGATION IN 1841 — INCIDENTS IN MR. MACDONALD's MINISTRY — 

P. D. oakey, 212-225 



CHAPTEK IX. 



STATISTICS OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN THE UNITED STATES — INFLU- 
ENCE OF A SINGLE CHURCH — MEN DIE, TRUTH ENDURES THE LIFE OF 

SOCIETY — ERROR AND SIN TRANSMITTED — LOSSES AND GAINS, OR THE TRAN- 
SIENT AND PERMANENT IN HISTORY — SIGNS OF TBE TIMES — THE MISSION- 
ARY SPIRIT OF RICHARD BAXTER — HOPE FOR OUR COUNTRY IN ITS PRESENT 
TRIALS — PRINCIPLES RECEIVED FROM THE PRESBYTERIAX FATHERS — LOY- 
ALTY — RELIGIOUS IXSTRUCTIOX OF YOUTH — FREEDOM OF COXSCIENCE — 
CHOICE OF RULERS — HOW WE MAY BEST SERVE THE FUTURE — KING DAVID 
— ABEL — THE CHAIN OF EXPERIEXCE — MR. AMOS DEXTOX — FAITH AND 
PRAYER, 226-238 



ADDEIS'D A 



I. RATE LIST OF JAMAICA IN 16S3 — II. RETURN OF MARRIAGES, BAPTISMS AND 
BURIALS FOR SEVEN YEARS PRECEDING 1688 — III. RATE LIST OF JAMAICA, 
FEB. 1708-9 — IV. LETTER OP THE REV. GEORGE HALE, PENNIXGTOX, X. J. — 
V. PRESBYTERIES WITH WHICH THE CHURCH HAS BEEX COXNECTED — VI. 
CATALOGUE OF THE MIXISTERS — VII. CATALOGUE OF THE ELDERS — VIII. 
DEACOXS — IX. TRUSTEES OF THE COXGREGATIOX — X. NUMBER OF COM- 
MUXICAXTS AXXUALLY REPORTED TO PRESBYTERY — XI. LIST OF MIXISTERS 
WHO HAVE GOXE FORTH, ETC. — XII. LIST OF VESTRYMEN, ETC. — XIII. 
CONTEMPORARY MIXISTERS OF JAMAICA — XIV. THE FIRST IXDIAN DEED FOR 
THE TOWNSHIP, 239-259 

APPENDIX. 

PRELIMINARY ARRANGEMENTS — OPENING EXERCISES — MURAL TABLETS — SER- 
MON BY DR. AlACDONALD — INTERLOCUTORY MEETING OF MINISTERS IX FORMER 

CONNECTION WITH THE CHURCH — SERMON BY REV. J. M. KREBS, D. D. 

SERMON BY REV. W. P. BREED — COMMUNION — LETTERS FROM DR. WEED 
AND OTHERS — COXCLUDIXG ADDRESS BY THE PASTOR, REV. P. D. OAKEY — 
" NEW YORK OBSERVER," " PRESBYTERIAN," 261-329 



PEEFACE. 

The following note will serve to explain to tlie public 
tlie origin of tliis volume : 

Jamaica, L. L, January 8, 1862. 
To Rev. James JS/i Macdonald^ D. D. : 

Dear Sir : — ^The undersigned, a committee of the Eld- 
ers, Deacons and Trustees, beg leave to thank you for the 
very able and interesting discourse delivered yesterday, 
commemorative of the 200th anniversary of the Presby- 
terian church in this place ; and, believing that the impor- 
tant matter therein contained should be preserved in a 
permanent form, ask the favor of a copy for publication. 
Very sincerely and truly yours, 

P. D. Oaket, 
Jno. J. Armstrong, 
Laurens Reeve, 
Jno. D. Shelton. 

Shortly after this was received, the Session and 
Trustees, through the Pastor, Eev. Mr. Oakey, re- 
quested that a new and enlarged edition of the History 
of the Church, which was published in 1847, might be 
prepared. Tliis work was accordingly undertaken ; 
and the historical matter referred to in the above note, 
and other matter new, or deemed too important to be 
allowed to pass into oblivion, will be found incorpo- 
rated in the following pages. 

As in the former publication, of which this can 
scarcely be called a new edition, the author felt con- 
strained to express his special acknowledgments to 
1* 



10 PREFACE. 

Henry Onderdonk, Jr., Esq., antlior of " Eevolution- 
arj Incidents of Long Island," for directing him to 
sources of valuable information, he is in this called 
upon to renew his acknowledgments to that gentle- 
man for similar services, and especially for securing for 
him an accurate copy of all the minutes relating to the 
church, found in the ancient Town Records of Jamaica. 
These minutes, nearly entire in the order of their dates, 
are here preserved. 

Thanks are also due to Dr. E. B. O'Callaghan of 
Albany, for kindly furnishing two of the oldest docu- 
ments in the book, one of which he translated from the 
Dutch ; and to Charles Shaw, Esq., for perfecting, from 
his own recollections, the rough sketch of the stone 
church, left by the late Judge Lamberson, an engrav- 
ing of which appears in this volume. 

The Indian deed for the first purchase of land by 
the original settlers, was discovered too late to be in- 
serted in the proper place. It, with other important 
documents, will be found in the Addenda. 

The Appendix, containing an account of the recent 
bi-centennial celebration was prepared, under the di- 
rection of a committee appointed for that purpose, by 
the Trustees and Elders of the congregation. 

This history, it is thought, will be possessed of some 
interest outside of the particular community to which 
it relates, as it presents the evidence (if it might not 
rather be called ^^rc^?/") of its being the oldest existing 
church of the Presbyterian name in America. 

Parsonage-House, Library Place, 
; Princeton, N. J., May 8tli, 1862. 



INTRODUCTION. 



Jamaica, on Long Island, was settled, under the 
Dutch rule, in 1656. The English, laying claim to the 
same territory, it was surrendered to them in the year 
of our Lord 166L 

After the Revolution in England, in 1688, a great 
change took place in the Colonial government. A 
General Assembly was allowed, which consisted of 
deputies, chosen by the freeholders of each County, to 
whom, together with the Grovernor and the Council, 
the legislative j)ower was intrusted. 

In 1692, Colonel Fletcher arrived, with a commission 
to be Governor of the Colony. He very soon mani- 
fested great zeal to form a " religious establishment ;" 
and, whilst the government was in his hands, a new 
policy was adopted, in respect to ecclesiastical affairs, 
which, at length, produced much dissension, and 
operated with disastrous effect on the Presbyterian 
churches in Hempstead and Jamaica. The recommen- 
dation of the Governor was for " the settling of an 
able ministry," but no intimation was given that the 
Church of England was to be exclusively suj)ported by 
law. The majority of the Assembly were entirely dis- 
inclined to the scheme; but, as the model of the 
Church of HollpTid had been secured to them, by one 



12 INTRODUCTION. 

of the articles of surrender, it is not probable tliey 
suspected Fletcher of bis design to introduce uniform- 
ity of religion, or to bave tbe Cburcb of England ex- 
clusively supported by law. Tbe Governor warmly 
rebuked tbem, asserting that tbe same law wbicb 
secured to tbem tbe privileges of Englishmen, did 
"provide for tbe religion of tbe Church of England." 
Fletcher was a bigot to the Episcopal form of Church 
government.* 

In September, 1693, a new Assembly met. The de- 
termination of tbe Governor at length induced the 
bouse to yield ; and a bill was " brought in for settling 
tbe ministry, and raising a maintenance for them in the 
City and County of ISTew York, Counties of Richmond 
and Westchester and Queens County." Tbe bill was 
drawn by James Grahame, Esq., the Speaker of the 
Assembly, who was the only member of that body 
who belonged to tbe Church of England. As the in- 
habitants of Jamaica were, at that time, seeking to 
erect a new house of worship, and had applied to the 
Assembly for an Act to enable them to raise money 
for the work. Colonel Fletcher and Grahame, perceiv- 
ing tbe Assembly inclined to pass such an Act, thought 
it a favorable opportunity to press their favorite meas- 
ure for a religious establishment, and accordingly 
brought in the bill aforesaid. It was artfully framed, 
and prescribed a method of induction that " would not 
do well for the Dissenters, and but lamely for the 
Church, tho' 'twould do with tbe help of tbe Gover- 
nor. "f The bill passed and was sent to tbe Governor 

* Smith, I. p. 128. 
t Colonel Lewis Morris' MS Letter to the Yen. Soc, 



INTRODUCTION. 13 

and Council, who immediately returned it, with an 
amendment to the effect that ministers should be "pre- 
sented to the Governor to be approved and collated." 
The members of the house refused to pass the amend- 
ment. Fletcher was so highly exasperated, that he 
summoned the representatives forthwith to the council 
chamber, and told them that he had " the power of col- 
lating or suspending any minister in his government." 
Smith thinks that it can only be attributed to the sim- 
plicity of the times that the members of the Assembly 
peaceably put up with that man's rudeness. Tlie char- 
ter of privileges gi-anted by the Duke of York to the 
inhabitants of 'New York provided that all "persons 
which profess in Godlynesse Jesus Christ" might 
" from time to time, and at all times, have and fully 
enjoy their judgments and consciences in matters of 
religion throughout all the province." The same char- 
ter confirmed "the respective Christian churches now 
in practice within the Citty of New Yorke, Long 
Island, and other places of this province," " that they 
shall be held and reputed as pkiviledged Churches, 

AND ENJOY THEIR FORMER FREEDOMS OF THEIR RELIGION, 
IN DIVINE WORSHIP AND CHURCH DISCIPLINE." 

In the spring of 1695, the Assembly declared, in 
explanation of the Act of 1693, " That the vestry-men 
and church-wardens have power to call a dissenting 
Protestant minister, and that he is to be paid and main- 
tained as the Act directs." This was done on account 
of the attempt to interpret the Act as made for the 
sole benefit of the Church of England. The design of 
the Governor, and the secret of all his zeal, for " set- 
tling the ministry," was now made evident ; for he re- 



14: INTRODUCTION. 

jected tlie interpretation of the Assembly, and decided 
that the act applied solely to the ministry of that 
church. 

Lord Cornbury was aj)pointed to succeed the Earl 
of Bellomont in the government, and he arrived in the 
Colony early in the year 1702. In his zeal for '' the 
Church," he was not behind any of his predecessors, 
and therefore he was a fit instrument to carry out the 
policy of Governor Fletcher. " His persecution of the 
Presbyterians very early increased the number of his 
enemies ; the Dutch, too, were fearful of his religious 
rage against them, as he disputed their right to call 
and settle ministers, or even schoolmasters, without 
his special license." " We never had a Governor so 
universally detested, nor any who so richly deserved 
the j)ublic abhorrence. In spite of his noble descent, 
his behavior was trifling, mean, and extravagant. It 
was not uncommon for him to dress himself in a 
woman's habit, and then to patrol the fort in which he 
resided. Such freaks of low humor exj)Osed him to 
the universal contempt of the people ; but their indig- 
nation was kindled by his despotic rule, savage bigotry, 
insatiable avarice, and injustice, not only to the public, 
but even his private creditors ; for he left some of the 
lowest tradesmen, in his employment, unsatisfied in 
their just demands."* 

Such was the man whom the Presbyterians of Ja- 
maica long had cause to remember. To honor his 
memoryf must be to disregard the most authentic tes- 

* Smith, I. pp. 190, 194. 

t See a Discourse by the Rev, W. M. Carmichael, D. D., delivered at 
Hempstead, 1841. 



INTRODUCTION. 15 

timony as to liis true character. " Cornbuiy became 
so obnoxious to the inhabitants of this province that 
they sent a complaint to England against him. The 
queen in consequence of this complaint displaced 
him."* " Lord Cornbuiy did more to bring disgrace 
upon the administration of the Colony than" all his 
predecessors together. There was never probably a 
Governor of j^Tew York so universally detested, and 
who so richly deserved it."f Grahame says, '' in every 
quarter of the province the Governor offered his assist- 
ance to the Episcopalians, to put them in possession of 
the ecclesiastical edifices that other sects had built, 
and to the disgrace of some of the zealots of Episco- 
pacy, this offer was in various instances accepted, and 
produced the most disgusting scenes of riot, injustice, 
and confusion." 

* Notes on Brooklyn, by the Hon. G. Furman, p. 108. 
t Thompson, II. 108. 



HISTORY 



OF THE 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, 

J^lVtJ^IC^, L.I. 



C H A P T E E I. 

POLITICAL HORIZOX TWO CENTURIES AGO — CROMWELL — CHARLES II. — CONDI- 
TION OF THOUGHT AND KNOWLEDGE — BAXTER, BUNYAN, OWEN, HOWE, EL- 
LIOTT — HARVARD COLLEGE — NEWSPAPERS — MINISTERS IN NEW TORK AND 
BROOKLYN — SCHOOLMASTERS — -THE FIRST IN JAMAICA — RELIGIOUS HORI- 
ZON — THE FIRST COMPANIES OF PURITANS LEAVE ENGLAND — CHARLES AND 
LAUD — THE SCOTTISH COVENANT AND CIVIL WAR — PRESBYTERIANS AND 
CAVALIERS — CHARLES II. INVITED TO THE THRONE — HIS INGRATITUDE TO 
THE PRESBYTERIANS — JEREMY TAYLOR — ACT OF UNIFORMITY — ATTEMPT 
TO ESTABLISH PRELACY IN SCOTLAND — MONUMENT IN GRAYFRIARS CHURCH- 
YARD — REVOLUTION 16S8 — A "MUSTARD SEEd" — THE ** EAGLE WING " — 
PROVIDENCE OF GOD. 

IN England, two liundred years ago, tlie people were 
feeling the throes of that mighty convulsion, which 
attended the long struggle between her sovereigns and 
their parliaments, and which issued at length in bind- 
ing uj) together " the rights of the people and the title 
of the reigning dynasty." In 1660, two years before 
the establishment of a Christian congregation in this 
place, Charles II. had been restored to the throne. 
From 1649, when his father was executed, the govern- 
ment had been administered by a Council of State 
and the Parliament until 1653, when Oliver Cromwell 
dissolved the parliament and assumed the reins of 



18 HISTOKT OF THE 

government. Oliver was at tlie zenith of liis great- 
ness in 1656, when the first settlers came to Jamaica. 
England, from the insignificant position she had held 
for half a century, rose to be one of the most formid- 
able powers of the world ; her naval victories, nnder 
Blake and Dean over De Kuyter and Tromp, estab- 
lished her title as mistress of the seas. 

Charles II. came to the throne with no mean abili- 
ties, with amiable qualities, and from " a school of bit- 
ter experience," which might have made him a great 
and good monarch. He was greeted by his subjects 
with a love and devotion such as none of his predeces- 
sors had known. But addicted, immoderately, to sen- 
sual indulgence and frivolous pleasures, incapable of 
friendship, without gratitude for favours, insensible to 
reproach, without desire for renown, with an utter de- 
testation for business, he relinquished the direction of 
public aft airs, and allowed himself to become a mere 
puppet in the hands of the worthless parasites who 
gathered around him. He spurned from the foot of 
the throne loyal subjects, without whose aid he never 
could have gained it. The vices of the court were not 
long in infecting the morals and manners of the people. 
Enforced decorum and sanctity under the Puritan 
rule, when the restraint was taken off and an example 
which discouraged no excess was set in high places, 
was soon followed by the opposite extreme, and the 
people became greedy for licentious pleasures and 
frivolous amusements. The writings of infidels, in 
which the obligations of morality were relaxed and 
religion was degraded, as in the pagan systems of old, 
into a mere affair of state, were eagerly welcomed by 



PKESBYTEKIAN CHUECH, JAMAICA. 19 

courtiers and fine gentlemen. The play-lioiises were 
re-opened and crowded, and became seminaries of vice. 
The female character was degraded and the education 
of high-born women neglected, as it had never been 
since the revival of learning, and as it has never been 
since. In literature France gave law to the world. 
The fountains of the great deep of evil seemed to be 
broken up, and to be flooding the land ; and as the 
years of this reign progressed the national virtue sunk 
to the lowest point. 

In 1662, Newton was yet to make his great discover- 
ies. It was not, it is said, till 1666 he first conceived 
the idea of gravitation, by seeing an apple fall from a 
tree, which led to his theory of planetary motion — 
a theory which required nearly another century, before 
it was confirmed beyond a doubt. Chemistry, botany, 
geology, and even geography were almost unknown 
sciences. A fact so important to medical science as 
the circulation of the blood had been known to physi- 
cians but five years, and the Royal Society of England 
had just come into existence. The full strength and 
elevation of the French language was just then being 
demonstrated by the celebrated writers who flourished 
under Louis XIY. ; but "it may be doubted," says 
Lord Macaulay, " whether any one of the forty mem- 
bers of the French Academy had an English volume in 
his library, or knew Shakspeare, Jonson, or But- 
ler by name." The Augustan era of Spanish literature 
was already past, and German literature was a thing 
of the future. The world was yet to receive that im- 
perishable monument of Milton's fame, the Paradise 
Lost. Bunyan was lying in Bedford jail with his Bi- 



20 HISTORY OF THE 

ble and Fox's Book of Martyrs, composing his immor- 
tal allegory. Baxter had a few years before, whilst a 
chaplain in the army, with no other books than the 
Bible and a Concordance written the Saints' Kest, and 
was yet to compose the greater portion of his volumi- 
nous productions. The most important w^orks of the 
great Dr. Owen had not then been published. John 
Howe was yet to produce those writings, which are still 
so highly valued in the religious world. John Wesley 
had not been raised up, as by the visible hand of God, 
to withstand the prevailhig indifferentism and infidel- 
ity of his day. Protestant missions among the heathen 
were unknown. The Indian Testament of John El- 
liott had just been j^i'inted ; his Indian Bible was not 
completed. 'No English copy of the Scriptures had 
been printed in America. The authorized version had 
been finished only fifty years before. 

In 1662, there was but one college in the colonies, 
and not a single newspaj)er until nearly forty years af- 
ter this date. Tea was unknown, as it was also in the 
mother country. No settlement had been made in 
Pennsylvania, South Carolina, and Georgia. The Mis- 
sissippi River had not been navigated, except by the 
canoes of the Bed Men ; nor was it even known to the 
civilized world. The entire white population of ISTew 
England did not probably exceed fifty thousand. 
Brooklyn, now a city of more than two hundred and 
fifty thousands, contained a population of less than one 
hundred and forty persons. It had one Dutch church,* 
having one elder and twenty-four members. New 

* Dominie Selyus Letter to the Classis of Amsterdam, IGGO, in Doc. 
Hist, of New York, vol. iii., p. 109. 



PEESBTTEKIAN CHrRCIT, JAMAICA. 21 

Amsterdam, now 'New York, with its eight hundred 
thousand, had about fifteen hundred inhabitants,^ not 
two hundred and fifty of whom Avere capable of bear- 
ing arms. A dozen butchers could supply its sham- 
bles. A house and garden, at the corner of the pres- 
ent Wall and Pearl streets, could be bought for $220. 
The rent of a house of the better class was $80 per an- 
num ; the rent of an ordinary house, fifteen beaver 
skins, or $36. Beaver skins were the most stable arti- 
cle of currency, valued at six guilders, or $2.40.f In 
addition to the two ministers in New York, the one at 
Albany, and the one at Brooklyn, the Dutch had but 
two ministers in the entire province of New Nether- 
lands, one at Middelwout (Flatbush), and one at 
^sopus (Kingston).:]: Schoolmasters were still fewer. 
Li 165T, there were but three in all the Dutch and 
English villages in the province. The earliest record 
of one in Jamaica is in 1676,§ when by vote of the 
town, Richard Jones was allowed to use the meeting- 
house, provided he swept it out and arranged the seats 
for the Sabbath. 

When that struo^o^le to which the Eno-lish constitu- 
tion is indebted for its principles of liberty, as I have 
said, was at its height, the settlement of Jamaica was 
made. The storm which arose during the reign of 
James L, and drove the first companies of Puritans 
from their native shore, in its next sweep drove his 
successor from the throne, and prostrated that throne 



* Letter of Burgomasters to W. I. Co., in 16G4, in Valentine's Man. ISGO. 
p. 592. 

t Valentine's Manual for 1860. Historical Minutes, &c. 
X Letter of Dominie Selyns. § Town Records. 



22 HISTORY OF THE 

in tlie dust. Tlie attempt of Charles and Laud to force 
on the people of Scotland the English liturgy, gave to 
England her liberty. They formed the celebrated cov- 
enant to maintain their ecclesiastical rights and immu- 
nities, and took up arms against the king. Civil wars 
ensned, which ended in the execution of Charles and 
the elevation of Cromwell to power. Ten years, how- 
ever, had not elapsed, when the sense of evils, and the 
fear of greater ones to come, brought about an alliance 
between the Cavaliers and the Presbyterians, and led 
to the restoration. The Presbyterians occupied a mid- 
dle position between the high church prelatic party, 
who aimed to restore absolute monarchy, and the In- 
dependents and other sectaries, who would have des- 
troyed all royal authority. A new parliament met at 
"Westminster, in which the Presbyterians formed the 
majority. Charles II. was invited to return, and was 
proclaimed king with a pomp never known before. 
For a time he affected to treat, perhaps really desired 
to treat, the Presbyterian clergy, who had given such 
proof of loyalty, with respect and kindness. But his 
councillors and ministers were bent on enforcing the 
prelatic system by the strong hand of power. The 
ministers in Ireland had the honorable pre-eminence of 
being the first to suffer in the three kingdoms. Imme- 
diately after the restoration, in 1661, the celebrated 
Jeremy Taylor, Bishop of Down and Connor, under a 
law w^hich, it was claimed, the restoration brought 
again into force, in the most summary manner declared 
thirty-six of the Presbyterian churches located Avithin 
his diocese, vacant. The year 1662 was perhaps mem- 
orable beyond any other in the history of the Presby- 



PRESBYTEKIAN CHIJECH, JAMAICA. 23 

terian Cliiircli. In that year, on tlie 19th of May, was 
passed the Act of Uniformity, which went into force on 
the 24th of August, by which two thousand Presbyter- 
ian ministers, including such men as Baxter, Bates and 
Calamy were ejected from their ecclesiastical prefer- 
ments. In October of the same year, Charles II. gave 
orders prohibiting the meeting of Synods, Presbyteries 
and Kirk sessions, and establishing prelacy in Scot- 
land. Sharp, Lauderdale and Claverhouse entered on 
their bloody work. On a monumental stone in the 
Gray friars churchyard, Edinburgh, may be seen an in- 
scription, which states, that between 1661 and 1688, 
1800 persons are computed to have sufiered death for 
their faith. The revolution in 1688 was important, 
not so much for the overthrow of the Stuarts as for 
rescuing the fundamental laws of the realm from their 
sad and long perversion, and settling the principle 
that the king has no divine right to disregard those 
fundamental laws. 

But observe, as may be done at this distance of time, 
looking back on the map of the past, the wonderful 
movements of Divine Providence. Whilst the Pres- 
byterian Church was struggling for its very existence 
in fatherland, and all the power of the State was em- 
ployed to eradicate it from the soil, a little seed had 
been wafted to these shores, and was sending forth a 
shoot in the newly-cleared wilderness which has now 
grown to a size in comparison with which the parent 
stock is like one of the lesser trees of the forest. The 
tempest which in 1636 swept the Eagle AV^ing,* with 

* See Foote's Sketches of North Carolina, pp. lO-i-108. 



24 HISTOEY OF THE 

its Presbyterian colony, under tlie lead of sucli minis- 
ters as John Livingston, Kobert Blair, James Hamil- 
ton and John McClelland back to Lockfergus, and the 
order of King Charles which prohibited the departnre 
of the vessel a few years afterwards on a similar voyage, 
bore back and detained the spirits of the revolution to 
do a work in Scotland, Ireland, England, which was 
necessary to be done before the way could be prepared 
for the new development of liberty and industry in 
these modern times, on this continent. Well has it 
been remarked that 



" PRINCIPLES, NOT MEN, MUST GOVERN THE WORLD 
UNDER THE PROVIDENCE OF GOD." 



; • 



TRESBYTEEIAN CHUECII JAMAICA. 



CHAPTEE II. 
1656-1670. 

SETTLEMENT OF JAMAICA — PETITIOX — LEAVE GIVEN' BY GOVERXOR AXD COUN- 
CIL — FIRST ENTRY IN THE RECORDS — DECLARATION OF PROPRIETORS — 

TALL TREES TO BE SPARED — THE TENTHS — YEMACAH SELLING STRONG 

DRINK TO INDIANS PROHIBITED — CARE AS TO THB CHARACTER OF SET- 
TLERS — FIRST MAGISTRATES APPOINTED — EARLY PREACHING — ARRANGE- 
MENTS FOR A MINISTER — A MINISTER'S HOUSE TO BE BUILT — MR. WALKER 
— BEATING THE DRUM ON SABBATH DAYS — AGREEMENT WITH MR. WALKER 

MEETING-HOUSE TO BE BUILT MR. WALKER REQUESTED TO PROCURE 

ORDINATION — REMOVES TO CONNECTICUT — HIS DESCENDANTS — STYLE OP 

DWELLINGS — FOOD — CATTLE — HABITS — INDUSTRY WOMAN — INCREASE 

IN AVEALTH — COMPARATIVE ESTATES OF INDIVIDUALS — DANIEL DENTON — 
HIS HISTORY — SETTLEMENT OF ELIZABETHTOWN, N. J. — SOCIAL LIFE OP 
THE PEOPLE — SABBATH AND WORSHIP — DRESS — FUNERALS — THE BURY- 
ING GROUND. 

JAMAICA was settled during the administration of 
Peter Stujvesant. The leading proprietors came 
from Hempstead, which had been settled in 1644. The 
petition to the Governor and Council, as w^ill be seen 
below, is dated 10th of March, 1656, whilst the first 
entry in the Records of Jamaica is dated 18th of Feb- 
ruary, 1656. This aj)parent discrepancy is probably 
to be accounted for by a confusion between old and 
new style, or by the use in one instance of the new^ 
and in the other of old style. The year, according to 
old style, began March 25th till 1752. The Dutch 
Governor and Council in answering the petition, and 
the petitioners in addressing them, would seem to make 
2 



26 HISTOKY OF THE 

use of new style regarding the year as having com- 
menced in January, whilst Mr. Denton, the clerk of 
Jamaica, with English pertinacity, adheres to old style, 
regarding it as having commenced March 25th, and of 
course continuing till that date. Several of those whose 
names are attached to the petition, viz : Jackson, Ire- 
land, Spragg and Carle did not remove to Jamaica. 

To THE Right Worsiiipfull Peter Steevesant, Esquire, Governor 
Gexerall of the N". Netherlands with the Councell of State there 
Established. 

The humhle petition of us subscribed shewetli that 
where as wee have Twice already petitioned see are bold 
once againe to petition un to your worship & honourable 
Councell for a j^lace to improve our Labours upon ; for 
some of us are destitute of either habitation or possession 
others Though inhabited yett finde that in the place where 
they are they cannot comfortably subsist by their Labours 
& endeavours. By which means tliey are necessitated to 
Looke out for a place where they may hope Avith gods 
Blessing upon theyr Labours more comfortably to subsist, 
The place they desire & have alreadie petitioned for is 
called Conorasset & Lies from a river which divideth it 
from Conarie see to the Bounds of heemstead & may con- 
taine about twentie families this place upon incouragement 
from your Avorship by our messenger that presented our 
petition sent the second tyme wee have purchased from 
the Indians & are not Avilling to Remove out of the jurisdic- 
tion iff Avee may bee toUerated to possesse our purchase & 
whereas we are desirous To settle our selves this spring 
wee humbly craA^e that this place may bee confirmed unto 
us with as much expedition as may be soe Avith Appre- 
cation of all happiness to your Avorshi^J and honoured Coun- 



PKESBYTERIAN CHUKCH, JAMAICA. 27 

cell wee humbly take our leave who are your humble pe- 
titioners. 

Heemstead the 10th of March 1656. 

ROBERT JACKSOX, ABRAHAM SMITH, 

NICHOLAS TANXER, THOMAS IRELAND, 

NATHANIEL DENTON, THOMAS CARLE, 

RICHARD EVERIT, EDWARD SPRAG, 

RODGER LINAS, JOHN ROADES, 

DANIEL DENTON, ANDREAV MESSENGER, 

. JOHN LAZAR, SAMUEL MATHEWS. 

From X. Y. Col. MSS. VI : 336, 337. 

[reply.]* 

On the preceding Petition is it ordered as follows : 
The Director & Council having seen the request of the 
petitioners, at present inhabitants of the town of Heem- 
steede, ct subjects of this Province, do consent that the Pe- 
titioners may begin a new Town according to their plan in 
this respect, between the land by us called Canaresse & 
the Town Heemsteede, on such Freedoms, Exemptions & 
special ground briefs as the Inhabitants of N. Netherland 
generally enjoy, as well in the possession of their lands as 
in the election of their Magistrates, on the same footing 
& order as is customary in the towns Middelborch, 
Breuckelen, Midwout & Amersfoort. Done at Fort 
Amsterdam in l^ew JSTetherland, March 21, 1656. 

P. STUYVESANT. 

N'lCAsius de Sille 
La Montagne. 

Cor. Yan Tienhoven. a. R. XII; 337, 339. 

Tlie first entry in the records of Jamaica is in these 
words : 

* Translated from the Dutch Records, by E. B. O'Callaghan, Esq. 



28 HISTORY OF THE 

A town meeting held at y' town y^ 18th off Feb., 
1656.* 

Daniell Denton chosen to write & enter all acts & 
orders off public concernment to y' town, & is to have 
a dale's work a man for y^ sayd employment. 

It is voted and concluded by y^ town y' w^hosoever shall 
fell any trees in y^ highways shall take both top & body 
out off y^ highway. 

It is further voted & agreed upon by y^ town y* w^ho- 
soever shall kill a wolf within y' bounds off y® town, shall 
have fiveteen shillings a wolff. 

Likewise it is agreed upon by y^ town y* whereas they 

have the Little plains by purchase & patent w* in their 

limits, to maintain their right & priviledge in y*" sayd 

place from any such as shall goe to deprive y"" off it, & 

so to make use off it as they shall see cause. 

Records I. p. 1. 

MEMORAXDUM. 

The town have given Mr. Robert Coe & his son, Ben- 
jamin Coe, each off y'" a home lot. 

The town have alsoe given Nicolas Tanner, Abraham 
Smith, John Lazar, Samuel Smith, Morace Smith, & 
William Thorne, each off y"" a house lot lying upon y* west 
quarter. 

The town have granted Andrew Messenger, Samuel 

Mathews, Thomas Wiggins, Richard Chasmore, Richard 

Harkert, Richard Everet, Henry Townsend, Richard 

Townsend, John Townsend & John Roades, each off y"" 

a house lot lying upon y" north quarter. 

Records I. p. 1. 

* New style, March 1st, 1657. By au act of Parliament in 1752, the 
Gregorian reformation of the calendar was adopted. The eleven days ex- 
cess was suppressed in September of that year, and the beginning of the 
year transferred from the 25th of March to January 1. 



PKESBYTERIAN CHUECH, JAMAICA. 29 

To Sam'l Dein, Nath. Denton, Geo. Mills, Rodger Linas, 
Dan'I Denton & Sam'l Andrews each a house lot on y® 
South quarter. Records I. p. 2. 

KovEisfBEii y 25th, 1656, Stylo Novo.* 
These presents declareth y' wee whose names are under- 
written, being true owners, by vertue off purchase from 
y^ Indians & grant from y^ Governor & Council given 
& granted y^ 21st of March, 1656, I say wee, who are y® 
true owners by vertue of j^urchase, & our associates, our 
names being underwritten, living at y^ new plantation 
near unto y^ bever pond, comonly called Jemaica, I say 
wee in consideration of our charge & trouble in getting 
& settling off y^ place, have reserved unto ourselves y^ full 
& just sum off ten acres off planting land a man, besides 
y^ home lots in y" nearest & convenientest place y* can 
be found, & soe likewise 20 acres of medowing * * 
every man taking his lot according to their first right. 
Witness our hands this day & date above written. 

ROBERT COE, RODGER LINAS, RICH. TOWNSEND, 

]SriC. TANNER, SAMUEL MATHEVTS, RI. HARKERT, 

NAT. DENTON, JOHN LAZAR. RI. CHASMORE, 

AND. MESSENGER, RICHARD EVERET, GEO. MILLS, 

DANIELL DENTON, JOHN TOWNSEND, JOHN ROADES, 

ABRA. SMITH, HEN. TOWNSEND, 

Records I., p, 2. 

Jan. 13th, 1657. It is this day granted by y^ town 
that Mr. Robert Coe & his son Beniamen shall take up, 
possesse & enioy ten acres off land a piece at y^ rear off 
their home lots. 

* New style is here designated. This probably is an earlier date than 
"ye ISth off Feb. 1656," the latter being old style. After the first town 
meeting the document was copied for preservation, & sfi/lo novo added to 
explain the seeming discrepancy. "Washington was born Feb. 11th, 1731, 
old style, but on Feb. 22d, 1732, new style. 



30 HISTORY OF THE 

Feb. 27, 1658. It is agreed upon by the towne y* ac- 
cording to a former order y* y® first proprietors & there 
associates shall have ten acres off planting land a piece in 
y® most convenient place w'^^ they shall chuse, so y' y*" shall 
now vew & have their lots layd out according to y® sayd 
order. 

Theese men folio win o; doe conclude to have there 
lots eastward, John Townsend, Rich. Townsend, Henry 
Townsend, John Roades, Nathaniel Denton, Daniel Den- 
ton, Richard Everet, Richard Harkert, George Mills. 

These men following take up y**"^* ten acre lots westward, 
Nicholas Tanner, Andrew Messenger, Samuel Mathews, 
John Lazar, Richard Chasmore, Abraham Smith, Rodger 
Linas. 

Richard Townsend and Nicolas Tanner are chosen to 
lay out the ten acre lots, & to have 2d an acre for y''® 
labour. 

It is voted & agreed upon by y town y* Daniel Den- 
ton shall bee town dark for y^ ensuing year, & to have 
of some 30 st.* and of others a gilder. 

Heny Townsend, Richard Townsend, and Daniel Den- 
ton have each of y" a ten acre lot lying to y^ northward 
off y^ way y^ goes to Hemstead on y^ side y" Rocky Hol- 
low next adioining to y® home lots upon y^ north east quar- 
ter. Heny Townsend lying y^ first & next adioining to 
y^ north east quarter, Daniel Denton y* next, & Richard 
Townsends y^ 3d & east off y^ three. 

These ten acre lots above speciffied are given and grant- 
ed to y* afforesayd men by y^ town, and layd out accord- 
ing to order. Records I. pp. 5, 6. 

Nov. y' 2 2d, 1658. A town meeting called, & agreed, 
& concluded upon by the town that y' medows shall bee 
layd out for the purchasers, 17 lots, 20 acres a lot. Rich- 

* St.— stivers. 



PEESBYTEKIAN CHUKCII, JAMAICA. 31 

arc! Everet, Rodger Liiias, Richard Harker, and John La- 
zar chosen to lay out y*^ medow, & have 3d an acre for 
their labor. Records I. p. 4. 



In the deed of 23nrcliase obtained from the Indians 
are the following singular words : "One thing to be 
remembered, that noe person is to cut downe any trees 
wherein Eagles doe make their nests." The tribes on 
this part of the island had been subdued in the fierce 
and cruel wars under Captain Underbill, Ensign Op- 
dyke, and Peter Cock; and the occupation of their 
lands, purchased for some trifling consideration, was 
nndisputed. The Dutch government, in its " ground- 
briefs," claimed of the inhabitants of ]N"ew ^Netherlands 
" tlie tenth part of all the revenue that shall arise from 
tlie ground manured with the plow and hoe, in case it 
be demanded before it be housed, gardens and orchards 
not exceeding one Holland acre excepted."'^ 

The name given to this town by the original settlers 
was Jernaica, evidently derived from Yemacah, (so 
w^ritten in the Town Records and not Jemeco as by 
Thompson,) the name of a branch, or a few families, of 
the Rockewa tribe of Indians, who resided along the 
small stream, running from Beaver Pond, and at the 
head of the bay. The Dutch government conferred 
on the settlement the name of Rusdorp, which occurs 
frequently in the early records, and was probably used 
exclusively in conveyances of property. After the sur- 
render of the colony to the English, Jamaica soon came 
to be exclusively used. 

* Thompsou, II., 6. 



32 HISTOKY OF THE 

30th. It is y' day voted, ordered and agreed 

upon by this town of Rustdorj), that no person or persons 
whatsoever, within this town, shall sell or give directly or 
indirectly, to any Indian or Indians whatsoever, within 
or about y® said town, any strong licker or strong drinke 
whatsoever or of what sort soever, either much or little, 
more or less, upon the forffeiture off fifty Guilders [nearly 
twenty dollars] for every ofl:ence. 

Jan. 21st, 1659. One Benjamin Hubard, who had bought 
a house-lot, without the approbation or Ivuowledge of the 
town, was required to bind himself " to behave so in the 
town y* he no waies prejudice his neighbours, by any un- 
lawful or bad courses ; and y® said Benjamin doth engage 
himself iff he shall fullfill not all and every j^articular in y 
premises, to surrender up his lot again to the town." 

Records T. p. 6. 

Town made choice of Four men to be presented for 
magistrates to y* Governor, viz : 

Mr. Coe, Rich. Everet, Samuell MatheAVS and Luke 
Watson. 

Nath'l Denton to present y'" to y® Governor Aug. 6, 1659. 

Sep. 9th, 1659. Sam'l Mathews, John Townsend & 
Ben. Coe, chosen assistants for a Court for this yeare. 

Records I. p. 8. 

The inhabitants early manifested a desire to have a 
ininister of the Gospel settled among them. Tlie min- 
ister of Hemj)stead no doubt often visited, and preach- 
ed to them. Dominie Drisius, one of the Dutch 
ministers of Kew York, j)reached at Jamaica, January 
8, 1661, " to correct the irregularities of Quakers and 
other Itinerant fanatics."^ It is quite certain that pub- 

* Mr. Onderdonk's MS Notes. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, JAMAICA. 33 

lie worship was regularly established as early at least 
as 1662. 

Wee whose names are underwritten doe by these pre- 
sents 23romise & engage that if any meeting or conventi- 
cles of quakers, shall bee in this town of Rustdorp, then 
we will give information to y^ authority set up in this place 
by the Governor, and alsoe assist the authority of the 
town against any such person or persons called quakers, 
as need shall require. Witness our hands this 11th day of 
February, 1661. Stylo novo. 

RICHARD EVERITT, ANDREW MESSENGER, 

NATH. DENTON, BENIEMEN COE, 

ABRA. SMITH, GEORGE MILLS, 

SAMUEL MATHEWS, WILLIAM FOSTER. 

[The rest of the names are illegible, it being the last page 

of the 1st vol.] Records, I. p. 120. 

62, March j" 6th. The town doe give Abraham Smith 305 
ffor beating y'' drum a year. 

It is ordered by y*' town y' y^ rates ffor y^ minester shall 
bee leavied upon medowes ffor y'' minester. 

Records p. 14, vol. I. 

It is ffiirther ordered & agreed by y" town y* y^ town,9- 
meii [torn off in the original] shall look affter y^ procuring 
off a minester. Records p. 15. 

March y^ 13th, 62. It is ordered y* those w""" doe not 
appear at y^ beating off y'' drum y' day & goe to burn y* 
woods, shall pay 25. 6d. to those w'^'' goe. 

It is further ordered by y^ town to build a house ffor y® 
minester off 36 ffoot long. 

It is ordered and agreed by y^ town y' John Baylie shall 
keep an Ordinary in y^ town of Rusdorp, for y* entertain- 
ing of strangers, and also to sell drink, and that noe man 
shall have liberty to sell drink, whether beer or liquors, or 
any sort of wine, within this town only the Ordinary 
2* 



34: . HISTOEY OF THE 

keeper aforesaid, and y* he shall forthwith set upon y® work 
to provide for strangers, and to give entertainment to such 
■Strangers as shall come. Records I. p. 15. 

Aprill y^ 11th 62. It is y' day ordered by y^ town y' A 
minester's house shall bee built, 26 foot long & 17 foot 
wide according as is agreed by covenant betwixt y^ town 
& Andrew Messenger & his Son, Richard Darling, who 
have taken y® building of y® house of y® tow^n and are to 
pay twentie-three pounds in bever pay y* is to say, wheat, 
at sixe shillings, & indian corn at three shillings sixe 
pence y^ bushell ; to bee payd after y^ work is done as 
soon as y^ corn is merchantable & y^ town doe ingage 
every man to pay & bring in what shall come to their 
shares, at such time & to such place as y® [it] shall be 
appointed within y^ town of Rustdorp. 

Goodman Messenger hath promised to take Sam. Mills 
his rate for y® minester's house, in indian corn. 

Records I. p. 16, 

April y" 11th 1662. Articles of agreement concluded 
& agreed upon betwixt the town of Rusdorj) on y^ one 
party and Andrew Messenger and his son Richard Darling 
on v^ other. 

The town have hired y^ aforesayd Andrew Messenger, 
& Richard Darling to build a house for y^ Minister of 
twentie-six feet long & scaventeen foot broad to bee ten 
foot high in y*" stood [stud] betwixt ioint and ioint y'' house 
to bee well claboarded y*" sides & ends, y^ roof to bee 
well & sufficiently shingled w' three foot shingle ; two 
chimnies to bee made in y^ house, one belowe for a lower 
room & another for y^ chamber. Two floores of ioice & 
boards to be layd one above in y*" chamber thoroughout y^ 
house & another under foot : to bee well iointed & suffi- 
ciently layed above & below ; a partition to bee made 
handsomely & well smoothed & alsoe a payr of 



PKESBTTEKIAN CHUECH, JAMAICA. 35 

stears, well & stronglie made to goe into y^ chamber w* 
an outward door & inward door, & a door into y" cham- 
ber, the chimnies alsoe to bee well slatted. Three windowes, 
large &> handsome, two below & one above, the timber 
all to bee such as may be iudged sufficient by workmen 
w* ground sills & good girts, cross y^ house to lay ioice ; 
y* house thorout to bee well and sufficiently braced : this 
house is to bee done by y^ midle of August next ensuing. 
The town are to provide y"' w* nailes and hinges, & 
also claboard & shingles, & sawn boards for y*" inward 
work ; likewise y' town shall cart all y® timber or other 
stuff needfid for y^ sayd house. In consideration of y^ 
premises y' town are to give y® sayd Andrew Messenger, 
& Richard Darling, y^ full sum of twentie three pounds, 
after ye*" English account to bee payd in wheat & Indian 
corn ; wheat at six shillings y® bushel, & Indian corn, at 
three shillings six-pence ; to be payd at Christmas next, or 
as soon as it is merchantable ; to bee payd in as many 
bushells of wheat as Indian corn : y* y^ is our act, we tes- 
tifie by subscribing our hands y^ day & date above written. 

Andrew Messenger, 
Richard Darling. 
Subscribed before Daniel Denton. Records I. p. 17. 

May y^ 11th, 1662. A town meeting called; agreed 
upon with Goodman Baylie, & Samuel Smith to get stones 
for y** minester's house enough to make a back for the 
chimnies & harths & ovens, good & sufficient stone for y* 
work, as y® place Avill afford to bee got & brought in place 
by this time six weeks : they are to have forty shillings 
for y^ sayd work : 

Goodman Messenger & his son Richard Darling are 
to get the shingles for the minesters house and to have 
half a crown a hundred for y'' shingles the shingles to be 



36 HISTORY OF THE 

three foot long & not above six incbes broad ^v* y^ sap 
hewd out : al y^ money above written to bee payd in ye 
same pay y' y^ carpenters have, or at y^ same prices 

Records I. p. 18. 

August y^ 9 th. 

Henry Whitney and Ric. Everet de^^uted to lay out 
some of y^ touns money in Mr. Coe's hands and alsoe 
some in y^ sayd everets hands to buy boards for y^ min- 
esters house & lime & to hire a mason : if need require. 

Records I. p. 18. 

Tliey evidently set a high value on the gospel, not 
delaying until some missionary, by foreign aid, should 
find his way among them, to labor single-handed, in 
the midst of the indifferent, or opposers, but preparing 
the way for a minister, by furnishing the means of 
giving him a welcome reception. Can we wonder that 
God has so signally blessed an enterprise which was 
begun in such a spirit ? May such men never want 
w^orthy successors, w^ho, when the interests of religion 
demand it, shall be ready, " every man to pay and 
bring in what shall come to their shares " of any ne- 
cessary expense ! 

December 20th, 1662. The town appointed a com- 
mittee of five men to " make the rate for the minister's 
house, and transporting the minister ;" from which it 
appears that a minister had now been engaged to set- 
tle at Jamaica. And under date of February 14th, 
1663, seven years after the settlement of the town, 
appears for the first time in the records, the name of 
the first minister of this place, 

ZECHARIAH WALKER. 
December y° 20th 1662. A town meetmg called : 



PKESBTTEKIAN CIIUKCH, JAMAICA. 37 

The town have voted & concluded & agreed upon y* 
these five namely Mr. Coe Goodman Benedick Goodman 
Smith Goodman BayHe & Daniel Denton shall make y^ rate 
for y'' minesters house, & transporting y* minester. Good- 
man Baylie refusing y* toun have chose Luke Watson. 

Records I. p. 20. 

January y" 12th, 62. 

A town meeting called : voted & agreed upon by y* 
town y' y* rate for y® minesters house shall be leavied upon 

medoWS & home lottS. Records I. p. 20. 

January y* 29th, 1663. 

It is voted by y* town y' Abraham Smith shall have 
thirty shillings a year for beating y^ drum upon Sabbath 
days & other publike meetings dales, & to have his pay in 
tobacco pay or wheat at Qs & 8d & Indian at 45. 

Records I. p. 2(3. 

February y^ 14th, 1663. A toAvn meeting called : 
Voted & agreed upon by y^ town y* Goodman Bene- 
dick and Nathaniel Denton shall be overseers in behalf of 
y^ town to sujiply Mr. Walker's wants w' what hee shall 
stand in need of according as y^ town shall agree to make 
a supply : and to appoint men as their turns come to bring 
in Avhat shall bee needfull in y* premises, as need shall re- 
quire : 

Voted by y^ toun at what rate or price Mr. Walkers 
maintenance shall bee payd in : concluded y* hee shall have 
three score pounds per annum ; y* it shall bee payd by rate 
y^ rates to bee leavied upon lands & estates : that is to 
bee payd in corn : y^ Avheat to be payd at six shillings a 

bushell and indean at three shillings six-pence bushell. 

Records p. 21. 
February 14th, 1663. It is voted by y* town y' Mr. Coe 
and Goodman Benedick and Daniel Denton shall make a 
rate for Mr. Walkers maintenance. 

Records I. p. 22. 



"38 HISTOEY OF THE 

March y® 2d, 16G3. Wee whose names are underwritten 
doe by these presents give unto Mr. Walker his heirs or 
Assignes y® house & home lot y* hee lives in w* y" ac- 
commodations belonging to it, upon y' previso y* iff hee 
goe away and leave y^ town w* out any just grounds or 
cause given by y'' town y* y" y® town shall have y^ reffusall 
of it paying for such labours as hee hath or shall expend 
upon it & it shall return again to y^ town : but iff y^ 
town shall act soe y* they bee y® cause off his going away 
y" y^ lot to remain as his and his heirs onely y^ town to 
have y^ reffusal off it to buy it for what it shall be worth 
& iff it happen y* y^ sayd Mr. Walker should die y" his 
wife shall let y^ town have y^ reffusall off it iff she shall 
sell it. 

ROBERT COE, KODGER LINAS, 

JOHX STICLAX, JOHN HINDS, 

THOMAS BENEDICK, BENIAMIN COE, 



ANDREW MESSENGER, WILLIAM SMITH 



DANIEL DENTON, JOSEPH THURSTON 



JOHN BAYLIES, NATHANIELL DENTON, 

THOMAS FOSTER, SAMUELL SMITH, 

RICHARD EVERETT, W^ILLIAM BRINKLY, 

EDWARD ROUSE, JOHN RODES, 

JOHN SKIDMORE, WILLIAM FOSTER, 

HENRY WHITNEY, GEORG CUMjXINS. 
ABRAHAM SMITH, 
SAMUELL MATHEWS, Eocords I. p. 25. 

The above twenty-four names include, it is probable, 
the wdiole number of freeholders in the town at the 
time. From the foregoing extracts it appears that Mr. 
Walker's salary was £60 per annum, with the use of a 
house and a home lot, to be his in fee-simple if he re- 
mained as minister of the town, or if the town should 



PKESBYTEKIAN CHUECH, JAMAICA. 39 



SO act as to be the cause of his going away. In raising 
this generous support, so much beyond what many in- 
fant churches at the present day, especially in new set- 
tlements, feel themselves able to do, every inhabitant 
contributed his due proportion. 

Mr. Walker was a young man about twenty-five 
years of age, and preached at Jamaica as a licentiate. 
Mr. Wood says he probably came from England, and 
Mr. Crane, in his MS. history of this church, adds that 
he probably came from England before he was ordain- 
ed, but as a licentiate. Mr. Thompcon, however, as- 
serts that he was a native of Boston, and was the son 
of Robert Walker, who was made a freeman at that 
place in 1634, Avhere Zechariah was born in 1637. 

August y' 30th 1663. A town meeting called voted 
& agreed upon by y* town y*^ A meeting house shall bee 
built twentie-six foot square, & that Mr. Coe & Ralph 
Keeler shall agree to George I^orton for y'' building off it. 

Records I. p. 27. 

December yMst 1663 Old Style : 

Further voted y^ Francis Finch and Abraham Smith 
shall bring in an account of men's estates as soon as may 
bee, y* a rate may be made for y^ minester. 

Records I. p. 28. 

December y* 3de, '63. Further voted and concluded 
upon y* all y^ inhabitants of this our town shall pay to- 
wards y" maintenance of y® minestry according to what y^ 

possesse. Records I. p. 29. 

Feb. y' 27th '63. Further voted y' Samuel Mathews 
& Joseph Smith shall succeed Thomas Benedick & 
Nath : Denton in gathering up & looking affter to supply 
Mr. Walker w' such things as hee shall stand in need off. 

Records I. p. 32. 



4:0 HISTORY OF THE 

December y 13th 1664. Joseph Thurstone & John 
Heins apomted to gather up an acount of men's estates for 
Mr. Walker's rate : 

Thomas Benedick Senior & Daniel Denton shall make a 
rate for y" minester Records I. p. 32 

Att a tonne meeting the 4th of September 1665 itt 
was Agreed that Mr. Walker shall have three score ponds 
a yeare well & truly payd in corn at prise currant or 
other pay equivolent and this to be ccarfully gathered & 
payd in to Mr. Zacharah Walker yearly within the moneth 
of December evary yeare Deuring the time of Mr. Walkers 
aboode & exarcising his giwfts amoungst us as before 
as likewise for his farther in curidgement the town doth 
ao"ree to cut & drawe all the wood hee spends to till his 
ground et harvest his corn, besides the three score ponds 

Above mentioned * it is farther to be understod that 

Mr. Walker is to take his whete at 5 shilling pr bushells 
and other pay equifolent, as likewise for the tiladge of his 
ground it is to be miderstood that ground only y* Mr. 
Walker hath now broke up. Records I. p. 40. 

March y' 12th 1666- At a town meeting fully agreed 
upon that Mr. Walker shall have in liew off what is above 
written, sixtie-five pounds p. annum to bee payd as is 
above Avriten in wheat at five shilUngs p. bushell provided 
Mr. Walker does engage to continue w* us from year to 
year & also procure an ordination answerable to the y^ 
law whereby hee does not only capacitate himself for y" 
preaching off y^ word but for y" baptizing off infants : & 
so y® above written order for tilling off land & y^ like to 
bee rendered null :* at a town meeting off y" constable & 
overseers agreed upon y* Mr. Coe shall have the five 
pounds mentioned in y^ next above written agreement & 
in lew thereoff shall doe y*' work mentioned in y'' agree- 
* What follows is in diflferent ink and hand and at another time. 



PEESBYTERIAN CHUKCH, JAMAICA. 41 

ment to Mr. Walker uppermost written according as is 
there exprest. Robc/rt Coe Geo Woolsey AYilliam Rescoe 
Daniel Denton Beniamin Coe Andrew Mesinger John 
Foster Samuel Smith John Roads Joseph Smith 

Records I. p. 40. 

This proposal, that he should procure ordination, as 
it shows a solicitude to enjoy the ordinances of the 
gospel, and particularly recognizes the duty of dedicat- 
ing their offspring to God in baptism, sj)ealvs volumes 
in favour of the piety of the first inhabitants. He did 
not, it would seem, obtain ordination agreeably to the 
Welshes of the tow^n, for he took his departure from Ja- 
maica shortly after, in consequence, as is evident, of 
the strong desire of the people to have an ordained 
minister. On the Ytli of August, 1668, the town ap- 
pointed a committee to make a final settlement with 
him. This committee was directed to pay him for the 
improvements he had made on the parsonage and 
glebe, from wdiicli it is evident, according to the terms 
of the agreement made March 2d, 1663, that his de- 
parture was not from any occasion given by the people. 

He went to Stratford, Conn., where he received 
ordination, but removed to Woodbury in 1678, of 
which place he was the first minister, and where he 
died, January, 1699, aged sixty-two. Robert Walker, 
who was a Judge of the Superior Court of Connecticut, 
is said by Thompson to have been his son, and Gen. Jo- 
seph Walker, an ofiicer of the Revolution, his grandson. 

It is quite certain that there was no church regularly 
constituted during Mr. Walker's residence in Jamaica. 

february 23 Anno 1666 It was agreed that Abraham 



42 HISTORY OF THE 

Smith shall hanfe thirtie schelinges a year for bethig of 
the drum of the Sabbath day this to be paid by the town 
in generall his time to begin from the date heirof this was 
agreed upon by a full town meeting. Records I. p. 42. 

the 7 of auo-ust 1668 At a tound meetins; the tound 
have chosen John Foster nathaniel Denton mister waters 
& John Ouldfield & given them full power to agre with 
Mr Walker consarniiig the price that the tound shall give 
mister walker for the land that he has noAV in posetion or 
the price onle for the labors that he has bestowed upon the 
land which they shall judg just & equall & if tlies men 
above mentioned & mister walker can not agre they have 
liberty to chouse 2 men of another tound mister walker on 
& thay a nother to judg the price of the land & labors or 
onle the labors as mister walker & thes fo*ir men shall 

agre 

By me John Skidmore Clark 

Records I. p. 45. 

the 14 of September 1668 

At a tound meting the tound have voted & concluded 
to take the Best & j^i'i^iflents corse as may be for the 
procuring of a minister as sone as convenient time wiU 
permit Records I. p. 46. 

How very humble an aspect this place must have 
presented two hundred years ago ! A cluster of houses 
in the wilderness, the greater part of them built of 
logs, and roofed with thatch from the marshes ! Let us, 
in imagination, enter one of them. We find, perhaps, 
two ceiled or covered rooms below, with lofts above 
for chambers, and a lean-to kitchen, uncoiled and open 
to the roof. We find in them no luxurious furniture 
such as fills our dwellings. On their tables are a few 



PEESBYTEKIAN CHURCH, JAI^IAICA. 43 



pewter dishes and spoons, with wooden bowls and 
trenchers. For food they do not lack venison and fish, 
bnt bread is scarce ; even the crusts of their fathers' 
tables in old England would have been esteemed a 
luxmy. It often consisted of little more than meal 
and water and salt, boiled to the consistency of pud- 
ding. Their dinner was of boiled Indian pudding, 
boiled Indian corn mixed with beans, with a slice of 
salted venison, with boiled cabbage, baked or boiled 
pumpkin, brown bread and cider, or home-brewed 
beer. At breakfast and supper milk or pea-porridge 
took the place of tea and coffee. Cooking which re- 
quired sugar was too expensive for our early ancestors. 
They felt greatly the want of cattle, swine and sheep. 
The few they had were by day committed to herds- 
men* and nightly brought to strong enclosures of logs 
within the settlement, and put under the care of watch- 
dogs for security against wild beasts and depredations 
of the savages that still roamed the forest. They rise 
early (in the winter before the dawn) and enter on the 
duties of the day. Family worship and breakfast over 
they are in summer in the field by six o'clock. A 
gun is carried along with the implements of husbandry, 
not so much through fear of the Indians as that they 
may be prepared, should a wolf, or bear, or deer be dis- 
covered while at their toil. Their dress was fitted to 
their work. The father w^ore an old three-cornered 
hat, no cravat, short frock of strongest warp, leather 
breeches and leggins confined above the knee and tied 
over the shoe like a buskin. The boys w^ore close-fit- 

* Paid 12s. a week. 



44 HISTORY OF THE 

ting caps of home manufacture, short jackets of the 
coarsest fabric, with leather breeches and leggins. The 
duties of the women were more onerous than those of 
the men. Whether sick or well, the baking, cooking, 
washing, ironing and clothes making and mending had 
to be done, and there was no hired help to be had. 
Their work was unremitting as the morning and even- 
ing, summer as well as winter. Many of them had 
been nurtured amid the luxuries of the best homes of 
England. " On the uniioored hut, she, who had been 
nurtured amid the rich carpets and curtains of the mo- 
ther land, rocked her new-born babe and complained 
not. She, w^ho in the home of her youth, had arranged 
the gorgeous shades of embroidery, or, perchance, had 
compounded the rich venison pastry as her share in 
the house-keeping, now pounded the coarse Indian corn 
for her children's bread, and bade them ask God's 
blessing ere they took their scanty portion. When 
the snows sifted through their miserable roof trees 
upon her little ones, she gathered them closer to her 
bosom ; she taught them the Bible and the catechism 
and the holy hymn, though the Avar- whoop of the In- 
dian rang through the wild. Amid the untold hard- 
ships of colonial life she infused new strength into her 
husband by her firmness, and solaced his weary hours 
by her love.""^ Not a few of the early settlers had 
been familiar with the comforts and forms of aristo- 
cratic life. With all their cares and gravity they had 
their festive gatherings and social fireside enjoyments. 
As the people prospered, and increased their ma- 

* Mrs. Sigourney. 



PKESBYTERIAN CHUECH, JAMAICA. 45 

terial possessions, they were able to supply tliemselves 
with a better class of houses, and more of the comforts 
of life. A rate list of " the Towne Estate of Jemaica, 
anno 1683," less than thirty years after the settlement 
was made, has been preserved,^ showing the great 
progress the town had made in population and wealth. 
The number of "heads," or rateable polls, had become 
eighty-seven, which, multiplied by five, the usual mode 
of estimating population, would show that the number 
of inhabitants had already increased to four hundred 
and thirty-five. Samuel Smith is put down as having 
the largest estate. He had fifty acres of land, (^. e. 
probably land under cultivation, the wild lands not 
entering into the estimate,) twenty cattle, and two 
horses. Captain Carpenter stands next to Mr. Smith 
in the amount of his estate. He was captain of a 
" company of ftuzileers," and we find him ordered with 
his company, and such volunteers as were willing to 
serve his Majesty, to Fort James in I^ew York, to de- 
fend it against the fieet of the Prince of Orange, which 
appeared on the coast in July, 1673. f Nicholas Everit, 
Joseph Smith, in the order of the value of their estates, 
come next on the list. Then we have William Creed, 
John & Jos. Ludly, [Ludlam] Thomas Bayles, Edward 
Higbee, John Rodes, Sen., Nathaniel Denton, Sen., 
all of them among the most prosperous of the citizens, 
and all of them still represented by numerous descend- 
ants in this congregation. Nathaniel Denton had fifty- 
five, the largest number of acres under cultivation. 
Daniel Denton, the Town Clerk, now famous among 

* Doc. Hist, of N. Y., Vol. II. p. 519. See Addenda, in this Vol. 
t Doc. Hist. N. Y. Vol. III. pp. 91-99. 



46 HISTOKY OF THE 

bibliographers and antiquarians as the anthor of the 
earliest account or history of l^ew York, appears to 
have had a much smaller amount of property than any 
of the foregoing. He is set down as possessed of no 
land, two horses, three cattle, and an estate of £56. 
His work was published in 16T0, under the title of "A 
Brief Descrij^tion of JN^ew York, formerly called 'New 
Netherlands," etc., and was republished by the His- 
torical Society of Philadelphia, and by Gowans of 
New York, as late as 1845. He was a son of the Rev. 
Kichard Denton of Hempstead, and was associated 
w^ith his brother Nathaniel, John Bailey, John Foster, 
and Luke Watson, in the purchase [1664] of a large 
tract of land in New Jersey, and in the settlement of 
Elizabethtown. "The four families found at Elizabeth- 
town by (Gov.) Carteret, were the j^ioneers of the 
Jamaica Colony."* But neither of the Dentons became 
permanent residents of Elizabethtown. Daniel was 
schoolmaster, doctor, and justice, as well as clerk and 
author. He probably visited Englk,nd at the time his 
w^ork was published. The following somewhat singular 
minute is in the Records : " June ye 13 [1684] it is 
voted that Mr. Daniel Denton shall have liberty to 
come and setell hhnselfe & his family in this towne. 
By Ben. Coe, Clark." p. 132. The rate list also shows 
the number of horses, cattle, and swine, owned among 
the people at its date. During the seven years pre- 
ceding 1688, there were in Jamaica twenty-seven 
marriages, seventy- one baptisms, and twenty- three 
burials.-f The number of baptisms w^ould clearly 

* Whitehead's E. Jersej' under the Proprietors, pp. 88, 39. 
t Doc. Hist. N. Y., Vol. III. p. 197. See Addenda, in this Vol. 



PEESBYTEKIAN CHURCH, JAMAICA. 47 

indicate the continuance of Mr. Denton's Presbyterian 
practice of baptizing the children of snch parents as 
were not members of the chnrcli."^ 

The labours of the day are over. It is a Avinter 
evening. Captain Carpenter, Daniel Denton, Thomas 
Bayles, and others have come, let ns suppose, to spend 
it at the house of Nicholas Everit. They have nuts 
and cider or home-brewed beer. The older ones of the 
party talk of home, as they still love to call the country 
from which they have fled. They describe cities and 
palaces to the wondering children, born in the wilder- 
ness, and who have seen no grander house than that in 
which the minister lives. Perhaps some one has 
served in the armies of Cromwell or the King, and tells 
how battles were fought, and lost or won. Perhaps 
some one was present, or had seen those who were 
present when the King was beheaded in front of the 
banqueting hall of his own palace, and describes the 
fearful scene. Or they talk of that dreadful plague in 
London which had just then swept off so many of its 
inhabitants that grass grew in the streets, and the 
whole city presented a scene of mournful desolation ; 
or that memorable conflagration, which destroyed more 
than thirteen thousand houses and eighty-nine churches, 
making night as clear as day to the distance of miles 
around, its effect on the sky being perceptible even on 
the Scottish border. Perhaps some one had heard Bax- 
ter preach, and tells of his melting voice and terrible 
appeals. Or they tell stories of witchcraft, in which 
delusion they shared with the best and wisest people 
of their age, Sir Mathew Hale himself not excepted ; 

* p. 63 seq. 



48 HISTORY OF THE 

for in 1670 we find the people of Jamaica petitioning 
the Governor against a certain witch settling here, a 
woman^ from Wethersfield ; the poor creature seeking 
rest found none, as she had been expelled from that 
place on the same charge. Or they tell stories of 
fearful encounters with w^ild beasts, or of successful 
hunting expeditions. Or they talk of the bloody Indian 
wars; and some one tells of the seven Indians who 
were arrested and confined in a cellar at Hempstead on 
a charge of theft ; though it was afterwards discovered 
that some Englishmen had themselves committed the 
crime, and how Governor Kieft sent Underhill and 
Ensign Opdyke, with a band of soldiers, to punish 
them.f Or they tell how this same Underhill (called 
by the Dutch annalist, Sergeant Major Van der Hyl) 
was sent to take vengeance on Pennewitz, a great 
sachem of the country, and with one hundred and twen- 
ty soldiers marched towards Hempstead, and at a place 
called Matsepe (Massapequa?) about one hundred and 
twenty of the Indians were slain. if 

Thus 2^ asses the evening away. But the company 
disperses at an early hour, making their way cautious- 
ly along the rough and overshadowed paths and roads ; 
for those who did not permit the daylight to find them 
in their beds, retired early to their rest. 

Or, let us try to imagine the scene presented here 
on a Sabbath morning two hundred years ago. The 
day is observed with a strictness now unknown in the 
general community. At the morning family prayer 
several chapters are read from the Bible. After break- 

* Catherine Harrison. Mr. Onderdonk's notes. 

t See Breeden Raedt, as translated in Doc. Hist. N. Y. Vol. IV. p. 105. 

X On the bounds of Hempstead and Jamaica is a river then called Massepe. 



PKESBYTEKIAN CHUECH, JAMAICA. 49 

fast an hour is occupied by the children in learning by- 
heart a portion of Scripture, a psalm from Sternhold 
and Hopkins, and the catechism. The father hears 
them say their lessons, and acts as the superintendent 
of this, the best of Sabbath schools. At eleven o'clock 
Abraham Smith* beats the drum ; for the sound of 
the church-going bell was as yet unheard among " the 
valleys and rocks" of this island. The entire popula- 
tion are astir, wending their way towards the house of 
God. The people of Hempstead passed an order, 1650, 
in their general court, imposing a fine, which was to 
be doubled at every repetition of the offence, on every 
person who "without just and necessary cause" should 
neglect to attend " public meetings on the Lord's day 
and public days of fasting and thanksgiving, hoth fore- 
noon and afternoon y^ They are said to have been 
more rigid in this respect than the people of any other 
town on the island ; but in all of them there appears 
to have been an enforced pecuniary support of, and at- 
tendance on the preaching of the Gospel. In the 
throng we see going up to the sanctuary, are represent- 
atives of every, or nearly every family in the settle- 
ment. The dress of those whose pecuniary means af- 
ford it, is expensive, elaborate, and ornamental. The 
men wear broad-brimmed hats, turned up into three 
corners, with loops at the side ; long coats with large 
pocket folds and cuffs, without collars, having buttons 
of the size of a half dollar, plated or of pure silver ; 
vests without collars, very long, v/ith graceful lappet- 
pockets ; shirts with ruffled bosoms and wristbands, 

* Town Records, Jan. 30, 1662, and Jan. 29, 1663. 
+ Dr. N. S. Prime's Hist, of L. I., p. 280. 
3 



50 



HI5T0EY OF THE 



with gold or silver sleeve buttons ; neck cloths of line 
linen, or figured or embroidered stuiF; small-clothes 
with silver buckles of liberal size ; and shoes orna- 
mented with straps and silver buckles. A finely 
dressed gentleman w^ore a chocolate colored coat, bufi:' 
vest, full bush wig powdered white, and white top 
boots. The best dress of the rich was a scarlet coat, 
with full sleeves, and cuffs reaching to the elbows, 
the wristbands and vest fringed with lace, with gold 
buttons and sword. The visiting dress of ladies was 
more costly, complicated, and ornamental than their 
husbands and brothers wore. Their bonnets were of 
silk or satin ; their gowns rich brocades, extremely 
long waisted, with long trails and expanded farthin- 
gales, ornamented with flounces and spangles. But on 
the Sabbath their apparel was simple and appropriate ; 
a cheap straw bonnet with a single bow outside, calico 
dress of sober colors, simple white muslin collar, neat 
shawl, and a stout pair of shoes.^ 

The gathering people enter the sanctuary. It is a 
humble edifice built of logs and thatched. It is with- 
out pews or pulpit ; benches supply the place of the 
one, and a table or rude desk that of the other. This, 
doubtless, was the character of the house, (for precisely 
such a house was built by the first settlers at East- 
hampton, and in other places,) which this town voted to 
build in 1663. 

The people are all assigned seats by some one ap- 
pointed for the purpose, according to their age and 



* For habits and manners of the colonists, see Hist, of Medford, Mass., by 
Rev. Charles Brooks ; Hist, of Dorchester, to which I am specially indebt- 
ed; HoUister's Hist, of Conn.; Palfrey's New England, Vol. II. 



PEESBYTEEIAN CHURCH, JAMAICA. 51 

standing in the community ; a tytliingman sits among 
the children. Mr. Denton, or perhaps " Goodman 
Benedic," lines a psalm out of Sternhold and Hopkins, 
and the services proceed. Their souls are borne up- 
ward by song and prayer, or are melted within them 
as they hear the young preacher tell of the rest that 
remaineth in that better land, which they expect to 
enter, at their next remove. The Scriptures are read 
and commented upon.* The hour-glass stands by the 
side of the Bible, and has run out, been turned, and 
half run out again, when the service closes. The peo- 
ple spend a half hour of intermission around the doors, 
or under the neighboring trees, when they enter again 
to sing, and pray, and hear the word. The service 
closes, at half-past two, and the people go home to 
partake of a meal, chiefly prepared on the preceding 
day, in which the dinner and supper of ordinary days 
are united. The Sabbath day apparel is now taken 
off and the mother gathers her little ones around her 
to hear the Catechism, and question them respecting 
the texts and sermons of the day, and to talk to them 
as only mothers can, of Christ and heaven. Thus ends 
our forefathers' sabbath. 

Or death enters (for where does death enter not ?) 
the infant settlement,t and they are gathered, to de- 
posit in the newly-cleared soil, one, who came into the 
wilderness only to die. How many tender memories 
are awakened in those who have left the graves of their 

* Reading the Bible without comment was called dumb reading, and an 
imitation of the hierarchical church. Mr. Onderdonk's MS notes. 

t In 1668, great sickness in N.Y. and over the land. Some daily swept 
away. A day of humiliation ordered by the Governor. Mr. Onderdonk's 
notes. 



52 HISTORY OF THE 

kindred, on a far-distant shore. The minister addresses 
them, or preaches a sermon, and they sing a solemn 
psahn ; perhaps like the Puritans of ^N^ew England, to 
avoid the formality of the Anglican Church, prayer is 
omitted, and no words are pronounced at the grave. 
But refreshments are provided for all who attend, and 
presents given to many. 

# 

November the 5th, 1668. 

At a tound meeting the tound did agre w* John 
wascot to fens the burring* plas w' good sulitient 5 rail 
fens be the midell of march next insuing he is to fens it 10 
rod squar & he is to have 4 p'ound in corent pay for his 

pains & labor Records I. p. 46. 

The 29th of March, 69, it was voted & agreed upon 
that mister waters should go to greenwiche to give mis- 
ter Jones a invitation to give us a visit that the toune 
might have 023ertunyty to make an agreement with him 
concarning the work of the ministry. Records I. p. 48. 

Dec. 5, 1670 : voted, that William Brinkly shall have a 
peece of land on the west sid of the buring place leving 
a soficient high-way between his fence & the Bever- 
pond. Records I. p. 53. 

* There is a possible doubt of this word but it seems confirmed by 2d 
extract below. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, JAMAICA. 63 



CHAPTER III. 
1670-169S. 

RET. JOHN PRUDDEN — A CONVENIENT PEW TO PREACH IN — PERMISSION GIVEN 
TO MR. PRUDDEN TO BUILD ON THE MINISTER'S LOT — THE TOWN "FURTHER 
THE COMING INTO A CHURCHWAX" — MR. PRUDDEN LEAVES — REV. WM. 
WOODROP — FORTY ACRES APPROPRIATED FOR THE USE OF THE MINISTER 
IN 1676 — MR. PRUDDEN RETURNED, AND ARTICLES OF AGREEMENT WITH 
HIM — "RULES OF THE GOSPEL IN THIS TOWN" — WAS THE CHURCH PRES- 
BYTERIAN OR CONGREGATIONAL? — REV. RICHARD DENTON — TESTIMONY OF 
DUTCH MINISTERS THAT HE WAS A PRESBYTERIAN — PRESBYTERIANS AT 
FLUSHING AND NEWTOWN — DR. WOODBRIDGe's HISTORICAL DISCOURSE — 
GOV. STUYVESANT TO THE MAGISTRATES OF HEMPSTEAD — PRESBYTERIANS 
IN NEW ENGLAND — COTTON MATHEr's ACCOUNT OF MR. DENTON — 
CHURCH GOVERNMENT ACCORDING TO THE SYNOD OF DORT — MR. PRUDDEN'S 
PETITION TO THE GOVERNOR TO ALLOW HIM TO BE MINISTER OF COX- 
GBEGATIONALISTS — MR, P. BECOMES A PRESBYTERIAN — GEORGE SCOT — 
ARCHIBALD RIDDELL — THE TOWN VOTES IN FAVOR OF PRESBYTERIAN 
ORDINATION IN 1700 — REV. GEORGE MCNISH — THE CHURCH FOSTERED BY 
THE DUTCH PRESBYTERIANS — THE OLDEST CHURCH OP THE PRESBYTERIAN 
NAME IN AMERICA — VOTE RESPECTING THE ERECTION OF A MEETING HOUSE 
IN 1689 — MR. PRUDDEN GOES TO NEWARK — HIS DEATH AND EPITAPH. 

JOHN PRUDDEN. 

"VTEARLY two years passed away before the town 
IM ' succeeded in obtaining this minister, during which 
the Rev. Eliphalet Jones, then of Greenwich, Conn., 
but who settled in Huntington in 1676, was invited to 
visit the town ; but it does not appear that he com- 
plied with the request. Mr. Prudden was called in 
16Y0. He was a son of the Rev. Peter Prudden, who 
came to New Haven in company with the celebrated 
John Davenport, and had charge of the church in 



54 HISTORY OF THE 

"Wethersfield, Conn., in 1638. John was born at Milford, 
Conn., I^OYember 9th, 1645, to which place his father 
had removed, with a few of his congregation, in 1640, 
and begun the settlement of that town."^ He grad- 
uated at Harvard Collegef in 1668, and was twenty- 
five years of age when he came to Jamaica. 

At the same town meeting at which Mr. Prudden 
was called, it was ordered " that a convenient pew 
should be made for the minister to preach in," from 
which it may be inferred that the house of worship, 
built in 1663, was but a rude edifice. 

6th March 1670 At a toun meeting it was voted & 
concluded that whereas the toun hath given Mr Prudden 
a call to be our minester for this present year it was agreed 
y* he should have from this towne for his maintenance 
fo?/rty pounds a yeare for this present yeare in good cur- 
ant cuntry pay & likewise the use of the house & land & 
accomadations which Mr walker was in the possession 
of when he lived amongst us & is commonly called the 
minesters lott And this to continue imlese thay or he shall 
see cause to make any othere agreement : 

This writen by order of the toun by me Anthony Wa- 
ters 

Clark of the Sessions Records I. p. 56. 

The same time it was agreed & concluded y* there 
should be a convenient pew made for the minester to 
preach in & one hired to beet the drom to give notice the 
time when the towne shaU com to meetting. 

Records I. p. 56. 

The 1 of Jeneay 1671 At a towne meeting it was voted 
& the towne did agree that mister Preden shall have forty 

* Hinman's Cat. of Puritan Names of Conn., 66. fTrien. Cat. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, JAMAICA. 65 

pound in corent cuntrey pay of the tound & the hous Su 
land that he is in posetion of for this present year acord- 
ing to the former town order & if the said mister Preden 
doth lay out any charge upon the said acomidations whar- 
by it is mad beter the tound shall alow him for it if he leve 
it, at the same townd meeting it was voted that Nicklas 
Evrit should beet the drum to give the tound warning to 
com to meeting on the sabbath & he shall have twenty 
shilling for his pains. Records I. p. 70. 

at a towne meeteing held the 24 of May Anno 1672 It 
was voted & agreede upon that George Woolsey a John 
Oldfielde Samuell Smith & Xathaniell Denton shall in the 
behalfe of the towne make an agreement with me"" John 
Preuden upon such conditions as followeth : namely that 
if me"" John Preuden will ingage to continue amongst us 
upon the same tearmes for maintenanse as he hath hitherto 
had of us & not to leave the plase soe longe as the towne 
contenues paying the same some of mony that they nowe 
pay & if hee will doe soe then the towne are welling hee 
should build <fc when he removes beino; okcationed soe to 
doe by the towne then the towne will pay for what the ac- 
comadations is bettered by what he hath done. 

Records I. p, 69. 

May the 27 1672 Wee whose names are heare under- 
written being deputed by the towne to agetate & agree 
with me"^ John Prudden for his continuation amongst us 
as our minester wee have acordingly come to this agree- 
ment with him namely that hee is to stay & continue in 
the minestry amongst us soe long as the towne doth con- 
tinue paying to him the same som of mony yearely as at 
present they doe but if in case the towne dose not per- 
forme theire parte in paying him his allowed some yearely- 
& soe okcation his removal then the towne shall pay him 
for what the acomadations is made better by what hee 



56 HISTOKY OF THE 

hath done upon the acomadations & further it is agred 
upon that if me" j^rudden dose see cans to remove & giv. 
eth satesfactorj reasons to the towne for his remoAall the 
towne not being neglegent on theire parte in paying him 
his alowed som then what me'" Prudden makeeth the acom- 
adations better by any laboure hee bestoweth upon it shall 
be left to the towne free without any consideration for his 
paynes only this if the towne dose not see cause to pay for 
the howse that hee is nowe aboute to builde then Me'' 
Prudden shall have liberty to remove y'' howse of from 
the tounes lot & if in case that Me"" Prudden should stay 
amongst us dureing his life then the toune shall make good 
to his wife whatsoever the acomadations is bettered by any 
thing that hee hath done upon it : & for the confermation 
of this agreement the town did voluntaraly ingage them- 
selves at a towne meeting held the third of June that they 
would not obstruct or hinder but rather further the com- 
ing into a church Avay acordeing to y® rules of the gospell 
in this towne by Me'' Prudden & such as will joyne with 
him : 

John Prudden 

Written by me Xathaniell Denton 

Gierke Kecords I. p. 71. 

May 24th, 1672, it thus appears from the records, 
that Mr. Prudden desired the town to allow him to 
build a house on the minister's lot, so called. The 
town accordingly appointed a committee to make an 
agreement Tvith him. Three days after, on the 27th of 
May, this committee, on behalf of the town, entered 
into a written agreement with Mr. Prudden, to this ef- 
fect : that his salary, £-1:0 per annum, was to continue 
as before ; that he might proceed to build on the min- 
ister's lot ; that if he should leave them through their 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, JAMAICA. 5T 

default, tliey would reimburse liim for the expenses in- 
curred ; or in case the town should not see fit to pay 
for the house, then he should have liberty to remove 
it from their lot. " And for the confirmation of this 
agreement the town did voluntarily mgage themselves^ 
at a town meeting^ held the third of June^ that they 
woiddj not obstruct or hiyider^ hnt rather further the 
coming into a church way^ according to the rules of the 
Gospel in this town^ hy Mr. Prudden^ and such as will 
join with himy The ''coming into a church way, ac- 
cording to the rules of the Gospel," is' language that 
cannot be mistaken ; it must refer to the organization 
of a church. It proves that up to the 3d of June, 
1672, there had been no regularly constituted church 
of Christ in this place. The town had now been set- 
tled sixteen years, and it was ten years since Mr. Wal- 
ker began his labors. But the inhabitants, it should 
be remembered, were few and isolated, and every thing 
was in an unorganized state, at the time of Mr. Wal- 
ker's arrival. Mr. W., moreover, was unordained, 
which fact, as the people earnestly desired to have the 
sacraments administered, finally led to his removal. 

The question now arises, whether a church was or- 
ganized at, or soon after, the above-mentioned date. 
This question, I think, is sufiiciently answered in the 
afiirmative, from the fact that the vote to further the 
organization of a church was passed at a town meeting 
convened to confirm the agreement which their com- 
mittee had previously entered into with Mr. Prudden ; 
and that he remained, in accordance with the condi- 
tions he had entered into with the town. 

We pass on to January 13th, 1674, when it appears 
3* 



58 HISTORY OF THE 

from the Kecords that the town desired " a positive an- 
swer" from Mr. Prudden whether he would remain with 
them as their minister ; his answer w^as " that he was 
now nnder an engagement to another peoj^le." They 
proceeded to settle with him, and he took his departure, 
after having been the minister here about four years. 
To wdiat people he was under an engagement, I have 
not been able to ascertain. The town immediately 
adopted measures of " inquiry after another minister ;" 
and on June 24:th, 1675, we find them voting to give Mr. 

WILLIAM AVOODDROP 

or Woodruff, £60 together with the use of the " parson- 
age," and lands attached, to be their minister. He was 
one of the ministers ejected by the Act of Uniformity, 
in 1662, who found refuge in this country. He is men- 
tioned by Cotton Mather, who calls him Woodrop. He 
remained here but one year, when he removed, as 
Thompson asserts, to Pennsylvania. 

In June, 1676, the tovvm appropriated forty acres of 
meadow, together with upland, for the use of a minis- 
ter. It is this land which is referred to in the Act of 
the town, 21st of April, 1753, and which is there said 
to have been continued, " for the use of a minister of 
the Presbyterian denomination, since that time." Un- 
der the same date, June 19th, 1676, articles of agree- 
ment are recorded, between the town of Jamaica and 
the Kev. John Prudden, who, it appears, had returned, 
by which the town agreed to give him, "his heirs or 
assigns," certain lands provided he should discharge 
" the work of a minister for ten years ; his salary to be 
forty pounds and his firev\^ood. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, JAMAICA. 59 

at a towne meeteing called the 13th of January Anno 
Dommi 1674 

The towne desired a posetive answer of Me'' John Prud- 
den conserning his staying with us & his ansAver was that 
hee was nowe under an ingagement to another people soe 
that he could not stay with us any longer 

at tKe same towne meeteing he Me'" Prudden desired a 
pese of grounde of the toune which he had taken up & 
fenced & cleared a little way of from the reare of Beniamin 
Coes lot the which pese of grounde was given to him that 
is to Me"" Prudden upon the accounte that there should be 
noe more satesfaction exspected from the town by Me"" 
Prudden for anything that he hath done upon the townse 
lot the new howse only exsepted. 

at the same towne meeteing it was voted & concluded 
that the constable & overseors should make inquirye after 
a minister for this towne Records I. p. 73. 

March the 6th Anno Domini 1674 or 5 

At a towne meeting then called it was there & then 
voted & concluded on by the towne that the some of fifty 
pounds should be payed by the towne to any such minister 
as the towne can procure to come & live amongst them I say 
fifty pounds a year anually for his incorigement 

and to the end that the towne might obtaine a minister 
they did at the same towne meeting make choise of Jonas 
holsteade & John Foster to goe to Mr" Pek* or any other 
minister that may be procured to come & live amongst us 
as our minister Records I. p. 73. 

Jamaica this 12th of Marche Anno 1674 or 5 

The constable & overseers have let to John Skidmore the 
townes lot that is to say the barne & home lot for the space 
of one year in consideration where of that is to say for the 

* Mr. Jeremiah Peck of Elizabethtown? 



60 HISTORY OF THE 

use of the barne to cure a crop of tobacco in & the land to 
plant a crop upon & the fruite of y* orcharde he is to re- 
paire the fens about the orcharde forthwith soe as to 
secure the orchard til this time twelvemonth & for the 
other fens to secure it soe that he may preserve his crop of 
corne & alsoe to make & hang a paire of barne doores to 
the barne & if in case that the towne doth procure a min- 
ister that shall come time inough to make use of the frewte 
of the orcharde then the town shall j^ay for the barne 
doores makeing that this is our agreement witness our 
hands this day and date above written 

Nathaniel Denton 
John Skidmore 

Kecords I. p. 108. 

Jemaicae June 24th Anno Domini 1675 

there being a towne meeteing it was then & there 
voted concluded & agreed upon by the towne that they 
would duely & truely pay unto Me"' William Wooddrop 
the full & just som of three score pounds per annum to bee 
our minister in such pay as will pas currently from man to 
man that is to say if in wheate at five shillings j)er bushell 
peise* at foure & rye at foure indeand corne at three 
shillings per bushell as alsoe the use of the house & or- 
charde which is commonly calde the towne or Parsonige 
house with the medowe at present & after the crop is of 
the grounde to have the benefit of all such lands & house- 
ing as belongs to the saide towne lot that this is the 
townse acte done the day & date above written by the 
towne in general teste Nathaniel Denton 

towne clerk Records I. p. 74. 

Jenewary the 24 1675 

At a town mettinsf it is voted & concluded that Avhereas 
their was three score pounds a yeer promised to M Wood- 

* Peas. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, JAMAICA. 61 

rop ill county pay it is now concluded that they will alow 
him the forenamed some of thre score pound in merchants 
pay to be payd at Yorke only these men under written 
eare freed from the alteration of the pay 

BENIAMIlSr COE JONATHAN MILLS 

JOHN OLDFIELD 

Records I. p. 74, 

april the 4th 1676 These presents may witness that the 
constable and overseers have let out to James heynds the 
town lot & house w* the apurtinancs their unto belonging 
for this yeer insuing upon the conditions folowing first that 
the sayd Jams shall repayer & make sufisant all the out 
side fenceing belonging to the sayd lot w' new posts & 
rayls where their is nede & to secure the orchard 
from any damage & to leave the fence sufisant at the 
end of y*" yere &, to alow to the towne for the sayed housin 
& acomidation the full & just (some) of £2 105 for the yere 
in good pasable pay as it pas between man &> man & fur- 
ther it is agreed that if the town shall have a minister at 
any time before the terme of the yeere be expired then 
Jams shal returne the hous barne & orchard to the dispose 
of the toune & shall alow to the toune six shiling an acore 
for the remainder of the home lot beside the orchard & 
Jams to be alowed for his labour about the fence but if 
Jams shall keepe this lot in hands tell mickellmass that he 
have takin the crop of the land & if the town have ocation 
to make use of this acomidation at micklmes then Jams 
shall resigne it up to the towne the towne abating Jams 20 
shiling in witnes of the premises we have set our hands 

JAMES HINDES 
BENIEMIN COE 

in the name of the town 

Records I. p. 77, 



62 HISTORY OF THE 

June y* 19 1676 At a town meeting it is voted & con- 
cluded that their shall be 40 acors of medow designd & 
sett apart for a parsonage lot in the east neck joining to the 
lots of medoAV layed out with upland proporsianable to 
other lots layed out in the tOAvne to continue at the dispose 
of the towne to a minister when they shall have ocation to 
make of it 

subscribed by me Beniemen Coe 
clarke 

Records I, p. 94. 

June y^ 19 1676 Artickels of agreement betweene the 
towne of Jemaica the on party & M' John Pruddin the 
other as followeth 

that the toune doe fully & freely give unto M' John 
Pruddin the house land & acomidations in this towne which 
was designed <fc set apart for a minister w* all the privi- 
ledges & apurtinancis which doe or here after may per- 
taine unto the sayed acomidations wee say we doe fully & 
frely give unto the sayed M' John Pruddin to poses & 
quiatly to inioy for himselfe & his ayers or asigns forever 
upon the condision following namely that M"" John Pruddin 
doe continew in this toune discharging the worke of a min- 
ister for the terme of ten yers insewing if god continew his 
life & liberty soe longe but if by death he be taken away 
before the expiration of the ten yeer then notwithstanding 
the hole acomidations remain sure & firm to his ayers after 
him But if the sayed John Prudden doe leave the towne 
before the end of the ten yeere then the acomidations to 
returne to the tovvme the towne satisfying him for what he 
have expended upon the same & further the towne doe 
hereby promise & ingage to give unto John Pruddin forty 
pound the yeer & his fire wood free during the time that 
he shall continew in the town inployed in the worke of the 
ministry this forenamed forty pound to be dewly & trewly 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, JAMAICA. 63 

payed anually to him or his order the on halfe in marchants 
pay delivered at Yorke & the other halfe in country pay in 
this tOAvne as it pas betwene man & man that this cove- 
nant was the truth concerning both the town & M"" Prud- 
din to the best of my knowledg subscribed by me 

Beniemin Coe 
clarke 

By order from the constable & overser 

Records I. p. 94. 

wee whose names are here under written ingage to 
brmg ]\P Pruddin a load of woode a pese yearely by sub- 
scribing our names. 

NATHANIEL DENTON NEHEMIAH SMITH 

GEORGE WOOLSEY JONAS HOLSTEADE 

JOHN EVERET JOHN SKIDMORE 

THOMAS SMITH SAMUEL SMITH 

WILLIAM RUSCOE JOHN RODES 

ABELL GALE ANTHONY WATERS 

HENERY FOSTER WAIT SMITH 

JOSEPH SMITH SAMUEL MATHEWS 
JOHN OLDFIELDE JOHN CARPENTER 

ROGER LYNAS Records I. p. 115. 

y® constable & oversers have & doe give libberty unto 

Kichard Jones to make use of y® meting house for to teach 

scoule in for y^ yere ensuing provided he keep y^ windowes 

from breaking and keep it deasent & clean one Saturday 

nights against y^ Lord's day & seats to be placed in 

order : — excepting what times y^ constable & oversers 

shall have ocation to make use of it then they to have it at 

their disposal by order of y* constable & oversers 

Sam. Rusco 
clarke 

[no date: but Jan 1676-7 precedes & march 1676-7 

next follows — all in one hand — viz. Rusco's] Records I. p. 80. 



64: HISTORY OF THE 

A town Meeting called Aprill y® 3d 1688 the town have 
agreed w* John Heins for a piece of eight to goe to Wood- 
bridge & to desire y^ minister there to give y^ town a visit 
in order to setling amongst us & the toun doe appoint y^ 
dark to write a letter to y" s'd minister & to give him an 
invitation to come amongst us to dispense y^ Avord of God 
here : on behalf of the town 

Thes men following have payed every one there bit upon 
y^ account above mentioned 

CAPT CARPENTER JOSEPH SMITH 

NEHEMIAH SMITH JOSEPH THURSTONE 

JONAS W^OOD JOHN WOOD 

NATH DENTON JR SAMLL SMITH 

JOHN LUDLUM SAMLL MILLS 
GEORGE AVOOLSEY JR I DANLL DENTON JR 
MR WHITE : Records I. p. 150. 

August y" S'' 1688 a toun meeting called — The town have 
made choise of theese men following (viz) Mr. Whitehead 
Capt : Carpenter Mr White Nathaniel Denton Wait Smith 
Joseph Thurston John Oldfield & Samll Smith to endevour 
& use meane for y*" j^rocuring such a minister as shall sute 
w* & bee accepted off by y^ town : by order of y* toun 

Danll : Denton dark 

Records I, p. 154. 

This is the proper place to consider the significance 
of the noticeable expression the rules of the Gospel in 
this town, or the question, whether the church which 
was formed in 1672, in accordance with these rules, 
was Presbyterian or Congregational. Mr. Prudden 
was undoubtedly a Congregatioiialist, and this expres- 
sion was probably intended to guard against the intro- 
duction of any thing inconsistent with the settled and 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, JAMAICA. 65 

well-understood principles of tlie people of the town. 
The controversies at Hempstead prove that the distinc- 
tion between Independency and Presbyterianism was 
well known to them, and perhaps they had something 
to do with this cautious manner of expression. Atten- 
tion is invited to the following facts, as going far to 
settle the above question. 

Tlie Eev. Kichard Denton, who was minister at 
Hempstead at the time Jamaica was settled, and from 
which town the leading members of the colony came, 
was beyond all question a Presbyterian. In a Peport to 
the Classis of Amsterdam, made in 1657, by the minis- 
ters in charge of the Dutch Church in Xew York, the 
Pevs. Joh. Megapolensis and Samuel Drisius, we have 
this significant passage: "At Heemstede, about 7 Dutch 
miles from here there are some Independants ; also 
many of our pur suasion and Presbyterians. They have 
also a Presbyterian preacher, named Pichard Denton, 
an honest, pious, and learned man. He hath in all 
things conformed to our church. The Independants of 
the place listen attentively to his preaching, but when 
he began to baptise the children of such parents as are 
not members of the church, they sometimes burst out 
of the church."* This extract shows that the writers 
carefully made the distinction between Independents 
and Presbyterians, and proves that the line was dis- 
tinctly drawn between these parties at Hempstead. 
The writers make the same distinction in other parts 
of the letter, and state several important facts. Thus, 
they say: "At Flushing they heretofore had a Pres- 

* See this letter entire as translated by Rev, Dr. De Witt, Doc. Hist. 
N. Y., Vol. III., page 103. 



66 IIISTOEY OF THE 

byterian preaclier, who conformed to our church, but 
many of them became endowed with divers opinions, 
and it was with them, quot homhies tot sententice " [as 
many opinions as there were men]. " At Middebnrgh, 
called alias, I^ewtown they are mostly Independants, 
and have a man of the same persuasion there, Johan- 
nes Moor, who preaches there well, but administers no 
sacraments, because (as he says) he was permitted in 
ISTew England to preach, but not authorized to adndn- 
ister sacraments, and he has thus continued now for 
many years. In this village are also many other inhab- 
itants Presbyterians, but they are not able to maintain a 
Presbyterian Preacher, whilst we know not that any of 
this sect are to be found among the English in N. Eng- 
land, among whom there are preachers." The Pev. Syl- 
vester Woodbridge, Jr., formerly pastor at Hempstead, 
now Dr. Woodbridge, of California, says in his his- 
torical discourse delivered at Hempstead in 1840, " The 
Pev. Pichard Denton was a Presbyterian minister of 
Coley Chapel, parish of Halifax, in the northern part of 
England." It appears that at Hempstead he " in all 
things conformed" to the church of Holland, which 
can mean nothing less than that he was distinctively 
Presbyterian; and the Independents exhibited great 
signs of dissatisfaction. It appears, also, from a letter 
of Gov. Stuyvesant,* addressed " to the Magistraats 
off Heemstead," that he had visited that place the 
same year, 1657, for the purpose of " settlingh off mis- 
ter denton's continuance accordino^ to aD:reement of the 
tents (tenths) for the present year ; " and that Mr. 

* Doc. Hist. N. v., page 189. 



PKESBYTEKIAN CHURCH, JAMAICA. 67 

Robert Fordhani wlio liacl been " sum tymes minister 
[of] the toun of lieemsted," and had left the place, 
and ''the exercys of the ministery" without the Gov- 
ernor's knowledge and permission, had returned, or 
that a party was labouring to bring him back, in op- 
position to Mr. Denton. May not the origin of the 
Jamaica colony, in which were two persons of the 
name of Denton, sons of the minister at Hempstead, 
have had some connection with this religious dis- 
sension? During the six years after the commence- 
ment of the colony, before the organization of a regular 
congregation, there can be no doubt those among the 
first settlers who had been in communion with Mr. 
Denton's church at Hempstead, retained their connec- 
tion with it, enjoying occasional communion with their 
brethren, and visits from their pastor. As to that por- 
tion of the primitive inhabitants, who it is supposed 
came from ISlew England, some of them may have 
been drawn to the English settlements on this end of 
the island, because there were no churches, distinctively 
Presbyterian, in 'New England. Previous to the year 
1640, four thousand Presbyterians, it is said, arrived 
in New England ; and of the two thousand ministers 
ejected by the Act of Uniformity, in 1662, a con- 
siderable number, found refuge in this country ; one 
of them, Wm. "Woodruff, became minister of this 
church. For proof of the strong Presbyterian ele- 
ment which pervaded New England, we need nothing 
better than the Saybrook Platform itself."^ Thomp- 
son says of Mr. Denton, that he returned to England 

* Trumbull's Hist, of Conn., Vol. I., page 487. 



68 HISTOKY OF THE 

in 1659, where lie died in 1662, at the age of seventy- 
six. He states this on the authority of the Rev. Mr. 
Hey wood, his successor at Halifax.* In Savage's 
Genealogical Dictionary, he is said to have died at 
Hempstead in 1663. After Mr. Denton's departure, 
a long and angry controversy was carried on between 
the Independents and Presbyterians. 

"Among those clouds," (says Cotton Mather, meaning 
the ministers who came from England,) " was our j^ious 
and learned Mr. Richard Denton, a Yorkshire man, who, 
having watered Hahfax, in England, with his fruitful min- 
istry, was by a tempest there hurried into New England, 
where first at Weathersfield, and then at Stamford, his 
doctrine dropped as the rain, his speech distilled as the 
dew, as the small rain upon the tender herb, and as the 
showers upon the grass. Though he were a little man, 
yet he had a great soul ; his well accomplished mind, in 
his lesser body, was an Iliad in a nut-shell. I think he was 
blind of an eye, yet he was not the least among the seers of 
Israel ; he saw a very considerable portion of those things 
which eye hath not seen. He was far from cloudy in his 
conceptions and principles of divinity, whereof he wrote a 
system, entitled Soliloquia Sacra^ so accurately considering 
the fourfold state of man, in his created purity, contracted 
deformity, restored beauty, and celestial glory, that judi- 
cious persons, who have seen it, very much lament the 
churches being deprived of it. At length he got into 
heaven beyond clouds, and so beyond storms; waiting the 
return of the Lord Jesus Christ, in the clouds of heaven, 
when he will have his reward among the saints." 

Thompson says that he was educated at the Univer- 

* Hist, of Long Island, Vol. II., p. 20. 



PEESBYTEEIAN CHUKCH, JAMAICA. 69 

sity of Cambridge, where he graduated m 1623, 
and was minister of Coley Chapel, Halifax, seven 
years. He probably arrived in New England with 
Gov. Winthrop in 1630 (Savage says, 1639) ; went first 
to Watertown, but in 1635 with others commenced 
the settlement at Wethersfield. In 1641, he is found 
among the proprietors of Stamford, where he was 
owner of a valuable real estate. 

Another fact. In 1674, 9th of May, Mr. Prudden hav- 
ing left, two years after the people had given their voice 
in favor of the organization of a church, we find Mr. 
^Nathaniel Denton addressing a letter to the colonial 
secretary, regarding the maintenance of the minister 
of Jamaica, asking an order to compel certain persons 
in the town to pay their proportion towards the sup- 
port of the minister, in which he refers to "instructions" 
that the ]3eople were not to maintain " any other w^ay 
of church government than what is according to the Sy- 
nod of Dort," and expressly asserts that " our minister" 
is "noe ways repugnant to that Synod."* By a way of 
church government which was according to the S}Tiod 
of Dort, must have been meant the Presbyterian way. 

Another fact. In a petition addressed to Gov. 
Dongan in 1688, by the Rev. John Prudden, in which 
he styles himself " quondam minister of Jamaica," he 
states that a considerable part of his salary is with- 
held, through the refusal of several inhabitants " to 
pay their proportion levied by yearly rates," and asks, 
as a lawsuit " would be unpleasant and discommendable 
on all hands," that an order may be issued by the 

* Doc. Hist. N. Y., Vol, III., p. 193. 



70 HISTOEY OF THE 

Governor, enforcing payment. He then goes on to say 
" Your humble jDetitioner only requesteth further that 
if a considerable number of the Congeegationall 
PEOFESsioN & PEESWAsioN should bc desirous y^ he would 
continue to bee their minister, and maintain him at 
their own cost & charge by a voluntary contribution, 
your Excellency & the Hon. Council would pleas to 
give approbation thereunto," etc.^ A certificate is 
added, signed by Nehemiah Smith and John Carpen- 
ter, that Mr. Prudden had continued in the town the 
full term of ten years, (the term agreed upon in articles 
on record, at the time of his return in 1676, June 19th) 
" discharging the work of a minister according to the 
way of y^ churches in New EnglandP This certificate 
that he had discharged his work as a minister accord- 
ing to the way of the churches of New England, taken 
in connection with his petition to the Governor to be 
permitted to form a Congregational church, or a sepa- 
rate assembly of the Congregational persuasion, doubt- 
less suggests the reason why his salary was not 
paid, and the people refused to fulfil the contract 
to give him in fee the land set apart for the use of 
the minister, provided he should discharge the work 
of a minister for ten years. This is the land referred 
to in the Act of the town, 21st April, 1753, there 
said to have been continued " for the use of a 
minister of the Presbyterian denomination, since that 
time" [1676]. Mr. Prudden, in styling himself 
" quondam minister," would seem to indicate that he 
ceased to fill the office when the ten years of his 
engagement expired. In 1689 he was chosen deputy 

* Doc. Hist. N. Y. Vol. III. p. 195. 



PKESBYTERIAN CHURCH, JAMAICA. 71 

to tlie Colonial Assembly, by the town. If lie resumed 
charge of the congregation it is probable he concluded 
to conform to " the rules of the Gospel in this town," 
and, instead of making the people Congregationalists, 
himself became a Presbyterian, for in 1692 he was 
called by the church in I^ewark, N^. J., which, accord- 
ing to Dr. McWhorter* was Presbyterian from the 
beginning. 

In the extracts from the Town Pecords, on a preced- 
ing page, there is one, under date of April the 3d, 
1688, of more importance as to the question under 
consideration, than at first sight would appear. The 
clerk was appointed to write a letter to the minister 
of Woodbridge, and " give him an invitation to come 
amongst us to dispense the word of God ;" and money 
was contributed to meet the expense of sending a 
messenger to bear the letter, and to invite " the minis- 
ter there to give the town a visit in order to settling 
amongst us." Now, who was the minister of Wood- 
bridge ? Woodbridge I^. J. is undoubtedly meant. The 
small place in Connecticut, in the vicinity of New 
Haven, of that name, could not have been settled, or 
could not have had a population sufficient to form a 
separate congregation, at this early period. The Pev. 
Archibald Piddell was the minister of Woodbridge, 
]Sr. J. from 1686 to 1689.t A large colony of Scotch 
people settled in and around Perth Amboy as early 
as 1681-5. Two vessels arrived in 1684, one hav- 
ing one hundred and sixty, the other one hundred 

* MS. Hist, of Newark, quoted in Dr. Hodges' Hist, of Pres. Church. 
Vol. I. p. 43. 
t Whitehead's Contributions to E. Jersey History, p. 384. 



72 HISTORY OF THE 

and thirty passengers. In 1685, George Scot of Pi1> 
lochie, connected with some of the most distinguished 
families of Scotland, wrote his '' Model of the Govern- 
ment of the Province of East Jersey," the object of 
which was to encourage emigration, and sailed himself, 
accompanied by nearly two hundred persons. He says 
in his " Model, &c." " You see so it is now judged the 
intererest of the Government altogether to suppress the 
Pveshyterian Principles / & that in order thereto the 
whole force & bensill of the Law of this Kingdom are 
levelled at the effectual hearhig them down^ that the 
vigorous putting these Laios in execution, hath in 
great part ruined many of these, who notwithstanding 
thereof find themselves in conscience obliged to retain 
these principles ; while in the other hand Episcopacy 
is by the same Laws supported and protected." He 
then goes on to urge those whom he addresses to 
transport " themselves thither where they are by law 
allowed the free exercise of their principles P "^ George 
Scot was the son of Sir John Scot of Scotstarbet in 
Edinburghshire. He was fined a thousand pounds for 
frequenting the conventicles of John Welsh and Samuel 
Arnot, and was again fined a thousand pounds for 
''harbouring" John Welsh. He was repeatedly fined, 
and on one occasion, seven hundred pounds, and as 
often cast into prison. His wife, Lady Pitlochie, was 
also fined for attending conventicles. At length he 
petitioned the Council from the Bass prison for his re- 
lease, engaging to "go to the plantations," and to 

* Of the four copies of the original edition of the "Model," known to ex- 
ist, one is in the possession of Gov. King of Jamaica. It is reprinted in 
Whitehead's "E. Jersey under the Proprietors." 



PKESBYTEKIAN CHUKCH, JAJVIAICA. 73 

take with him Archibakl Kiddell, one of the obnoxious 
preachers. They set sail September 5th, 1685, in the 
" Henry & Francis," a ship of three hundred and fifty 
tons, and twenty great guns, Hichard Hutton master. 
Soon after leaving the harbour of Leith, a fever broke 
out among those who had been long lying in loathsome 
prisons, which soon assumed a malignant type. The 
mortality was dreadful. Seventy died, among them 
the Laird of Pitlochie, his wife, with her sister-in-law, 
Lady Aithernie and her two children. 

The Kev. Archibald Riddell, a zealous and pious 
preacher, was the brother of Sir John Riddell. The 
first serious proceedings of the Government against 
him appear to have been prompted by his connection 
in some way wdth the rising of Bothwell in 1679. He 
was arrested, and sent first to the tollbooth in Jed- 
burgh, and from thence removed to the prison in 
Edinburgh. He was summoned before the Com- 
mittee of public aifairs, and although he convinced his 
examiners of his moderation and loyalty, he would 
not clear himself from the charge of having preached 
in the fields, nor promise to refrain from field-preaching 
in future. '^ I know not," he said, " but he who has 
called me to preach this while byegone in houses, may, 
before I go out of the world, call me to preach upon 
tops of mountains, yea upon the seas ; and I dare not 
come under any engagements to disobey his calls." 
He was therefore remanded to prison, and kept there 
until, on the application of Scot, he was released with 
the view of emigrating to New Jersey. His wife died 
on the voyage. He took charge of the Congregation 
of Woodbridge within a month after his arrival. In 
4 



74 HISTORY OF THE 

1689, in consequence of tlie political clianges in his 
native land, he set sail for Scotland, accompanied by 
a little son ten years of age. The vessel was captured 
by a French man-of-war, and after being marched in 
chains from Kochefort to Toulon, he was imprisoned 
nearly two years, when he was exchanged and allowed 
to return to Scotland. He settled at Kirkaldie. His 
daughter, Janet, married James Dundas, son of Sir 
James Dundas, who was settled at Perth Amboy.* 

Thus it appears that the minister of Woodbridge, 
who was invited to come and settle at Jamaica, to 
dispense the word of God, was one of the Scotch 
worthies, a covenanter, who was willing to go to prison 
or to death rather than renounce his principles. 
"Wodrow refers to the call he received from Long- 
Island, and declined. t The records exhibit a zeal on 
the part of the people of Jamaica to secure his ser- 
vices, which we scarcely observe in any other instance. 
The letter contained a formal invitation to him to be- 
come the minister. In the next minute, that of August 
3d, 1688, a large committee is appointed to secure such 
a minister " as shall suit with & be accepted of by 
the toun." There seems to have been no doubt that 
Mr. Riddell would suit the town, as they knew whence 
he canie, and for what. 

We come now to a fact which clearly settles, if that 
has not already been done, what was meant by " the 
rules of the Gospel in this town." After the Rev. Jer- 
emiah Hobart, who had been minister at Hempstead 
and succeeded Mr. Prudden here, had supplied the 
place for a short time, the Pev. John Hubbard became 

* Whitehead's Gqutributions, and Wodrow's History. f IV. 335. 



PKESBYTERIAN CHUECH, JAMAICA. 75 

minister; and we have this significant record in regard 
to him : "At a town meeting held at Jamaica, 'Nov. 
25, 1700, it was agreed by vote that whereas Mr. John 
Hubbart hath continued here among us, in this town, 
in the present work of the ministry, some considerable 
time, the town does show their willingness to continue 
him still, & to have him ordained accordingly, pro- 
vided it be according to the rule and way of the Pres- 
byterian way^ & it is the iinanimoits mind of the 
town that he be ordained accordingly, & that every 
man shall pay toward the ordination as much as he 
shall see cause to pay." Hubbard is always called, in 
Smith's History of JN^ew York, a Presbyterian. 

It may be added that on the occurrence of the first 
vacancy in the pulpit, after the formation of the Pres- 
bytery of Philadelphia, the Pev. George McMsh, one 
of the original members of that presbytery, in the 
spring of ITIO, was called to be minister. There have 
been ruling elders in the congregation from time im- 
memorial. In the earliest records of the church, it is 
never styled any thing but Presbyterian ; there are, 
however, no records or minutes running past the mid- 
dle of the last century. On the inside of the cover of 
the register of the church, the following is written : 
" This book is the gift of Mr. Daniel Smith, one of the 
Elders and Deacons of the Presbyterian Church and 
Congregation of this town of Jamaica in Queen's 
County, in the Province of l^ew York, for the use of 
said congregation, in & by his last will & testament, 
bearing date the 14:th day of July, 1753, & who de- 
parted this life on the 15th day of October, 1754, being 
90 years and 7 months old." The book was bought in 



76 HISTOEY OF THE 

1755, and this inscription aj)pears to have been made 
by Mr. Hinchman, the purchaser. It appears that 
Mr. Smith was born some eight or nine years before 
the formation of the church. He probably acted as 
an elder from a very early period. 

What do these facts indicate as to " the rules of the 
Gospel in this town," or the form of church govern- 
ment most approved by a majority of the people ? Of 
course, it is not to be presumed that the church was 
organized, in all respects, or transacted its business al- 
ways in accordance with Presbyterial rule, before 
there was a Presbytery to organize and preside over 
churches, and license and ordain ministers. It is only 
supposed that they endeavored to act, so far as it was 
possible in their circumstances, on Presbyterial princi- 
ples, somewhat, probably, as the Presbyterians of Ire- 
land did, prior to the formation of the first Presbytery 
in that country, under the jurisdiction of the bishops 
of the Anglican church ; i. e. under the auspices of the 
Church of Holland, the model of which church was 
expressly secured to the people, at the time of the sur- 
render of the province to the English, in 1664.'^ The 
Dutch ministers who inductedf Mr. Yesev, the first 
rector of Trinity Church, by order of Gov. Fletcher, 
may have ordained and installed some of the first pas- 
tors of this church. To the Dutch belongs the honor 
of transplanting Presbyterianism to this continent. 
We hazard little, therefore, in saying that the church 
in Jamaica is the oldest Presbyterian church, estab- 

* Articles of Surrender. 

t Dr. Brovvnlee's Hist, of Ref. D. Ch. in America. Letter of Rev. Dr. De 
Witt to the author. 



PEESBYTEKIAN CHURCH, JAMAICA. 77 

lished by the English, in America. It had been in ex- 
istence some eight or ten years before Francis Makem- 
ie, usually styled the father of American Presbyter- 
ianism, arrived in Maryland. It is evident from the 
letters of Gov. Stuyvesant and the New York minis- 
ters, that the Dutch had a warm side towards Presby- 
terians, as being one in faith and order with them, 
whilst they looked with doubt or suspicion on other 
denominations, who sought to establish themselves 
within the province. 

A town meeting on the 10th day of June 1689 
Mr Prudden & Nathaniel Denton Senior was chosen to 
go to York to meete with the rest of the deputis of the 
respective townes for to consider & advise one with an- 
other of what shall be for the good welfare & service of 
the contrey & to act with the rest of the deputies in any 
thing that may tend therunto & also if they shall see cause 
to make any aplication to our Sovereign King & Queen 
for any thing that may tend to the good of the whole 
CoUony to act with them. 

By order of the Town per me 

Nathaniel Denton^ 

Clerk 

Jamaica a town meetino- called the 19th June 1689 Mr 
John Prudden and Mr Daniel Whithead was chosen for 
deputis for this towne of Jamaica to meete with the rest 
of the deputis of Queens County for the chusing of two 
committy men out of the County for to go to Yorke to sit 
as a committy of safety & also together with the rest of 
the Deputies to give the two men that are chosen by them 
their instructions & power how fir & in what the two 



78 



HISTOKY OF THE 



Committee men shall act & do when they come to York 
by order of the Town 

23er me Kathaniel Dentox 

Clerk 

Records I. p. 126. 

December the 6 Anno 1689 A town meetmcr called It 
was there & then voted & concluded that there shall be a 
meeting house built in this town of Jamaica 60 foot lono- 
& 30 foot wide & every way else as shall be convenient 
& comely for a meeting house. 

Jan 9 1689 
a town meeting called It was there & then voted 
& concluded that Danl Whithead William White Joseph 
Smith & Nathaniel Denton shall be the men to procure <fc 
agree with such a workman or Avorkmen as they shall see 
cause for the building & finishing such a meeting house 
as is above mentioned for length & width & every thing 
else that shall be convenient & comely & what these four 
men above mentioned shall do the town will stand by 
them & perform what agreements they make in paying ac- 
cording to their abilities or estates proportionably by or- 
der of the town 

Per me Nathaniel Dexton 

Clerk 

A toAvn meeting called the 22d of January 1689 or 90 
the town did vote & conclude that Capt John Carpenter 
& Nehemiah Smith shall be added to the four men before- 
named for the agreeing with a workman or workmen for 
the building of a meeting house & what they six men or 
the major part of them shall do the town to stand by it 
by order of the town 

per me Nataxiel Dextox 

Clerk 



PKESBYTERIAN CHUKCII, JAMAICA. 79 

At a town metting held att Jamaica August y^ 21*'' 
1691 : It was voated & concluded that upon sum pro- 
possalls mad by Mr. John Pruden to y^ town about his ar- 
rerages & for his inceragement to continue amongst us 
that six men be chosen to agree dibate & conclude y® 
matters as well for his arrerages as for his further contin- 
uancy in y" ministry & make report to y^ town theroff as 
spedely as possible 

at y® same town meeting it was voated & concluded y* 
Capt Whithed Capt Carpenter Joseph Smith Jonas Wood 
Samuell Denton & Wait Smith are chosen to agree with 
Mr. John Pruden according to y^ above record. 

Records I. p. 183. 

At a town metting y® 5 : day of August 1691 the maior 
partt of y® people that was then there did Except of Mr. 
Pruden's proposall to y^ metting. Records, I. p. I6i. 

At a town mettmg held y'' 2d day of September 1691 : 

it was voted & concluded that the record made y^ 1 9th 

of June 1676* conserning Mr Pruden should be establisht 

& confirmd in every poynt exactly 

By Saml Ruscoe 

Clark 

Records I. p. 184. 

At a towne meting caled & held the 3d day of Septem- 
ber 1691 : it was voated & concluded that Mr Pruden 
shall have three score pounds y* yeare payd him & his 
feyer-wood free for which Mr Pruden duering the time he 
stayeth amongst [us] is to perform the office of a minister 
amongst us 

according to gospel rules By Sam Ruscoe 

town dark 

r Records I. p. 131. 

August 23d, 1692, Mr. Prudden received a call from 

* See page G2 of this volume. 



80 



HISTORY OF THE 



the First Presbyterian Clmrcli, Newark, IST. J., to suc- 
ceed Mr. Pierson, which he accepted. He continued 
the minister of that Church till June 9th, 1699, when, 
for some cause not now known, the pastoral relation 
was dissolved. He died at l^ewark, December 11th, 
1Y25. His epitaj)h is as follows : 

Here lies the hody of the Hev. Mr. 

John Priidden^ minister of the 

Gospel^ who dejparted this life 

11 Dec. 1725, aged 80 tjears. 

!N'0R GRACE, NOR FAVOUR FILLS MY REINS, 
Lo, ROOM FOR THEE REMAINS. 

Dr. McWhorter, in a sermon preached January 1st, 
1801, says that "he sustained a worthy character, as a 
man of sense and religion, though he does not appear 
to have been a popular preacher." His descendants 
are numerous, and reside chiefly in Morris Co., I^. J. ; 
but numerous descendants of his daughters, Joanna, 
wife of ^Nathaniel Moore, and Keziah, wife of Elnathan 
Baldwin, reside in Pennington, and other j)arts of 
Mercer Co.* 

* See the Rev. George Hale's Letter in the Addenda. 



PRESBYTEKIAN CHURCH, JAMAICA. 81 



CHAPTEE IT. 
1692-1699. 

FIRST MOVEMENT TOWARDS ERECTING THE STONE MEETING HOUSE — APPLICA- 
TION TO THE ASSEMBLY — VANE A TARGET TO BRITISH SOLDIERS IN THE 
REVOLUTION — DATE ON IT — STYLE OP THE BUILDING — JEREMIAH HOBERT 
■ — GEORGE PHILLIPS — HIS " DYOTT " PAID FOR — PEOPLE SEND TO THE 
" MAIN " FOR A MINISTER — MR. JONES, LATE OF DANBURY — SUBSCRIPTION 
LIST FOR THE SUPPORT OF A MINISTER — VOTES OF THE TOWN RESPECT- 
ING MEETING HOUSE AND MR. PHILLIPS — THE GOV. PETITIONED RESPECT- 
ING THE SETTLEMENT OP MR. HOBERT — DISPUTE RESPECTING MEETING 
HOUSE SETTLED — ACCOUNT OF MR. HOBERT — MEETING HOUSE FINISHED. 

IT was in December, 1689, as we liave already seen, 
that the initial movement was made by the town, for 
the erection of the old stone church, which occupies so 
important a place in the history of this congregation. 
At another town meeting, held the following month, a 
committee was appointed to procure and agree with 
workmen to construct the house. In 1093, the people 
of Jamaica applied to the Provincial Assembly, for the 
passage of an act, to enable them to levy or collect 
money for this purpose. 

Mr. Faitoute says that " from the date of the vane 
which was taken down from the steeple, because very 
much injured by the musket balls of the British 
soldiers, who were continually shooting at it as a mark 
in the time of the late war, it appears to have been 
completed in 1693 or 1699 ; two dates are given, as 

there is some difference in the opinion of those who 
4* 



82 HISTOET OF THE 

saw tlie vane after it was taken down"* The true date 
probably was 1699. This building stood near the mid- 
dle of the main street, not far from the head of what is 
now known as Union Hall street. It was a substantial 
stone edifice, of a quadrangular form, with a pyrami- 
dal roof, and belfry in the centre ; and was used for a 
house of worship until the year 1813, when the present 
church was erected ; that is, for about one hundred 
and fourteen years. This was the church for the pos- 
session of which the Presbyterians contended with 
Church of England men, for nearly a quarter of a cen- 
tury ; a full account of which will be given in the 
proper place. 

October 25th, 1692, a call was given to Rev. Jeremiah 
ITobart, or Ilubbart, minister of Hempstead, but he 
did not at this time see fit to accept. June 8th, 1693, 
" It was agreed to endeavour to procure Mr. Jones, 
late minister of Danbury," to be minister of Jamaica. 
But the next preacher was Mr. 

GEORGE PHILLIPS 

who labored here about three years, from 1693 to 1696. 
He was a licentiate merely, and of course was not pas- 
tor of the church ; was son of the Rev. Samuel Phillips 
of Roxbury, Mass., and born in 1664 ; graduated at 
Harvard in 1686. He probably left this place on the 
death of his father in 1696. He subsequently went to 
Brookhaven, where he was ordained in 1702, and con- 
tinued pastor to his death, June ITth, 1739. He is 
said to have been a faithful preacher, and extended his 
labors to destitute j)laces. The Hon. Silas Wood says 

* MS Hist., written in 1793. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, JAMAICA. 83 

of him that " he was distingaishecl for a peculiar vein 
of natural wit. His ordinary discourse was tinctured 
with this peculiarity ; and tradition has preserved 
many of his remarks that exemplify it." 

Mr. Phillips was probably a single man at the time 
he lived in Jamaica, as we find the town agreeing as a 
part of his salary " to pay for his dyott where he shall 
be dyated," i. e. to pay for his board. In another 
minute the word is spelled " diatt." 

At a town mettino^ held the 25th of October 1692 it was 
voated & concluded without any interruption to give unto 
Mr. Jeremiah Hubbert the sum of sixty pounds yearly to 
be dewly payed according to y^ currant markett prise & 
every inhabitant within y^ s*^ township to cut & cart him a 
waggon load of wood all this to be duly payd & perform- 
ed yearly during his labour in the ministry amongst us p"" 
me Saml Rusoe dark Records p. 163. 

at y^ same metting Joseph Smith seanor was appointed 
& chosen by a generall voat to carry this above written 
copy out of y^ records to Mr. Hubberd & to discourse with 
him about anything to his further satisfaction 

Per me Sam Ruscoe dark 

Records I., p. 165. 

Att a towne metting held y* 9th day of march 1692 
Joseph Smith was choasen to acompany Nehemiah Smith 
to y^ main"^ in order to y^ procurement of a minister accord- 
ing to a former order 

pr Samuell Ruscoe dark 

Records I. p. 12-4. 

att a toun metting att Jamaica held y' 1 7 of September 

1692 Nehemiah Smith was deputed & chosen by y' persons 

at s* metting for to goe to y' main in order to y' procuring 

* New Jersey or Conn. 



84 HISTORY OF THE 

of a minister for y town of Jamaica & to bring him over 
to us : to give us a vissit in order to a further treatty & in 
case such a one doth come over & wee doe not agree with 
him for his continuance amongst us then to satisfy him for 
his journey in coming to us by y^ town 

pr Samuell ItuscoE 
dark 

Records I. p. 127. 

June y* 8 93 it was agreed upon to indeavor to procure 
Mr Jones late minister of danbery to be our minister or to 
give us avissitt according to y^ tenor of this above record. 

Records I. p. 12'r. 

At a town metting held y^ 3*^ day of January 1692 it was 
voated & concluded that Saml Smith Mr Whithead 
Nehemiah Smith William Creed Wait Smith Xathaniel 
Denton John Carpenter Junr are impowered to agre upon 
procuring a settlement convenient for a parsonag in Ja- 
maica & that they shall have liberty to make sale & dis- 
pose of what parsinag land as shall to them seem mett & 
conveniant for y*' procuring thereof 

per Saml Ruscoe dark 

Records I. p. 185. 

at a metting held at Jamaica y^ 8 of June 1693 it was 
votted & agreed that y*" mai° partt of y® seven above 
named shall have libberty to procure y^ parsonage house & 
lot either by exchaing of other land or by giving of money 
for y* same John Baylis protests against the giving of 
any land Saml Ruscoe 

dark 

Records I. p. 185. 

Att a toune metting held att Jamaica January y^ first 
169| it was voated & concluded upon that y^ parsonage re- 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, JAMAICA. 



85 



maining in y^ hands of y^ town thay doe engage to give nn- 
to Mr Phillipes the money raised by a free giiift & to pay 
for his dyott wher he shall be dyated the same freely given 
as above s*^ being sixty poundes this being for one yeare 
from y^ date hereof Per Saml Ruscoe dark 

Records II. p. 548. 

Att y same mettinge it was voatted that John Ow^eke 
& Richard oldfield Samnell Denton & Daniell Smith shall 
gather the sumes promised to y^ minester & to pay it to 
y* minester quarterly from y^ persons hereafter named — 

Records II. p. 548. 



Capt Whithead 


. 02 


00 


Sam Smith seor 


. 00 


15 


Mr Harreson 


. 01 


10 


Joseph Oldfield 


. 01 


00 


Ben Thirston 


. . 01 


00 


Tho Welling 


. 00 


10 


Sam Denton 


. . 01 


00 


Ben Coe 


. 00 


06 


Nath Denton 


. 01 


10 


John Cokefer 


. . 00 


12 


Hope Carpenter 


. 01 


00 


David Lues . 


. 00 


06 


Nehemiah Smith 


. 01 


10 


Will Sallyer 


. . 00 


08 


Wait Smith . 


. 01 


05 


Ben Wiggens 


. 00 


10 


Jos Smith seif^ 


. 01 


00 


Sam Mathews 


. 00 


15 


Jos Smith J . 


. 01 


00 


Sam Carpenter 


. 00 


15 


Cap Carpenter 


. 01 


10 


Ben Smith . 


. 00 


15 


Dan Sexton . 


. 00 


15 


MrWhitte . 


. 01 


00 


Tho Smith . 


. 01 


00 


Hendrik Arreson 


I . 00 


06 


Capt" Wollsey [G 


^eo.] 01 


10 


Jonas Wood 


. 01 


04 


Tho Wollsey . 


. 01 


00 


Tho Wiggens 


. 00 


12 


John Ludley 


. 01 


00 


John Bayles . 


. 01 


10 


John Smith . 


. 01 


00 


Robt Read . 


. 01 


00 


Sam Milles . 


. 01 


00 


Nicoles Everet . 


. 01 


00 


Will Creed . . 


. 01 


00 


Natt Higbee 


. 00 


10 


John Wollsey 


. 01 


00 


Hend Hegeman . 


. 00 


10 


Edward Hare 


. 00 


15 


Jo"" Roads . 


. 01 


00 


Nat Smith . 


. 00 


12 


AbleGalle . . 


. 00 


10 



86 



HISTORY OF THE 



John Hanson . . 00 12 

Steven Couert . . 00 05 

John Brewer . . 00 05 

Hendrik Lott . . 00 12 

Doros [Polhemus] . 00 12 

John Ouke . . . 00 10 

Dowe Jansen . . 00 06 

John Lambertts . . 00 06 

Jan Monfort . . 00 07 

Garett Lubertson . 00 08 

Petter Hendrikes . 00 07 

Gerret Jansen . . 00 06 

Jacob Janson . . 00 06 
Johanes Wilhamson 00 04 

Gerett Classen . . 00 10 

Thos Chambers . . 00 10 

Za ry Milles . . 00 10 

Widdow Denton . 00 06 

Richard Green . . 00 12 

^Ig^ander gnilth . . 00 08 

Joseph Ludhira . . 00 15 

Tho Humphreys . 00 06 

Elder t Lucas . . 00 12 

John Snedeker . . 00 05 
Records II. p. 549. 

Jamaica march y^ 8th 9| ther was agreed upon betwixt 
Mr Phillipes & the townsmen of y^ above s"^ towne that is 
that Mr Phillipes is to have all y^ over plush of y^ money 
freely giuven above y^ three score pounds & to take y^ par- 
sonage into his own hands & the towne to pay for his diatt 
for y* first quarter of this present yeare : 

entered per me Samll Ruscoe clarke 

Ivecords II. p. 523. 

at a mettinge held at Jamaica January y^ first 169f in 



John Everitt 


00 


15 


Sam'^ Ruscoe 


00 


10 


John Gale . 


00 


06 


Richard Oldfield 


01 


00 


Sam Smith . 


01 


10 


Capt" Carpenter Jun 


^■■01 


00 


Daniell Smith 


00 


15 


Peter Whitte . 


00 


10 


Joseph Phillipes 


00 


10 


jQjjthan y^QQ^ 


00 


10 


Antho Watters . 


01 


00 


Will Brinkley . 


00 


15 


Will Ludlum . . 


00 


10 


Ralph Hunt 


00 


10 


Edward Higbey 


01 


00 


Daniel Thirston . 


00 


15 


Edward Burrowes 


01 


00 


Gershom Wiggens 


00 


10 


Jo than Milles . 


00 


10 


Sam Dein 


00 


10 


Hendrik 


00 


10 


Josias AYicjcrens . 


. 00 


10 


Thos Watters . 


00 


12 


Timothy Milles . 


00 


05 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, JAMAICA. 87 

order to the building a inetting howes for y towne of Ja- 
maica ther was choasen John Owkea Samll Dein Saml 
Denton Capt ' Carpenter & John Smith which above s*^ fivel 
men are to devid y^ towne into five squadrans & to see 
timber & stones & lime all gotten & fitted proportionabley 
as shall be nessesary for s^ worke Sam Ruscoe clarke 

Records II. p. 523. 

att a towne mettinge called by order from y^ Justices of 
this County att Jamaica febr y^ 17 169| in order to y* 
chois of two vestrymen persuant to an act of Assembley : 
Nehemiah Smith & William Creed was choasen to be ves- 
trymen for Jamaica & to mett with y" rest of y® vestry- 
men from other tounes with full power with y* rest to 
chuse two churchwardens & to ackt as the s*^ act of As- 
sembly derickts & to meett on tuesday next from this 

date 

pr Samll Ruscoe clarke 

Records II. p. 523. 

At a towne mettinge called accordinge to ordere held at 
Jamaica; Aprill y® S*^ 169 [4] then agreed upon & con- 
firmed by a publique v oatt of y® inhabitants in generalle : 
that Mr Phillipes now our present minister continumg his 
lifietime anongst us in y® above toune in ye worke of y* 
ministry & shall dye amongst us that then their shall be 
paid unto his widow, or relict left amongst us one years 
sallery y^ sallery beinge sixty poundes 

at the same towne mettinge it was likewise agreed that 
y* agreement made betwixt Mr Phillipes & y* townsmen 
shall stand accordinge as it is entered upon record before 
this Records II. p. 494. 

The foregoing list^ is given in full for several reasons. 
It probably presents a pretty accurate catalogue of the 

*■ Pasje 85. 



88 HISTORY OF THE 

freeholders of the town at its date. It was the be- 
ginning of a new method of supporting the minister ; 
that is to say, by voluntary contributions or subscrip- 
tions, rather than by a tax laid on all the inhabitants. 
It shows also that the Dutch Presbyterians cordially 
united with the English in sustaining Divine worship. 
We find Jansen, Ilendrikes, Hegeman, Snedeker, 
uniting with the Dentons, Carpenters, Everitts and 
Smiths. The record clearly implies that " the sumes 
promised to ye minester" were quarterly, not annual 
subscriptions. The appointment of " vestrymen," Feb- 
ruary 17th, 169f , was imder the law passed by the As- 
sembly, the preceding September, that " would not do 
well for the Dissenters, and but lamely for the 
Church." 

July 15 1697 att a towne mettingit was farly agreed by 
lott that y^metting howes shall be betwixt y^ sessions howes 
& ye crossway west of s*^ sessions howes 

Saml Ruscoe dark 

Records II. p. 54.6. 

att a towne metting held January the fui/i 169f it was 
agreed & concluded by voatt that there shall be a church 
erected & bult in this towne & to begine s** worke this nexte 
spring in march ore soneer & to soe follou s*^ Avorke with all 
care ct; dilligence that may be untill it be finishd 

Records I. p, 524. 

att a towne mettinge October y^ 2'^ 1697 : — y^ west end of 
y* town dos condesend that y® mettinge howes shall be sett 
up by or att y^ most convenient jjlace nere y^ pund y^ east 
end pepeoll j)rocuring as good a bell as flatt bush metting 
howes bell is [one line illegible] 

Saml Ruscoe dark 

Jamaica Records, III., 546. 



PRESBYTEEIAN CHUKCII, JAMAICA. 89 

At a towne nietting held at Jamaica the 13*^ of September 
1698 ther Joseph Smith and Jonas Wood was choasen & 
apoynted to treat with his Excelency in & about setthnge 
& estabhshinge Mr Hobert amongst lis in the worke of y^ 
ministry Records I. p. 159. 

At a tomie meetinge held September y^ 13 1698 then was 

deputed [and chosen, erased in original] Capt° Carpenter, 

Capt° Wollsey Jonas Wood Benjamin Thurston Capt 

Whithed Joseph Smith John Smith Edward Burrougs 

John Hansen to carrye on the worke of a church or mett- 

ings house them or the mager partt of them & to see y® 

same truely caryed out & end.ed 

P' Saml Kuscoe dark 

Records I. p. 81. 

At a towne metting called according to order at Jamaica 
aprill the 15 : 1698 the peopell &inhabetants of this towne 
did publicqly signify their redines & willingenes for the 
continuinge Mr Hubertt our present minester in the worke 
of y'' minestry amongst us by holding up ther hands in a 
l^ublicq voat All thes aboves*^ orders signed & past 

Saml Ruscoe clarke 

Records II. p. 524. 

At a towne mettinge held at Jamaica January y^ 4 169f it 
was agreed by voat that John Oke* Richard Oldlield & 
Theodorus Polhemus & Daniel Smith senior shall forth 
[with] take all diligent care in goeinge about amongst the 
neaibourhod to see what money can be raised by a freewill 
offeringe for the buildinge of y^ church in the towne of Ja- 
maica & to make retorne to y^ towne of what sume can be 
Poised Records II. p. 515. 

Whereas ther hath ben severall differances had moven 

* Present pastor's name, key. 



90 HISTOKY OF THE 

and clependinge within the tonne of Jamaica in Queens 
County & Island of Nassau conserning the buldinge or 
errectinge a mettinge howes or church within s*^ town : : & 
as alsoe the accountes & demands & charges thereunto &g 
which with all other controversies had moveing or depend- 
inge or any wais relatinge thereunto being this day mew- 
tually refered by Daniel Whitthead Esq" Joseph Smith 
Esquier Xicolas Eavrett Esq'''" Edward Burrowes Jonas 
Wood : of the one party & Fredrick Hendricksen John 
Okea Will" Creed Hendrik Lott Doros Polhelmus Elderd 
Lewkes & Robertt Read of the other parties on behalf of 
themselves & others conserned have this day referd all the 
said matter & differance in controversy: unto the finall 
hering & determination of John Coe Esq" Judg : Samuell 
Edsall Esq & Content Titus Esq" Justices & we doe for us 
our heires Excecutores & administratores oblidge ourselves 
joyntly & severally in the penal sume of one hundred 
poundes current moneys of New York : unto each other 
his heirs excecutors or adminestratores to be paid unto the 
parties observant by the parties defective in the perform- 
ance of the award of the above s*^ parsones as wittnes our 
hands & seals in Jamaica this 15 of Aprill 1701 & in y^ 13^'' 
yeare of his majest^ reigne y^ 3"^ &c : 

DANIEL WHITHEAD WILL"" CKEED 

NICOLAS EAYERITT HENDRICK LOTT 

JOSEPH SMITH ELDEED LUKES 

JONAS WOOD FREDEIKE HEXDRIKES 

JOHN OKE THEODORUS POLHEMUS 

Signed sealed & delivered in 
presence of 

JOHN HARRISON 

PETER CHACKE [of NewtOWu] 

a true copy p"" Samll Ruscoe Clarke 

Records II. p. SCO. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, JAMAICA. 91 

Jamaica aprill the 15'!l 1701 whereas by vertiie & power 
unto us delliverecl by the within [above] obligation &c to 
heare arbetratt & determine & finall conclution bringe all 
& eavery the controverties therein mentioned : & wee 
havinge dewly & impartially considerd the same : & 
heringe boath parties &c doe give in this our award as fol- 
io weth : viz that wee award all thoos at the west of Jamaica 
that is the Duchmen & William Creed & Robert Read : 
that hath not perfectly & wholly payed their rattes assessed 
for the buldin<ye the church or mettino;e howes in Jamaica : 
shall pay their severall partes unpaid within three weekes 
after this date then them & their heires to be forever ac- 
quitted of any claime or demand whatsover conserninge 
the buldinge or erectinge s*^ church or meetinge howes or 
any disbursments thereon : & the parties conserned in op- 
position to each other in s*^ controversy : to releas Exon- 
eratt & acquitt each other of all former controverties con- 
sernenge s*^ church or mettinge howes : desiringe thay may 
amecably agree & live in love together & this we give in 
as our award as under our hands & scales the above s*^ date. 

JOHN COE 
SAMUELL EDS ALL 
CONTENT TITUS* 

a trew copy p*" Sam'^ Ruscoe clarke 

Records II. p. S61. 

The Mr. Hobert referred to in the record of the 13tb 
of September, 1698, lias been supposed to be the Rev. 

JEREMIAH HOBART 

of Hempstead, to whom an invitation had been pre- 
sented in 1692. As his name is sometimes written 
Hubbert in the Records, and Hiibart, lie has often been 
confounded with the Rev. John Hubbard, his succes- 

* Euling Elder, Newtown. 



92 HISTORY OF THE 

sor. He was a son of the Rev. Peter Hob art, wlio 
came to 'New England in 1635. The late Eev. J. H. Ho- 
bart, D.D., a bishop of the Episcopal Church, is said to 
have sprung from the same family. 

Jeremiah Hobart was but five or six years of age 
when his father emigrated to this country. He studied 
at Harvard, where he graduated in 1650. He com- 
menced his labors as a preacher of the Gospel at Tojds- 
field, Mass., -and was ordained at that place in 1672. 
He was called to Hempstead, May 6th, 1682, after that 
place had been destitute of stated preaching for almost 
twenty-five years. 

In further explanation of this Record, it may be ob- 
served that the Governors of the colony, by their inter- 
pretation of the act of 1693, claimed that no minister 
could be settled without their special license. It was 
this disposition to meddle with ecclesiastical affairs, 
which led very soon after to such unhappy conse- 
quences in Jamaica. 

Mr. Hobart's ministry here was short, not continu- 
ing over one or two years. He went from this place 
to Haddam, Conn., where he was installed, Nov. 14th, 
1700, and where he died on the Lord's Day, March 
17th, 1717, aged 87, having preached on the morning 
of that day. His daughter, Sarah, was the mother of 
the celebrated David Brainard. 

The extracts from tlie records which precede also 
show that the church, the first movement for the 
erection of which was made in 1689, was not completed 
until full ten years after ; and that the work was accom- 
plished, imder no slight embarrassment, which it re- 
quired much pei'severance to overcome. Tlie people 



PKESBYTEKIAN CHURCH, JAMAICA. 93 

were not fully agreed as to the site on which it should 
stand. All the matters in controversy were at length 
referred to the Justices, who brought in that " all those 
at the West of Jamaica, that is Dutchmen & William 
Creed & Robert Read" should pay their assessments, 
and be forever acquitted of any other claims. Thus the 
matter was settled. The stone church was finished and 
paid for, and the vane" — a rude imitation of the Dove, 
sacred emblem ! — that swung to the winds of a cen- 
tury, — began its silent monitions to the passers and 
worshippers below. 

* This vane was formerly in possession of the late Judge Lamberson's 
familj. 



94 HISTOIiT OF THE 



CHAPTEKY. 
1700-1724.. 

JOHN HUBBARD — ORDAIXED IN THE PRESBYTERIAN WAT — VESTRYMEN AND 
CHURCHWARDENS ELECTED — SILAS WOOD, ESQ. — REV. ME. THOMAS, HEMP- 
STEAD — COTTON MATHER ON JAMAICA — CHIEF JUSTICE SMITH ON THB 

JAMAICA TROUBLES — *' WATCH TOWER," LIVINGSTONE, SCOTT AND SMITH 

CORNBURY's ORDERS TO INQUIRE INTO THE RIOT, AND TO MR. HUBBARD TO 
VACATE THE PARSONAGE — ORDER TO WARDENS AND SHERIFF TO SELL THB 
CORN — ORDER TO LAY TAX AND FINE THE WARDENS AND VESTRY FOR RE- 
FUSING — REV. MR. BARTOW's ACCOUNT OF THE RIOT — MR. HUBBARD's 
DEATH — REV. P. GORDON BURIED UNDER THE CHURCH — REV. W. URQUHART 

— REV. F. Goodhue's call and commission — his early death — elegant 

LATIN LINES ON HIM — REV. G. m'nISH CALLED — THE CHURCH TAKEN POS- 
SESSION OF BY THE PRESBYTERIANS — ACCOUNT OF MR. m'nISH — THE PER- 
SECUTION CONTINUES — MEMORIAL OF THE PEOPLE TO THE GOVERNOR — 
S. CLOWES INFORMS OF THE RIOT IN 1710 — ORDERS AND FINES IN RE- 
SPECT TO IT — REV. THOS. POYER — MEMORIAL OF THE CLERGY IN RE- 
SPECT TO HIM — GOV. HUNTER, COL. MORRIS AND COL. HEATHCOTE ON THE 
CHURCH DIFFICULTIES — SUBJECT BROUGHT BEFORE THE QUEEN IN PRIVY 
COUNCIL — THE LAWSUIT — MR. m'nISh's CHARACTER AND SERVICES — HIS 
DEATH — REV. ROBERT CROSS — EJECTMENT SUIT DECIDED AGAINST MR. 
POYER — GOV. BLRNET TO BISHOP OF LONDON — MR, POYEK AND MR. 
CAMPBELL TO SECRETARY — THE CHURCH RECOVERED. 



I 



T was during the ministry of Mr. Robert's successor, 
the Rev. 

JOHN HUBBARD, 

that the memorable controversy for the church property 
commenced. He was born in Ipswich, Mass., in 1677, 
and graduated at Cambridge in 1695. In tlie following 
minute, referred to on a former page, when considering 
the Presbyterial character of the church, his name first 
appears in the records : 



PKESBYTEEIAN CHURCH, JAMAICA. 95 

at a towne mettinge held at Jamaica Nouember the 25 
1700 : it was agreed by voatt that whereas Mr John Hob- 
bertt hath continued here amongs us in this towne in the 
present worke of the minestry sume considerrable time the 
town dos show ther wiUino-nes to continue him still & to 
have him ordained acordingly provided it be accordinge to 
y*" Rule & way of the jDresbetterrine way & it is the unan- 
omoss mind of the towne thot he be ordained Acordingly 
& that every man shall pay towardes the ordaination as 
much as he shall see cos to pay. 

By Samuall Ruscoe dark 

Records II. p. 454. 

As Mr. Hubbard continued at Jamaica, it is to be 
presumed he complied with the terms of the above 
vote, and was ordained "according to the rule and 
way of the Presbyterian way." It is not improbable 
he was ordained and "inducted" by the Dutch minis- 
ters of i!^ew York. 

Under the act of 1693, for the settling of the minis- 
try, Queens County was divided into two precincts or 
parishes. The parish of Jamaica included the towns 
of Jamaica, Flushing, and l!^ewtown, and w\as required 
to raise £G0 by a tax on all the freeholders, for the 
support of the ministry, and to elect churchwardens 
and vestrymen. Vestrymen were accordingly chosen in 
Jamaica February 17th, 1693-4:, to meet with others to 
be chosen from the other towns. Nehemiah Smith and 
William Creed were chosen, but it does not appear 
that any thing was done by them in this capacity. 
They were elected, probably, to comply with the terms 
of the law, but the law itself remained dormant, to all 
intents and purposes, nntil the accession of Cornbm*y 



96 HISTORY OF THE 

to the government. In January, 1702, vestrymen and 
churchwardens were again chosen (all Presbyterians, 
of course), and the following month they proceeded, as 
empowered by the act, to call Mr. Hubbard, who was 
already their minister, to be the minister of the place. 
For forty years the people of Jamaica had been of one 
mind in matters ecclesiastical ; and, up to the date just 
mentioned, it is not probable that a single Episcopalian 
had settled in the town. '' There was not," says the 
late Silas "Wood, Esq.,*^ " an Episcopalian church or an 
Episcopal minister in the colony of New York, at the 
time of the conquest in 1664, and if there were any 
Episcopalians among the inhabitants, the number must 
have been very small. The inhabitants belonged 
either to the Dutch Reformed Church, or were English 
]^on-conformists." The Episcopal population w^as very 
much confined, at first, to the city of New York ; and 
the first Episcopal church in the province was erected 
in that city in 1696. The Eev. Mr. Yesey, the first 
Episcopal minister, performed divine service, for the 
first time, in Trinity Church, February 6th, 1697. '' Al- 
though the statutes of uniformitv," continues Wood, 
" did not extend to the colonies, and although the re- 
ligious constitution of the colonyf was a perfect equal- 
ity among Protestants of all denominations, yet the 
colony governors strove to give some legal ascendancy 
to the Episcopal over other denominations. They in- 
corporated their churches, which they refused to the 
Presbyterians. They 'obstructed the Presbyterian min- 
isters who came into the colony, in the exercise of their 
functions, and, under the pretence of ecclesiastical au- 

* Hist, of L. I., p. 41. t See Charter. 



PKESBYTEKIAN CHTJKCH, JA^IAICA. 97 

thoritj, required them to apply to tliern for license to 
preach." As late as 1773, according to the same au- 
thor, not more than one in lifteen of the population of 
the colonj^ were supposed to be Episcopalians. The 
people nevertheless were taxed to support the Episco- 
pal ministry, exclusively, under the act of 1693; an act 
which the Assembly declared was passed for the bene- 
fit of the Dutch Eeformed and the Presbyterians, 
equally as for the Episcopalians. 

It is admitted that the old stone meeting-house and 
parsonage were built by the town, and the parsonage 
lands were given by the town ; but this was done when 
the inhabitants were all of substantially the same re- 
ligious faith. This property, it may be remarked in 
passing, ^vas valuable :* according to a letter of Cotton 
Mather to Messrs. Eobinson and Keynolds, of London, 
the parsonage alone w^as estimated to be worth fifteen 
hundred pounds. The valuable glebe attached is, no 
doubt, to be included in this estimate. There is not 
the least evidence that there was a single member of 
tlie Church of England residing in Jamaica at the time 

* Extract of a Report on the State of the Church in the Province of New 
York, Anno 1704, submitted to the Society for Propagating the Gospel in 
Foreign Parts, by C. Congreve. 

" Queens County : 

" At Jamaica there is a tolerable good church built of stone, a Parsonage 
house, an orchard and 200 acres of land belonging to it, and £60 per ann 
settled by Act of Assembly for maintenance of the minister who is Mr Wil 
ham Urquhart, lately arrived. There is in the Church a Common Prayer 
Book and a cushion, but no vestments nor vessels for the communion table 
The churchwardens and vestry are chosen by a majority of the parish, who 

are chiefly [blank in the MS] and the churchwardens, when chosen 

would never qualify themselves according to law, and refuse soon to pro- 
vide bread and wine for the Holy Sacrament, at which there is now about 
twenty communicants, in a great measure brought over to an entire con- 
formity by the Rev. Mr. Mott. There is in this parish near 200C souls." 
5 



98 HISTOEY OF THE 

the church was built ; much less when this property 
was set apart for the support of a minister. The Rev. 
Mr. Thomas, missionary at Hempstead, thus wrote to 
the Society for Propagating the Gospel in Foreign 
Parts, March 1st, 1705: "The people of Hempstead 
are better disposed to peace and civility than they are 
at Jamaica, yet my lord's (Cornbury's) countenance, 
next to the Providence of Heaven, is my chiefest safe- 
ty. I have scarce a man in the parish, truly steady 
and real to the interest and promotion of the church, 
any further than they aim at the favour or dread the 
displeasure of his lordship." If there was scarce a man 
at Hempstead favorable to " the Church," where the 
people were so much better disposed than at Jamaica, 
it is absurd to maintain that " churchmen," could have 
had any hand in building the church, or a valid claim 
to any of the church property in this place. It is 
not improbable there were some here, as at Hemp- 
stead, who, after the strenuous exertions of the mission- 
aries for four or live years, and the violent acts of 
usurpation on the part of the governor, would, to secure 
the favour of his lordship, profess to be Episcopalians. 
The following is an extract of a joint letter, dated July 
4th, 1705, of Messrs. Urquhart, of Jamaica, and Tho- 
mas, of Hempstead, to the Society : "The ancient set- 
tlers have transplanted themselves from Isew England, 
and do still keep a close correspondence, and are buoy- 
ed up by schismatical instruction"^ from that interest, 

* Cotton Mather's Letter to Messrs. Robinson and Reynolds shows that 
he took ^ deep interest in the affairs of the church at Jamaica. The follow- 
ing is an extract: " At the same time there is a town called Jamaica, on 
Long Island, under the government aforesaid; a town consisting of consid- 
erably above an hundred families, and exemplary for all Christian know 



PKESBTTEKIAN CHURCH, JAMAICA. 99 

which occasions all the disturbance and opposition we 
meet with in both our parishes. They have hitherto 
been used to a dissenting ministry, and they still sup- 
port one at Jamaica, which has a most pestilential in- 
fluence over our people, who, from their cradles were 
disaffected to conformity." J^othing, therefore, can be 
more evident than that those who had been trained up 
under "a dissenting ministry," and who were disaffect- 
ed to conformity from their cradles, were the men who 
built the church and gave the property in question. 
To some account of the controversy which took place 
respecting this property, and which lasted for twenty- 
five years, T shall now proceed. 

I quote first from the History of 'New York by Wm. 
Smith, formerly of I^ew York, and late Chief Justice 
of Lower Canada. 

" The summer following (the arrival of Lord Cornbury, 
in 1702,) was remarkable for the uncommon mortality 
which prevailed in the city of New York, and makes a 
grand epoch among our inhabitants distinguished by the 
' time of great sickness.' On this occasion Lord Cornbury 

ledge and goodness, and a church with a worthy pastor in it. About half a 
score of families (and of meaner character) in this town declared for the 
Church of England, and thereupon a minister of their profession was sent 
to them (one Urquhart), who is maintained by the aforesaid society. But 
this little company having the advantage (right or wrong) to be uppermost, 
took away from the dissenters (if it be proper to call such a disproportionate 
number so) their meeting-house, computed to be worth six hundred pounds, 
and compelled them to build another. They also seized the Parsonage, 
vehich had been until now enjoyed by the town, and is esteemed worth fif- 
teen hundred pounds. — The good people there do adorn the doctrine of God 
their Saviour by a most laudable silence and wonderful patience under 
these things. But if such things proceed, that noble Society for the Prop- 
agation of Religion in America will greatly wound religion, and their own 
reputation also, which ought to be for ever venerable." This was dated 14th 
October, 1706. 



100 HISTORY OF THE 

had his residence and court at Jamaica, a j^leasant village 
on Long Island, distant about twelve miles from the 
city.* 

cc * * * rpj^g inhabitants of Jamaica had erected an 
edifice for the worship of God, and enjoyed a handsome 
donation of a parsonage-house and glebe, for the use of their 
minister. After the ministry act was passed by Colonel 
Fletcher, in 1693, a few Episcopalians crept into the town, 
and viewed the Presbyterian church with a jealous eye. 
The town vote, in virtue of which the building had been 
erected, contained no clause to prevent its being hereafter 
engrossed by any other sect. The Episcopal party, wiio 
knew this, formed a design of seizing the edifice for them- 
selves, w^hich they shortly after carried into execution by 
entering the church between the morning and evening 
service, while the Presbyterian minister and his congrega- 
tion were in perfect security, unsuspicious of the zeal of 
their adversaries, and a fraudulent ejectment on a day 
consecrated to sacred rest. 

" Great outrage ensued among the people, for the con- 
tention being jpro Aris et Focis, was animating and im- 
portant. The original proprietors of the house tore up their 
seats, and afterwards got the key and the possession of the 
church, which were shortly after again taken from them 
by force and violence. In these controversies the Governor 
abetted the Episcopal zealots, and harrassed the others by 
numberless prosecutions, heavy fines, and long imprison- 
ments, through fear of which many who had been active 
in the dispute, fled out of the province. Lord Cornbury's 
noble descent and education should have prevented him 
from taking part in so ignominious a quarrel; but his 

* Four horse-carts and sixteen wagons were hired to go from Jamaica 
to Brooklyn Ferry for Gov. Cornbury's efiects, and a horse for the trumpeter. 
— Mr. Ouderdouk's MS Notes. 



PKESBYTEKTAIS' CHURCH, JAMAICA. 101 

lordship's sense of honour and justice was as weak and 
indelicate as his bigotry was rampant and incontrollable ; 
and hence we find him guilty of an act complicated of a 
number of vices, which no man could have perpetrated 
without violence to the very slightest remains of generosity 
and justice. When his excellency retired to Jamaica, Mr. 
Hubbard, the Presbyterian minister, lived in the best 
house of the town. His lordship begged the loan of it 
for the use of his own family, and the clergyman put him- 
self to no small inconvenience to favour the governor's 
request ; but in return for the generous benefaction, his 
lordship perfidiously delivered the parsonage-house into 
the hands of the Episcopal party, and encouraged one 
Cardwell, the sherifi^, a mean fellow, who afterwards put 
an end to his own life, to seize upon the glebe, which he 
surveyed into lots, and farmed for the benefit of the 
Episcopal party. These tyrannical measures justly in- 
flamed the indignation of the injured sufferers, and that 
again the more embittered his lordship against them. 
They resented, and he prosecuted : nor did he confine his 
pious rage to the people of Jamaica ; he detested all who 
were of the same denomination ; nay, averse to every sect 
except his own, he insisted that neither the ministers nor 
schoolmasters of the Dutch, the most numerous persuasion 
in the province, had a right to preach or instruct without 
his gubernatorial license ; and some of them tamely sub- 
mitted to his unauthoritative rule." — Vol. I. pp. 169-172. 

I quote next from 'No. 17 of a Series of Articles, 
under the head of " Watchtower," contained in the IN'ew 
York Mercury for June 2, 1755. These Articles, ^vere 
written by Wm. Livingstone, J. Morin Scot, - and Wm. 

* Brig.-General in tlie Revolution, Member of the Continental Congress, of 
the State Senate, and Secretary of the State, Died September 16th, 1784. On- 
derdouk's Rev. Incidents, Queens Co. p. 67. 



102 HISTORY OF THE 

Smith,* wlio gave £50 a year for the use of the first 
page of the aforesaid paper. 

"Mr. Hubbard, the Presbyterian minister, having preach- 
ed to his congregation on Sunday morning, dismissed 
them as usual, aUogether unsuspicious of anv" evil designs 
against him or his peoj^le. In the afternoon he returned 
to his church, and, to his great surprise and astonishment, 
found an Episcopal clergyman, a person doubtless of a 
very pacific spirit, reading the liturgy to a handful of 
auditors Avho had devoutly seated themselves in the pews. 
Mr. Hubbard had not the least intimation of the trick, till 
he had actually entered the church, and upon the discovery 
of it left his pious successor to the sole possession of the 
pulpit, whilst he himself peaceably retired to an orchard, 
where he preached a sermon to the graver part of his 
congregation, who followed him. All of them were not 
such passive, self-denying Christians : a tumult began at 
the church-door, and many ran in and tore up the seats of 
their families, for which some were afterwards rigorously 
prosecuted, and others who escaj^ed underwent a year's 
banishment. 

" Xot long after this pious ejectment, the Presbyterians 
got the key of the church, regained possession, and locked 
up the doors. But early in the morning on the following 
Sabbath, several heroic Episcopalians, with proper instru- 
ments f for the purpose, forcibly broke open the church- 
doors, and retained possession till the parson attended the 
public service. The Presbyterians after this made several 
fruitless attempts to possess themselves of then- church, 
but the prosecutions which ensued on their endeavors were 
so heavy that they thought proper to desist from any fur- 

* The Historian. 

t Mr. Faitoute says in his MS history, written in 1793, he had been in- 
formed by an aged gentleman that a crowbar was used. 



PRESBYTEKIAN CHUECH, JAMAICA. 103 

ther attempts, and the Episcopalians held the possession 
of it for nineteen or twenty years after, till it Avas recovered 
from them, with the parsonage-house and glebe, in a due 
course of law, about the year 1727. 

" His excellency Gov. Morris, was then Chief Judge of 
the Supreme Court of New York, and sat on the bench at 
that trial. Such was the resentment of the Church party 
on the loss of the verdict, that Morris himself did not 
escape their malignant asi3ersions, but, so late as 1734, was 
put to the trouble of refuting the charge of partiality on 
the trial, contained in a public representation, sent home 
aginst him while he was in England, soliciting his restora- 
tion to the Chief Justice's place, from which Governor 
Cosby had removed him. 

" The parsonage-house and glebe were taken away in a 
manner not so violent, yet more iniquitous. Lord Corn- 
bury, to flee the dreadful mortality which triumphed in 
New York City, in 1 702, retired to Jamaica, and in a 
friendly manner entreated Mr. Hubbard for the use of the 
parsonage-house during his stay in the country. The 
clergyman generously put himself to inconvenience to 
oblige him. On his return to New York, Lord Cornbury 
put the church party in possession of the house. 

" Usage so base enkindled resentment in almost every 
man's breast, and the country was full of strife and con- 
tention. Cardwell, the sherift', under protection of Lord 
Cornbury, was a great instrument of his arbitrary measures. 
He seized the glebe, surveyed and divided it into lots, 
which he leased out for the benefit of the Episcopal de- 
nomination. Every attempt to recover their rights 
plunged the people into new difliculties : they were indicted 
and informed against, fined and imprisoned ; and many, 
to escape the fury of the Government, fled into the neigh- 
bourins: colonies. 



104 HISTORY OF THE 

"Incensed at last by a series of oppressions, the civil 
vestry and church-wardens of Jamaica, Avho were elected 
by the major vote of the inhabitants, called Mr. McNish, a 
Presbyterian clergyman, to be their minister, hoping 
thereby to exempt themselves from the annual tax, raised 
by virtue of the Ministry Act, passed March, 1693. The 
project, for several years, had its expected success. The 
vestrymen, to aA'oid the censure of the law, annually raised 
the salary as had been usual. But Mr. McNish refused to 
receive it, though fir the greatest part was a tax on his 
own congregation, and as often as it was offered, presented 
it to the people according to their proportionable assess- 
ments. Offended at this stratagem, the Episcopalians con- 
trived to defeat it, and again recover the tax for their own 
benefit. To that end the justices of Hempstead, w^ho 
were creatures of the Governor, arbitrarily intruded their 
votes amongst the A^estry of Jamaica, and carried a major 
voice for appropriating the salary to the church parson. But 
as their right of sitting there w^as protested against by the 
vestry. Lord Cornbury, to secure a major vote foi" the 
Episcopal minister, commissioned no less than sixteen 
Justices of the Peace for the single parish of Jamaica. 
This artifice was effectual, the number of vestrymen, 
church-wardens and justices being only tw^elve. But w hat 
right these tools of arbitrary powder had by virtue of the 
Act of Assembly, or any other law, to vote with the vestry 
for the support of a minister whom they had not called, 
remains to this day an inexplicable mystery." 



PEESBYTEKIAN- CHUECH, JAMAICA. 105 

ORDER 

To the Atorney GeriK to enquire into a riot at Jamaica. 

At a Council held at ffort Anne this 21th day 

of July 1703. 

Present — His Excell. Edward Viscount Cornbury, &c., 

Rip Van Dam Esqr 

John Bridges Do' of Laws 
Sa : Sh : Bronghton ^ 

William Lawrence '[> Esqrs 

Gerard Beekman j 

His Excell. acquainted this Board with tw^o Letters from 
Jamaica in Queens County, giving an acco' of a Riott 
committed there by one Hubbard a Dissenting Minister 
and others of the inhabitants of the said Town. Ordered 
that the Attorney Gen" doe enquire into the facts, and as 
they shall appear to him prosecute the persons according 
to Law. 

By order of his Excell. in Councill, 

B. CosEiS^s, C^ Councij 
Endorsed, Order of Councill of the Tlih July 1703 
For the Attorney Generall. 

LORD CORNBURY's ORDER 

To Rev Mr Huhhard to vacate the Parsonage house. 

By his Excellency Edward Viscount Cornbury Capt Genii. 

and Governour in chief of the Province of New Yorke 

New Jersey cCr., &c. 

You are hereby Required to dehver the Possession of 
the house Lands and p'misses wheron you now dwell and 
which belongs to the church of Jamaica in Queens County 
to y« high sherife of the said County after a reasonable 
time for removing your goods and stock from the p-'misses 
and hereof you are not to fail at your perill. Given under 
5* 



106 HISTORY OF THE 

my hand att fort Anne in New Yorke this fourth day of 

July 1704, CORXBURY. 

To Mr John Huhbard 



AN ORDER TO THE SHERIFF, 

To eject Rev. Mr Huhhard from his house in Jamaica. 

By His Excellency Edward Viscount Cornhury Capt Gen^^ 

and Goven'' in Chief of the Province of New Yorke New 

Jersey (he. 

Whereas by my order under my hand dated herewith I 
haA^e ordered M"" John Hubbard to deliver the possession 
of the house land j/misses whereon he now dwells and 
which belongs to the church of Jamaica in Queens County 
to you after a reasonable time for removing his goods and 
stock from the p''misses. You are therefore hereby requi- 
red to deliver the possession of the s*^ p''misses after you 
have received it from the s"^ Mr Hubbard to Mr William 
Urquhart and if it happen that y* s*^ Mr Hubbard shall in 
contempt of my said order refuse to deliver y^ possession 
of the p'misses to you as aff'd, then and in such case you 
are hereby required & impowered to enter on y® p''misses, 
and possession so taken to deliver to the said Mr Urquhart 
and all Justices of the Peace and others her Majty's officers 
both civil and military are hereby required to be aiding 
and assisting unto you at the execution hereof. 

Given under my hand att fort Anne in New Yorke this 
fourth day of July 1704 Cornbury 

To Tho : Cardell Esqr 

High Sheriff e of Queens County 

Endorsed, 

An order to the 

High Sheriff e of Queens County 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, JAMAICA. 107 
AN ORDER 

To the Church wardens and sheriff of Jamaica^ By his 
Mvcell. Edward Viscount Cornbury Capt Gei\}^ and Gov"" 
in Chief of the 'provinces of New Yorke New Jersey d'c. 

You and every one of you are hereby required forthw**" 
to sell and dispose for y^ best price and advantage that 
Cann be made and gotten the Corn collected by or deliver- 
ed to you or any or either of you for the maintenance and 
benefit of the Minister of Jamaica and y« moneys thereof 
made to retain in your hands untill you Receive further 
orders from me for the payment of the same to the uses for 
w''^ the s*^ corn was delivered to you and hereof you are not 
to faile att your Perill Given under my hand att fort 
Anne in New Yorke this 4th day of July 1704 

Cornbury 

To the Church Wardens of the Church of 

Jamaica and to the High Sheriff e of 

Queens County. 

AN ORDER 

To the Justices^ and Church Wardens of Jamaica By his 
Excell. Edward Viscount Cornbury Capt Gen^^ and Gov*" 
in Chief of the Provinces of New Yorke, New Jersey, 
<&c. 

You are hereby Required to pay y^ moneys made 
of y^ corn collected for the maintenance of a Minister for 
the town of Jamaica in Queens County and w''^ remains in 
your hands to the Rev Mr William Urquahart and for soe 
doing this shall be your sufficient warrant. Given under my 

* Cornbury commissioned sixteen Justices for the single parish of Ja- 
maica, who intruded their votes amongst the Vestry, and thus secured a 
majority for appropriating the salary to the church parson. 



108 HISTOKT OF THE 

hand att iFort Anne in Xew Yorke tliis tAventy eighth day of 
August 1704 

CORXBURT 

To the Jmtices of the Peace for Queena County 
and to the Vefitrymen and Church Wardens 
of the Cnifrch of Jamaica in the said 
County. 

AX ORDER 

To the Justices and Vestrymen to levy a tax for the Minister of 
Jamaica, By his Excellency Edward Viscount Cornbury 
Capt Gen" and Govern'' in Chief of y' Provinces (f Kew 
York New Jersey c&c. 

You are hereby required forthwith to lay a tax on the 
Inhabitants of Queens County for raising the maintenance 
for the Minister of Jamaica in the said County for this pre- 
sent year and the said tax laid to levy and collect or cause 
to be Levyed and collected pursuant to the act of assembly 
passed in the sixth Session of Generall Assembly begun 
the 12th day of September 1693 Entituled an act for 
settling a Ministry and raising a maintenance for them in 
the Citty of New York, County of Richmond, Westchester 
and Queens County and hereof you are not to faile. Given 
under my hand at ffort Anne in Xew York this twenty 
fourth day of August 1704. 
To the Justices of the Peace of Queens County 
and the Vestrymen of the Church of Ja- 
maica in the said County. 

ORDER 

To Fine the Churchwardens., Etc., For Refusing to Levy said 

Tax. 

[Council Min. IX.] 

In Council ^\ March 1705 
The Churchwardens and Yestry of Jamaica being sum- 



TEESBYTEEIAN CHUECH, JAMAICA. 109 

moned to appear before this Board this day and Robert 
Coe one of the Church Wardens & John Tahiian Henry 
Wright Samuel Carpenter Sam' Higby Anthony W^aters 
John Everett John Coe Jonathan Hazard & Daniel Law- 
rence nine of the Yestry appearing accordingly they were 
called in and examined concerning their neglecting or re- 
fusing to raise a tax for the maintenance of the Minister of 
that place directed to be raised for that purpose by Act of 
Gen" Assembly of this Province and having offered nothing 
to this Board in their Justification it is ordered that the 
Penaltyes expressed and contained in the said Act be 
Levyed pursuant to the directions thereof on every one of 
them y" s*^ Churchwardens & Vestry so neglecting or re- 
fusing to do their duty as aforesaid. 

Rev. Mr. Bartow to the Sec. of the So c. for Propagating the 
Gospelin Foreign Parts. 

W. Chester ISTew York, 1st Dec. 1707. 
To THE Sec. 

Sir, after a voyage of 11 weeks we arrived at New York 
Sep. 29, 1702, where we found a very mournful town, 
nearly 20 persons dying daily, for some months. I went 
next day to Col. Graham's, Westchester, and on Monday 
returned to New York. Mr. Vesey got me to preach for 
him on the appointed fast that week. I preached there or 
at Westchester every Sunday till Lord Cornbury returned 
from Albany, when I went to Jamaica to wait on his Lord- 
ship (who went there by reason of the sickness in New 
York) to deliver him my credentials, and receive his com- 
mands, which were to continue in Westchester and the 
first half year being winter I lodged at a public house 
preaching once every Sunday and upon occasion visiting 
the sick. After winter was over, I lived at Col. Graham's 
six miles from the Church and all the summer preacht 



110 HISTOKT OF THE 

twice every Sunday, sometimes at West Chester and some- 
times at Jamaica on Long Island about - miles distant 
from Mr. Graham's at my own charge, nor have I had any 
board given me since I came, and once I met with great 
disturbance at Jamaica. Mr. Hobbart, their Presbyterian 
minister, having been for some time at Boston returned to 
Jamaica the Saturday night as I came to it, and sent to me 
at my lodging (being then in company with our Chief 
Justice Mr. Mompesson and Mr. Carter her Majesty's 
Comptroller) to know if I intended to preach on the mor- 
row. I sent him answer that I did intend it. — The next 
morning the bell rang as usual, but before the last time of 
ringing Mr. Hobbart was got into the Church, and had 
begun his service of which notice was given me whereupon 
I went into the Church and walked straightway to the 
pew expecting Mr. Hobbart would desist being he knew I 
had orders from the Government to officiate there, but he 
persisted and I forbore to make any interruption. In the 
afternoon I prevented him beginning the service of the 
Church of England, before he came who was so surprised 
when after he came to the church door and saw me per- 
forming divine service that he suddenly started back and 
went aside to an orchard hard by, and sent in^some to give 
the word that Mr. Hobbart would preach under a tree, 
then I perceived a whispering thro' the church and an un- 
easiness of many people some going out, some seemed 
amazed not yet determined whether to go or stay. In the 
mean time some that had gone out returned again for their 
seats and then we had a shameful disturbance : haulinof and 
tugging of seats, shoving one the other off, carrying them 
out and returning again for more, so that I was fain to 
leave off till the disturbance was over, and a separation 
was made by which time I had but about half of the con- 
gregation, the rest remaining devout and attentive the 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, JAISIAICA. Ill 



whole time of the service ; after which we lock't the church 
door and committed the key into the hands of the sheriff; 
we were no sooner got mto an adjoining house but some per- 
sons came to demand the key of their meeting-house which 
being denied they went and broke the glass window, and 
put a boy in to open the door and so put in their seats and 
took away the pew-cushion saying they would keep that 
however for their own minister ; the scolding and wrang- 
ling that ensued are by me ineffable. The next time I saw 
my Lord Cornbury he thanked me and said he would do 
the church and me justice, accordingly he summoned Mr. 
Hobbart and the head of the faction before him and forbad 
Mr. Hobbart ever more to preach in that Church, for in 
regard it was built by a public tax it did appertain to the 
established church (which it has quietly remained ever 
since and now in possession of our Rev'd Brother, Mr. Ur- 
quhart.) My Lord Cornbury threatened them all with the 
penalty of the statute for disturbing divine service, but up- 
on their submission and promise of future quietness and 
peace he pardoned the offence." 

How the youthful pastor was affected by such trou- 
bles as these we are not informed. His conduct, when 
he so unexpectedly found the Rev. Mr. Bartow reading 
the liturgy in his pulpit, in retiring to an adjoining orch- 
ard, and inviting his people to accompany him, there to 
worship Him who dwelleth not in temples made with 
hands, proves him to have been an amiable and discreet 
man. It is not improbable, however, that the failure of 
his health had some connection with his peculiar trials. 
He died at the early age of twenty-eight years. In the 
Boston " News Letter," No. 79, October 22, 1705, ap- 
peared the following : 

" Jamaica on Long Island, Oct. 11. On Fry day, the 5th 



112 HISTOKT OF THE 

current, dyed here the Rev. Mr. John Hubbard, Pastor of 
a Church in this place, aged 28 years 9 months, wanting 
4 days." 

Thompson says respecting him : " He was one of tlie 
most excellent and amiable youths which 'New Eng- 
land produced, and liis death was extensively and 
deeply lamented." He was the fii'st minister buried 
in this town. But no monument or headstone marks 
the spot where his ashes repose. 

Tlie Presbyterian congregation, after they had been 
excluded from their church edifice, worshipped, as Mr. 
Faitoute says^ he had been told by aged people, in a 
building at the eastern extremity of the village. In 
1702, the Rev. Patrick Gordon, the first Episcopalian 
minister, arrived from England; but he died before he 
could be inducted, "and was buried," says Dr. Hum- 
phreys, Secretar}^ to the Honorable Society, in his His- 
tory of the Society, " in a Meeting-House in Jamaica." 
The Rev. Mr. Bartow, of Westchester, as we have 
shown, by a letter from his own hand, is undoubtedly 
entitled to the honour of having figured so conspicu- 
ously in the afiPair of taking possession of Mr. Hub- 
bard's pulpit. After Mr. Gordon's death, Mr. Yesey, 
the first rector of Trinity Church, N. Y., supplied Ja- 
maica with " constant lectures ;"t and other Episcopal 
ministers in the province rendered occasional services. 
A Mr. Honeyman, against whom chargesij: seriously af- 
fecting his moral character had been made, and a Mr. 
Mott, severally preached for a short time, when the 
Rev. William Urquhart arrived, and was inducted as 

* MS Hist. t Petition of the clergy to the Bishop of London. 
X Mr. Urquhart's Letter to the Sec. of the V. S. 



PKESBYTEEIAN CHUECH, JAMAICA. 113 

rector Jiilj 4tli, 1704. Mi- Hnl)bard was, at that time, 
in possession of the parsonage ; but lie was ofdered by 
Cornbnry, " to deliver np the same to Mr. Uiqnliart, 
wliich accordingly was done qnietlj and peaceabh',"^ 
and Mr. Urqnhart remained in possession till his death, 
which took place in Angnst, 1709. The Rev. 

FRANCIS GOODHUE 

was Mr. Hubbard's successor in the ministry. It would 
not have been surprising if the congregation, their 
church and parsonage occupied by others, and their 
minister in the g-rave, had remained for some time in a 
destitute and scattered condition. Such was the effect 
of similar arbitrar}^ proceedings at Hempstead. Mr. 
Goodhue was settled the year following Mr. Hubbard's 
death. f He was a native of the same place, and pro- 
bably had been a companion of Hubbard in childhood, 
as he was but one year younger. He was a sou 

* Petition of Epis. Clergj. 
t rev'd MR, Goodhue's commissiox. 
As Presbyterian minister of Jamaica L. I. 
[Deed Book X.] 
By His Excellency Edward Viscount Cornhury Capt GerO- & Gov"^ in Chief of 
ye Provinces of N YorJc, I\ew Jersey & of all the Territories & Tracts of Land 
Deiiending thereon in America & Vice Admiral of the same &c. 
To Mr. Francis Goodhue, Greeting : 

I do hereby Licence k Tollerate you to be Minist"" of the Presbyterian Con- 
gregation at Jamaica in Queens County on the Island of Nassau in the 
sd Province of New Yorke k to have k Exercise the fFree Liberty k use of 
yo'" Religion pursuant to Her Matys pleasure therein signified to me In her 
Royal Instructions & during so Long Time as to me shall seem meet k 
all Ministers k others are hereby Required to take notice hereof. Given 
under my hand and scale at fibrt Anne in New York this day of this in- 
stant January in the fFonrth year of Her Matys Reign Annoq : Dmi 1705-6 

CORNBURY 

By His Excys Command 

William Anderson B secy 



114 HISTORY OF THE 

of Deacon William and Hannah Goodhue, and was 
born in Chebecca parish, Ipswich, Mass., October 4:th, 
1678. His grandfather, William, was one of the most 
influential and respectable men in the colony of Mass- 
achusetts, whose "many virtues" are said to have 
" conferred honour upon his name and family." Fran- 
cis Goodhue graduated at Harvard in 1699, and was 
settled at Jamaica in 1706. At the close of the sum- 
mer of 1707, he went from this place on a journey to 
l^ew England ; little did he or his people think that he 
was to return no more. He died of fever on his way, 
at Eehoboth, Mass., near Providence, R. I., where he 
was buried. Seekonk was the Indian name of the 
place ; and in 1812 its western section was incorpo- 
rated as a separate town, and is now called by this 
name. 

The ministry of Hubbard, and that of Goodhue, 
were short, but they were doubtless eminently useful 
in keeping the congregation together, under its adverse 
circumstances. It is deeply affecting to contemplate 
the situation of the congregation called thus to mourn 
over the early graves of two ministers who, having 
been pleasant and lovely in their lives, in death were 
not far divided. 

The following elegant lines on Mr. Goodhue are 
taken from the Boston " I^ews Letter " of February 
28, 1723. 



'5 



Libertas nomen ; bonitas conjuncta colori 
Cognomen praebent ; Insula Longa gregem. 

ISTascitur Ipsvici ; dissolvitur inter eundum ; 
Seconchse lecto molliter ossa cubant. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, JAMAICA. 115 

• 

Doctrina, officiiim, pietas, adamata juventus, 
Nil contra jussam convaluere necem, 
Pars potior sedes procedit adire beatas 
Gaudens placato semper adesse Deo. 

Which may be thus translated : 

Liberty [Francis] gives him a name ; good joined to hue 
a surname; Long Island a flock. Born at Ipswich, he dies 
whilst travelling. His bones softly repose in their bed at 
Seekonk. Learning, sacred ofiice, j)iety, amiable youth 
could avail nothing against death decreed. The immortal 
part enters into Paradise, rejoicing to be forever in the 
presence of God reconciled. 

For two or three years the congregation appears to 
have been vacant, but in the spring* of 1710, the Kev. 

GEORGE McNISH 

was called to be minister. He was a native of Scot- 
land or Ireland, and came to this country in 1705, with 
the Rev. Francis Makemie, often styled the father of 
the Presbyterian Church in this country. The Rev. 
John Hampton came, at the same time, with Mr. 
McNish, both of them no doubt induced by Mr. Ma- 
kemie, who had resided many years in this country, and 
who visited Europe expressly to prevail on ministers 
to come and settle here. Messrs. Makemie and 
Hampton were the two Presbyterian Ministers who 
were imprisoned and fined by Lord Cornbury in 1706 
for preaching without a license from him. Mr. Hamp- 
ton was arrested at Newtown, where he had preached, 

* The case of , and opinion &c. referred to in Gov. Hunter's Letter* 

25th Feb., 1711. 



116 HISTORY OF THE 

and was bronglit to Jamaica and imprisoned in the 
Presbyterian Clnircli over niglit; and, the next day, 
marched to Xew York. 

In June, 1706, by order of Gov. Seymour, of Mary- 
land, the Somerset County Court licensed Messrs. 
Mc^ish and Hampton. 

Upon the removal of Col. Ingolsby, who adminis- 
tered the government for a short time after the death 
of Lord Lovelace in 1709, the Supreme authority de- 
volved on Gerardus Beekman, Esq., President of the 
Council. lie was not under the influence of the big- 
otry which had actuated the English governors, and 
the Presbyterians at once availed themselves of the op- 
portunity to take possession of their church. There 
was no Episcopal incumbent at that time, the place 
being supplied " every other Sunday by the Rev. Mr. 
Yesey, Mr. Sharp, and the missionaries in the province 
of New York," ^ Soon after, and before the arrival of 
an Episcopal minister for the place, the parsonage 
and glebe also passed into the possession of the Pres- 
byterians, the rightful proprietors, and, notwithstanding 
the strenuous efforts that were made, never again were 
wrested from them. Possession was secured in the 
following manner : the parsonage was tenanted by the 
widow of Mr. Urquhart; she surrendered it to the 
representatives of the Presbyterian congregation, but 
was soon afterwards re-admitted as a tenant to them. 
Her daughter had married a young student of theology, 
a Presbyterian, of the name of Wolsey, who resided 
with her. She remained their tenant until the Presby- 
terian minister was ready to take possession. 

* Mr. Bartow's Letter to the Secretary of the Ven. Society. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, JAMAICA. 117 

It was during the brief occupancy of the church 
edifice, in the spring of 1710, that the wardens and 
vestrymen of Jamaica, who were Presbyterians, gave 
a call to Mr. McNish. This gentleman was one of 
the original members of the Presbytery of Philadelphia, 
the first formed in America. He preached first to the 
people at Monokin and Wicomico, in Maryland, who 
presented a call to him ; but it appears from the minutes 
of the Presbytery held in lYlO, that Mr. McNish had 
not, at that time, accepted the call. At the meeting of 
the Presbytery in ITII, the call from Jamaica was put 
into his hands, and " 'twas determined to leave his af- 
fair respecting Jamaica and Patuxent to himself, with 
advice not to delay to fix himself somewhere." This 
minute makes it quite evident that he never became 
the settled pastor at Monokin. Some time in 1711, he 
became the minister of Jamaica ; although there can 
be no doubt he had frequently supplied the place dur- 
ing the preceding year. 

The Presbyterians, however, were not long permit- 
ted to retain the use of their house of worship. Their 
adversaries succeeded in ejecting them ; and six of 
their number were arrested and brought before the 
magistrates. They were, however set at liberty, on 
their own recognizances to appear at the next sessions. 
They were fined only three shillings each, and even 
their fines were remitted by the President and Council. 
The efiTorts of the Church of England party to re-possess 
themselves of the parsonage and glebe were not so 
successful. They made application to a magistrate for 
redress, who issued a warrant to the sherifif for appre- 
hending the offenders ; . but it so happened that this 



118 HISTORY OF THE 

officer was now a Presbyterian, and he replied to the 
Justice that "it was against his conscience to execute 
the precept." The sequel will show that their persevering 
attempts, under the administration of Governor Hunter, 
were equally unsuccessful, and that the property of the 
Church, other than the house of worship, was never 
again in their possession. Mr. MclS^ish, on accepting 
the call which had been given him, had the parsonage 
and glebe. lands confirmed to him by a vote of the 
town. One Samuel Clowes entered his protest against 
this vote of the town ; he is said to have been of the 
heroic party, who, in Mr. Hubbard's time, forcibly 
broke open the doors of the Presbyterian Church. 

the 6th day of february 1709-10. 

at a towne meeting held at Jamaica of y* freeholders of 
y® above s'^ towne 

Jonathan "Whitehead Esq "| 

■* I 

Present Robert Read Esq I 

S11 T> 1 TT^ I " ustices. 

am 11 Baylys Esq 

The : Whitehead Esq J 
voted by y« majority of y^ freeholders assembled as 
above s^ that Justice Jonathan Avhitehead Jonas Wood 
anthony waters Nathaniel Denton & John Everit or 
y^ major part of them are hereby authorized & appointed 
for to take into their hands all y^ towns land w^ is called 
parsonage land housing & medow & to divide all y^ medow 
& upland according to every mans right & y home lot & 
house &c for to be hired out at their discretion & y^ rent 
to be disposed of to y* proper owners of y^ same in equal 
proportion according to every mans rights Robert Read 
Peter white Josiah Wiggins Thomas whitehead and Samuel 
Clows doth protest ag* y^ abov^ vote as unlawfull 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, JAMAICA. 119 

voted as afores*^ y* capt George Woolsey Nicolas Everi t 
& Benjamin Thurston are hereby authorized and enjoined 
for to demand y^ Key of y^ stone meeting house from 
y^ person w*" is in possession of y^ same & keep y® said 
house for ye use of y^ towne 

voted as afores'^ that all particular surveing made by 
any person in or upon any part of y^ comon or undivided 
land in y* aboves*^ tounship by any person or j^ersons 
except such as was chosen by publik vote as town surveiers 
is & shall be esteemed ilegal & unlawful 

entered per Zach Mills dark 

Town Records III. 483. 

At a town meeting held at Jamaica July y® 25 : day : 1 71 2 
It is voted & concluded that Mr gorg : magnish is our 
minister & that y^ pos sion given unto the said Mr magnish 
of y® minister house or passonage & land &c by y trustess 
of the town Jonas Wood Xathaniell Denton anthony 
Watters John Everit is approved of by the town & the 
town further confirm unto the said Mr magnish the 
possession of y® s'^ house & land whiles he stays & con- 
tinues our ministar 

Mr Samuell Clows protest against y^ dismising of y' 
town meeting pr : Nehemiah Smith cler 

Town Records III. 485. 

MEMORIAL OF THE INHABITANTS OF JAMAICA 

To his Excell"^ Coll Robert Hunter Cai^ General and Gover- 
nor in Chiefe of her Mof"' Colony of New York &c in 
America. 

The Humble Memoriall of the Inhabitants of Jamaica in 
Queens County. 

Mat it pleas to'' Excell*''' 

This Towne of Jamaica in the year 1656 was purchased 



120 HISTOKY OF THE 

from the Indian Natives by diverse persons our predecessors 
and Anncestors Subjects of the Reahii of England, Protes- 
tant dissenters in the manner of Worship from the fibrms 
used in the Church of England ; who settled and Improved 
the land, Have called a Minister of their owne Profession 
to Officiate among them who continued so to do during the 
time of the Dutch Government and afterwards severall 
others successively until the year of our Lord 1673-4. 

In the year 1676 the Townsmen set apart divers Lands for 
the better Incouragement and support of such a Minister. 

In the year 1693 the Inhabitants purchased a house and 
other conveniences for the accomodation of their Ministers 
who possessed and Injoyed it accordingly. 

That about the year 1699 by Virtue of an act of Gen- 
erall Assembly for that purpose the Majo"" part of the 
ffreeholders of the Towne built and erected a Meeting 
house or public edifice for the Worship and service of 
God after their way, and peaceably possessed and used it. 

That in the year 1703 or 1704 being actually and Quietly 
possessed of the said House lands and other coveniencyes 
and of the said meeting house, they were with force & 
violence without any j)rocess, Tryall or Judgment at Law 
turned out and Dispossessed of the same. 

All which they humbly submitt to yo"" Excellencies con- 
sideration, Humbly praying such Peliefe as y' ExcelP^ shall 
Judge consist^ with Equity & Justice 

Nathaniel Denton 
Anthony Waters 
Daniel Smith 
Samll Bayles 



PKESBYTERIAN CHURCH, JAMAICA. 121 

« 

A Statement of the Church at Jamaica. 

'/ber 1693. The act of Assembly for settling y Min- 
istry was past. 
Jan^ 1702. The first Vestrymen and Chm-chAvardens 
were chosen at Jamaica. 
1702. M' Hubbard a Dissenting minister was 
called by the Churchwardens & Yestry. 
Aug* 1704. ]\r Urquhart was Inducted by power from 
my Lord Cornbury. 
1706. An act of Assembly past which confirmed 
that Induction. 
1710 in y^ ) Mr Macknesh a Dissenting Minister was 
S^^ring [ called by the Churchwardens & yestry 
who are all Dissenters. 
1710 July 18. M' Poyer was Inducted by power from 
his Exc'-^' Coll Hunter. 

I humbly conceive that no person that has y^ presentation 
to a Benefice can do it twice. So that if an unqualified 
person be presented he that presented him cannot after- 
wards prefer another. This was the case of M"" Hubbard 
who being a Dissenter was not qualified to accept for 
which reason my Lord Cornbury gave Induction to M' 
Urquhart & y^ Assembly by y" said last act declare it to 
be valid. 

That M"" Macknesh has been lately called by y^ Vestry 
&c but by his being a Dissenter Avas not qualified to 
accept and therefore M"" Poyer is Inducted by power 
from his Exc^'' & being so Inducted is Intituled to every- 
thing that belonged to his predecessor M"" Urquhart & 
consequently to y^ Sallary which is now about to be ap- 
propriated to a Dissenting Minister. The first act of Set- 
ting y® Ministry lay dormant w*'' us 9 years because Ave had 
no Church of England Minister to reap the benefit of it. 
6 



122 HISTORY OF THE 

Its lying dormant so long is a plaine Indication of y'' opin- 
ion of the Dissenters themselves in favour of the Church, 
ffor if that act was made for the Dissenters (which they do 
now against all reason assert) why did they never make 
use of it in all that time & thereby put an end to the con- 
tinued & endless contentions they have had Avith their 
Ministers many of which are not yet paid by them. 

Sain'l Cloices to the President of the Council. 

HoNBLE Sir Jamaica ]1 April 1710 

I wish your Hon'' a great deal of joy in the Trust the 
Queen has been pleased to confer on you ; and begg leave 
to acquaint yo' Hon"^ that y Dissenters here have this day 
committed a Riot or forceable Detainer in the Church ; I 
persuade myself your hon'' will suppress with all your 
might such forceable Ways of proceeding so detremental 
to the public peace. If they have any Right ; (as I think 
'tis plaine they have none) the Law is open. I therefore 
pray yo' Hon' Will please allow all due Encouragement to 
the Queens officers who have committed them for the ffact ; 
& especially by directing y^ Queen's Attorney Gen" to pro- 
secute the offenders whereby you will add to the Glory of 
your Government by Defending the cause of Christs 
Church. 

I remane 

Yo"" most obedient Serv* 

S. Clowes. 
To the Hon^^« Coll Beahnan 
IJevt' Governor of the 
Province of New Yorlc. 

Order of Council on the Above. 

In Council 13*^ April 1710 
The President communicated to this Board a letter from 



PKESBYTEKIAN CHUECII, JAMAICA. 123 



M"" Samuell Clowes of y' 11th Aprill setting forth that the 
Dissenters had that day Committed a Riot or forceable 
Detainer of y^ Church at Jamaica And therefore Desired 
y* all Due Encouragement might be given to the Queens 
officers who had committed the persons for that Fact Es- 
pecially by Directing the Attorney Generall to procecute 
the offender. 

The President also communicated a Mittimus under the 
hand and seal of Kobert Read Esq' one of Her Majesties 
Justices for Keeping the Peace in Queens County whereby 
the Hiofh Sheriffe thereof was Directed to take into his 
Custody Hugh Carpenter George Woolsey Jonas Wood, 
Richard Oldfield Samuel Mills & Jeramiah Smith who he 
setts forth are convicted of y^ said forcable holding (by his 
own view) and them to keep in the Common Gaol of said 
County untill they shall be thence delivered by due Course 
of Law. 

Ordered that the respective Justices of Queens County 
or the major part thereof Enquire into the Facts above- 
mentioned and Lay a true Representation thereof before 
this Board by Thursday next, and that a coppy of this 
Order be forthwith sent to y^ said Justices. 



Jamaica in Queens County 

y* W^ of April 1710 

Wee underwritten Justices of the peace of our Sovereigne 
Lady the Queen for Queens County assigned in obedience 
to an order from the honourable the president & her Ma*'** 
Council of this province dated the 13'^ Inst (to us directed) 
have Inquired upon oath into the matter of the Disturbance 
in the Church of Jamaica & doe find that M' Justice Read 



124 HISTORY OF THE 

has proceeded therein according to Law and that the Re- 
cord he has made is a true Representation thereof 
We remain 

Yo' Honours most obed' Servants 

THO : WILLETT JOHIf MARSTOl^ 

JO"" JACKSON THO : JONES 

JOHN TREDWELL WI I CORNELL 

SAm" MOORE THO I WHITEHEAD 

Endorsed 

"A LeW from y^ Justices of y^ Peace 
for Queens County. 

In Council 20"^ April 1710 
The Justices of y*' Peace for Queens County Layd be- 
fore the Board according to order a Representation of the 
Disturbance and forceable Detainer of y" Church of Ja- 
maica by some Dissenters which was a Record made thereof 
by Rob' Read Esq' and Certificate of several of y® Justices 
that the same is a True Record 

Upon consideration of this matter The Board is of opin- 
ion That the Law being open they ought not to Encourage 
or Discourage the said Prosecution 

Petition of Oeo. Woolsey and Others. 

To the Hon''^^ Coll Gerardus Beekman President of her 
Majesty's Councill for the Colony of Xew York and Coun- 
cill. The Peticon of George Woolsey Hope Carpenter 
Jonas Wood Richard Oldfield Samuell Mills & Jeremiah 
Smith of Jamaica in Queens County. 

Most Humbly Sheweth 

That yo' Peticoners Stand Committed till they pay 
their ffine and charges upon a supposition of their being 
guilty of a forceable Detainer grounded on the conviction 
by the view of Robert Read Justice of the peace for 



PKESBYTEKIAN CHURCH, JAMAICA. 125 

Queens County whereof they are not concious to them- 
selves of being the least Guilty, and of which they hum- 
bly conceive they can give sufficient proofe to any Im- 
partial! Judicature. 

They therefore humbly pray that yo' Hon" will give 
them such Relief as shall appear agreeable to Justice. 
And they shall as in duty bound 
Ever pray &c 

GEORGE AVOOLLSE JOXAS WOOD 

HOPE CAEPEXTER JEREMIAH SMITH 

RICHARD OLDFIELD SAMLL MILLS. 

Read the 19"^ day of May 1710 & 
al partys to attend on Monday 
& the Justices of the jDeace to be 
served with Copy of this Petition. 

In Council, 23 May, IVIO 
M Regnier council for George Woolsey and others Pe*. 
titioners on the Petition read at this Board the 1 9^^ Ins 
and M"" Bickley Councill for the Queen and the Justices of 
the Peace of Queens County aj^pearing at this Board and 
being severally heard 

It is ordered that the several and respective fines im- 
posed on the petitioners by the Justices of the Peace in 
Queens County at the last Court of Sessions be remitted. 
But the charges which alredy are, or if not shall be taxed 
within the Bounds of Moderation by the Judge be paid 
by the said petitioners. 

The Rev. Thomas Poyer, who is said to have been a 
grandson of Col. Poyer, wlio fell in the defence of 
Pembroke Castle, in the time of Oliver Cromwell, was 
the successor of Mr. Urquhart. He arrived in the col- 
ony in the summer of 1710, and was inducted (as the 



126 HISTORY OF THE 

phrase was) by power from Col. Hunter, July IStli of 
that year. The Governor daimed the authority ot* put- 
ting Mr. Poyer in possession of the church in disregard 
of the riglits of those whose property it was, but lie re- 
fused to assume the responsibility of ejecting tenants a 
la Gombury^ by his gubernatorial mandate. And in 
this determination he was sustained by the Chief Jus- 
tice Mompesson, who gave his opinion in writing that 
it would be ''a high crime and a misdemeanour," to put 
Mr. Poyer in possession of the parsonage and lands 
otherwise than by due course of law. But this part of 
the liistory will be best related in the very language of 
the documents from which it is derived. These docu- 
ments will disclose the fact that whilst Gov. Hunter 
was as devoted a member of the Church of England as 
any of the early Governors, Mr. Poyer and many of 
the Episcopal missionaries were not a little disappoint- 
ed that he refused to adopt the peremptory and high- 
handed measures of Lord Cornbury towards the Pres- 
bj^terians. u 

Mr. Poyer to the Secretary of the V. S. 

[extract.] 

Jamaica, ox L'g Island, 5th Oct. 1710. 

Honoured Sir, My predecessor's Widow has not 

dealt kindly by me, for the day that I was expected in this 
town she delivered up the parsonage house to the Dissen- 
ters. 

From the same to the same. 

[extract.] 

Jamaica, L'g Island, 3d May, 1711. 

Honoured Sir, 1 have great hopes that there Avill 

more come over to our Church notwithstanding the many 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, JAMAICA. 127 

enemies and discouragements I daily meet witliall, of 
which I have in a former hinted to you, but wrote more 
fully to the Right Honorable and Right Reverend Bishop 
of London who has a perfect and true state of the case 
which I hope when duly considered will induce the Hon- 
ourable Society to assert the right of the Church here ; 
that I may be supported with my salary, due here by an act 
of the country, one penny of which has not hitherto been 
paid to me but on the contrary raised and given to one 
Mr. George McNish an Independent North Britain preach- 
er who has had the assurance, in the face of the country, 
to aver that the Bishop of London has no power here. 

The foregoing extract proves that Mr. McNisli had 
been employed to supply the pulpit in Jamaica pre- 
vious to May, 1711, although it is evident he was not 
installed as pastor till after the meeting of Presbytery 
in September of that yesir. 

Memorial of the Clergy, cC'c, relating to Mr. Poyer and the 
Church of Jamaica. 
[extract.] 
To the Right Honourable and Right Reverend Father in 
God, Henry, Lord Bishop of London. The memorial of 
the Clergy of the Colonies of New- York, New Jersey 
and Philadelphia, in America, 

Humbly Sheweth Conformable to instructions from 

his late majesty King William, to the then Governor for 
the encourag^ement of Relio^ion in General and the Estab- 
lished Church in particular, and to settle parishes within 
the said province (New- York) in the year 1693 an act of 
General Assembly passed whereby it was enacted that in 
the several cities and counties therein mentioned there 
should be called and Inducted and Established a sufficient 



128 HISTORY OF THE 

protestant ministry amongst which one Avas to be for Ja- 
maica, and the two adjacent towns, and another for Hemp- 
stead and its adjacent towns, but so unhappy was this 
province as to remain a scattered loeople loithout any true 
Shepherd till the year 1697, when the Rev. Mr. Vesey came to 
the city of New- Yorl\ 

iSTevertheless it is confessed that they have made 

use of independent and sometimes itinerant preachers in 
no wise ordained, out of pure necessity for want of Ortho- 
dox preachers, etc. 

In the year 1702 came from England the Reverend Pat- 
rick Gordon to the Church at Jamaica, who, before he 
could be inducted was snatched away by death from those 
people to their unspeakable loss, which, by a petition sign- 
ed by upwards of fifty inhabitants to his then Excellency, 
Lord Cornbury, (that noble patron of the Church here) 
they did sufficiently express, and pray his Lordship to give 
such directions to the Rev. Mr. . . . Yesey that they 
might have constant lectures amongst them until that loss 
shall be made up to them, by her Majesty, which would 
tend to the advancement of true religion and the best of 
Churches, and the reconciling their unliappy differences, 
the w^hich Mr. Yesey willingly and faithfully performed, 
till the year 1704, when the Rev. Mr. Urquhart was estab- 
lished and inducted in the said Church, by the then Gov- 
ernor, Lord Cornbury. But one 3fr. Hubbard, an indepen- 
dent minister, being then in jjossession of the j^orsonage hovse, 
his Lordsliip ordered him to deliver up the same to Mr. Ur- 
quhart, lohich accordingly ivas done, quietly and j^eaceably, 
without any force, and ivas enjoyed peaceably by the said Mr. 
Urquhart, for several years, and the Independents them- 
selves seemed to rest satisfied so far that they unanimous- 
ly, at their own expense, built themselves a Meeting House 
in the same town which they now use and enjoy. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, JAMAICA. 129 

It is a noteworthy reason that is here given in proof 
that the Presbyterians (the appellation *' Independents" 
is used in the reports and letters of the Episcopal mis- 
sionaries, long after Mr. McNish was settled,) were sat- 
isfied to see their minister tnrned out of the Parsonage, 
that they unanimously, and, " at their own expense," 
too, went and built themselves a meeting house. But 
the memorial proceeds : 

After the death of Mr. Urquhart there was nothing but 
great threatenings thundered against the church and par- 
sonage, but Colonel Ingolsby, then Lieutenant Governor of 
this Colony recommended to the adjacent ministers to 
serve the cure alternately, during the vacancy, which they 
all did willingly at their own expense, and in the mean- 
time the widow of the deceased Mr. Urquhart was suifer- 
ed to hve and enjoy the benefit of the parsonage house and 
glebe. 

No sooner was her Majesty pleased to remove Colonel 
Ingolsby from the Government Avhereby the same devolv- 
ed on Colonel Gerhardus Beekman as President of the 
Council, but the very next day being the 11th of April 
1710, several of the more violent of that sect took posses- 
sion of the church and forcibly detained the same against 
a Justice of the peace who came pursuant to the laws in 
that case made and provided, and recorded the story as in 
his view and committed the ofi'enders who afterwards were 
set at liberty upon their own recognizances to appear at the 
next Sessions at which time they appeared and were by the 
Court fined so very small that though there were six of- 
fenders all their fines amounted to no more than Eighteen 
shillings, which Avas put upon them not as a punishment, 
but rather a cautionary admonition, not to attempt any 
thing of the like nature for the future, which mild dealing 
6* 



130 HISTORY OF THE 

was SO far from having any effect upon the Criminals, that 
they put in a petition to the President and Council con- 
cerning what they had judicially done in their foil sessions, 
and the criminals were so far encouraged as to have their 
several fines remitted them, and the Justices dismissed from 
their further attendance as having acted according to law. 
After this usage of the Justices so contrary to Law and 
after such countenance to the criminals shown by the Pres. 
ident and Council, it may easily be concluded the Church 
could not be very secure from the further attempts of such 
bitter enemies, and accordingly after the arrival of Mr. 
Poyer, the present minister, but before his actually coming 
to the place, they entered into the parsonage house upon 
the possession of the Widow of Mr. Urquhart, who lived 
in it and kept the Widow out of it by force, though she 
and her husband had been in possession of the same 
about six years ; (though we have since very great reason 
to believe that she connived at their entry, for she was soon 
afterwards readmitted as a tenant to them, with one Wol- 
sey an Independent student and approbationer, who has 
married the Daughter of the said Widow Urquhart) and 
after Mr. Poyer was inducted into the Church, the Jus- 
tice repaired upon complaint to the parsonage house, but 
got no admittance, whereupon a second record of forci- 
ble detainer was made by the Justice, on his own view, 
and warrant issued by the Sheriff to apprehend the of- 
fenders, and to keep them till they should be delivered 
by due course of law, but the Sheriff who had been lately 
appointed by the President and Council, in the room of 
the former deceased, being a strong Independent, told the 
Justices his conscience would not let him do it, by which 
means the offenders have as yet escaped punishment, and 
Mr. Poyer kept out of his possession of the parsonage 
and glebe. 



PRESBYTEKIAN CHURCH, JAMAICA. 131 

In a short time after the death of Mr. Urquhart the 
Church wardens and Vestry (tho' new ones, yet all In- 
dependents) called one Mr. George McNish, a dissenting 
itinerant preacher, who being as much if not more un- 
qualified to accept or ofticiate than Mr. Hubbard, the 
present Governor, Mr. Hunter, ordered Mr. Poyer to be 
inducted into the said church and its appurtenances, 
which was accordingly done by the Rev'd Mr. Sharp, 
Chaplain of the forces here on the 18th of July, 1710. 

Tho' Mr. Poyer has duly officiated there for the space 
of one year and a half, and after a very tedious and ex- 
pensive voyage with his family in a merchant ship, and 
being cast ashore Avith his ship above one hundred miles 
from his parish, he has not received one penny of his sal- 
ary there since his arrival ; but on the contrary, they paid 
£16 certain (and we believe more that we know not of) 
of the money raised by the act to the said Mr. McN^ish. 

And now because that upon so firm a foundation it 
may be expected that Mr. Poyer, the present worthy in- 
cumbent of this unhappy place, should by law endeavour 
to obtain his salary, together with the parsonage house 
and lands detained from him by the Independents to which 
method his Excellency Colonel Hunter has encouraged 
him, by promising him to be at the expense of the suit — 
We humbly crave leave to ofi*er that we cannot at this 
juncture, think it at all advisable for him because we are 
humbly of opinion that a matter of that consequence ought 
not to be in such a manner undertaken Avithout the ex- 
press directions of your Lordship and the Honourable So- 
ciety, and also because such suit must be commenced be- 
fore Judges who are professed, implacable enemies of the 
Established Church, Judges who are advanced in the room of 
others loho loere men of character, and true friends of the 
Church, at an unlucky time, lohen they loere actually doing 



132 HISTORY OF THE 

justice to the Church in this particular ; and ive could heartily 
have wished that his Excellency loould have been pleased to 
have favoured Mr. Foyer\s petition by writing to those new 
officers to enforce them in their duty, and hope that such 
admonitions would have had a good influence on them ; 
tho' indeed justice from these new judges may scarcely 
be expected after the acting of three of them, who upon 
Mr. Foyer's complaint against the Church wardens for the 
non-payment of his first quarter's salary gave judgment 
against him, and ordered him to pay costs ; in which trial 
they denied all authority from England in spiritual mat- 
ters. Neither is it possible to get an impartial Jury in 
that county, where all are concerned in the event, and the 
greater number of them stiff independents. 

The reasons, may it please your Lordship that induced 
us to send this representation are drawn from the certain 
ruin that the loss of this cause will inevitably bring on the 
Established Church in the whole government of New- 
York, and which cannot want its bad influence upon the 
Church in all the adjacent Colonies, especially the Jerseys 
and Pennsylvania ; for if upon the death of Mr. Urquhart 
who was so firmly established by two acts of General As- 
sembly, and after about six years quiet possession, the sal- 
ary and parsonage may immediately be seized with im- 
punity and enjoyed as they are by these Independents, 
why may not the rest of the places in the said provinces 
(avhich do all stand upon the same foot) on the 
death or avoidance of the present incumbents be in like 
manner invaded by them, &c. 

"We beg your Lordship to believe that nothing herein 
contained is designed as the least reflection upon any per- 
son it being only the true plain matter of fact, and which 
we could not out of a due regard to the interests of the 
Church, and to your Lordship's omit the transmitting to 



PKESBYTERIAN CIIUKCH, JAMAICA. 133 

yonr Lordship that if the sad effect we justly fear should 
be the consequence of these things, We may clear our- 
selves before God and man as having done what was pos- 
sible for us to prevent it. 

All which is humbly submitted to your Lordship's pru- 
dent consideration, by, may it please your Lordship, your 
Lordship's most dutiful, obedient sons and humble ser- 
vants, 

Thos. Poyek, 

Rector of the Parish of Jamaica and precinct. 

Wm. Yesey, 

Rector of the Parish of New York. 

Jno. Bartow, 

Rector of the Parish and Precinct of Westchester. 

Evan Evans, 

Rector of Philadelphia. 

John Talbot, 

Of Burlington. 

JEneas McKexsie, 

Of Staten Island. 

Jacob Henderson, 

Minister of Dover Hundred. 

John Thomas, 

Rector of Hempstead. 
Neio Yorlc^ lotJi November, 1711. 

Notwithstanding the declaration in the last para- 
graph of the foregoing memorial, that nothing it con- 
tained was designed to reflect in tlie least upon any 
person, the paper clearly contains the insinuation that 
tlie Governor had displaced certain officei"s, who were 
men of character, and decided friends of the Estab- 
lished Church, and appointed others who were its im- 
placable enemies, and therefore not disposed to do Mr. 
Poyer justice. The memorial makes another thing 



IS 4: IIISTOKY OF THE 

plain, viz., that tliere were other places in the colonies, 
where property was held, or claimed by the Episcopa- 
lians, on the same gronnd precisely as the property in 
dispute in Jamaica. In regard to the other point — the 
relation between Gov. Hunter and the Clergy — the fol- 
lowing will show that there was far from being a good 
understanding between these parties. 

Gov. Hunter to the Secretary. 
(kxtract.) 

New York, Feb. 25th, 1711. 
Sir, — Col. Heathcote told me that he was privately in- 
formed that there had been a representation against me 
carried about to some of the clergy for subscriptions. I 
could not believe it being conscious to myself of nothing 
that I had done, left undone, or intended, with relation to 
the Church's interest, that the most consummate malice 
could ground a representation upon. That worthy gentle- 
man was of the same opinion, but positive that there was 
such a representation; for which reason, he, in conjunction 
with Col. Morris, as members of the Society thought fit to 
write a letter to Mr. Vesey, and Mr. Henderson, in whose 
hands they understood this paper to be, and who were the 
principal contrivers and promoters of it, signifying that 
they had been made acquainted with the designs, and de- 
sired to know the meaning of it ; that if any thing were 
wanting for the Church's interest they might join with 
them in proper measures to procure it, and redress what 
was amiss. All the effect that this letter had upon these 
two gentlemen was a deep concern for the discovery, and 
some sharp reproaches on one another as the discoverers. 
Neither could the Rev. Mr. Sharp obtain a sight of it tho' 
he solemnly promised to join with them in repressing any 



PRESBYTERIAN CHUECH, JAMAICA. 135 

thing for the Church's Interest, provided it did not con- 
tain unjust or groundless reflections on the Governor. 
That gentleman has given an account to the Lord Bishop 
of London, how he was used by them &c. &c. 

Being to guess at the particular facts of which I stand 
accused, I can think of none that can so much as afford a 
pretence for such a representation, unless it be the affairs 
of Jamaica Church here, and that must only be in the opin- 
ions of such as think that all laws, human and divine, are 
to be set aside when they como in competition with what 
they conceive to be the secular Interest of the Church. 

Mr. Poyer having the Society's Mission, and my Lord 
Bishop of London's recommendation to that Church, I 
upon his first application, granted him induction. The 
Dissenters were in possession of the Manse house by con- 
trivance of the Widow of Mr. Urquhart, the former In- 
cumbent, whose daughter was married to a Dissenting min- 
ister there. I consulted the Chief Justice Mompesson how 
far I might proceed towards putting Mr. Poyer in pos- 
session, who gave his opinion in writing, that it could not 
be done otherwise than by due course of law, without a 
high crime and misdemeanour. This opinion I sent to Mr. 
Poyer, and begged him to commence a suit at my cost, but 
heard nothing from him, until some time after he came to 
me to complain that the Justices of that County had not 
done him right, when required in procuring him his Quar- 
ter's Stipend, upon which I sent for the Justice he named, 
***** ^^^ [^ ^j^g presence of Col. Morris and Mr. 
Regnier of this place, told him that I would forthwith give 
directions that Mr. Poyer should commence a suit against 
him, and that they should not flatter themselves that it 
might be dropped through Mr. Poyer's present wants, for 
he should not want wherewithal! to carry it on through all 
the lengths so just a cause required, and accordingly wrote 



136 HISTORY OF THE 

to Mr. Poyer to that purpose. Mr. Coe, the justice men- 
tioned, told me that all this was the practice (work) of one 
Clows, a most A'icious wretch into whose hands Mr. Poyer 
unfortunately fell, at his first setting out, and lodg'd in his 
house, led by his pretended zeal for the Church ; but as he 
himself has since owned to Mr. Sharp, he was soon obliged 
to change his lodgings, few of his own Communion desiring 
to come near him, whilst he was in so bad company. 

Extract of a Letter from Col. Morris to the Secretary. 

New York, 20th Feb. 1711. 
In Col. Fletcher's time, one party of the Dissenters in 
the County where Jamaica is, resolved to build a Church, 
and in order to it got subscriptions and materials enough 
to build it about three feet from the ground, but finding 
themselves unable to perfect it without the assistance of 
the rest, which could not be got by persuasion, they re- 
solved to attempt the getting an Act of Assembly in their 
favour. Col. Fletcher who was then Governor, and James 
Grahame, Esq., who was then Speaker of the Assembly, 
perceiving the Assembly inclined to raise money for the 
building of that Church, and settling a maintenance for 
ministers, thought it a fit opportunity to do something in 
favour of the Church, before the zealous fit left them. Ac- 
cordingly Grahame who had the drawing of their Bills, 
prescribed a method of Induction, and so managed it that 
it would not do well for the Dissenters, and but lamely 
for the Church, though 'twould do with the help of the 
Governor, and that Avas all ; but 'twas the most that could 
be got at that time, for had more been attempted the Assembly 
had seen through the artifice^ the most of them being Dis- 
senters, and all had been lost. By virtue of this act, the 
Church was built, and a dissenting minister called. * * * 
The Church and parsonage house continued in the pos- 



PRESBYTEKIAN CHUKCH, JAMAICA. 137 

session of the Dissenters till some time after the arrival of 
Mr. Urquhart, when a representation was made to my 
Lord Cornbury, that the Church and house being built by 
public Act, could belong to none but the Church of Eng- 
land. My Lord upon this gives his warrant to dispossess 
the Dissenters, which immediately by force was done, 
without any procedure at law, and Mr. Urquhart put into 
possession of them. This short method might be of some 
service to the minister, but was very far from being of any 
to the Church, as no such unaccountable steps can ever be. 
Mr. Urquhart kept the possession during his life, and 
though he gained not many converts, yet his conduct was 
so good that I don't think he lost any. After Mr. L^rqu- 
hart's death, his widow's daughter married a dissenting 
minister, and she put the parsonage house into his pos- 
session, in which it continues until now. This happened 
much about the time of Col. Hunter's arrival. Whether 
application Avas made to him or no I can't tell, but some 
changes in the magistracy being made, and by a mistake one 
or two put in that were patrons of the Dissenters, Mr. 
Poyer and his friends chose to apply to those they were 
sure would refuse them, and not to those in place who 
were firm to their interest, and being refused, complained 
to the Governor, who immediately sent for the person and 
ordered him to be prosecuted that it might appear whether 
he had fliiled in his duty or not. Whether the prosecution 
was confirmed or not I cannot tell, but I happened to be in 
the Governor's chamber when this Judge and a Dissenting 
minister came in and this matter was talked of. He said 
that the intention of the Legislature at that time was to 
raise a maintenance for a Dissenting minister, all the As- 
sembly but one being Dissenters, and knowing nothing of 
the Church ; but that being the intention of the law makers 
was the meaning of the law, and he hoped the Dissenters 



138 HISTORY OE THE 

might enjoy what was so justly their due, or at least not 
be depriv^ed of it without due course of law, as they 
formerly had been. I told him the Legislature did not 
consist of the Assembly only, but of the Governor and 
Council joined with them, &c. The Governor joined in 
the argument, and argued with a great deal of force in 
favor of the Church, who, he said, he could not help think- 
ing was in the right, with respect to their claims — that 
they might be sure that matters of property should be de- 
termined, by the ordinary course of the law, by which 
perhaps, they, being numerous might weary Mr. Poyer, 
being a poor man, but that Mr. Poyer should have his 
purse for the carrymg on that suit. A day or two after- 
wards he told Mr. Poyer so himself. Some time after 
that he wrote to him giving the Gentleman who carried the 
letter in charge, to tell him he still continued in the same 
mind. The Governor being at Jamaica, repeated the offer 
of bearing the whole charge of the suit, and pressed Mr. 
Poyer to undertake it. Col. Heathcote also pressed him 
to undertake it, giving him the same assurance from the 
Governor, and Poyer promised to do it, but has been pre- 
vailed on to decline that method (as he says) till their 
representation reach England ; and I believe the poor man 
and his friends are weak enough to believe that their su- 
periors there will enter into measures to displace the Gov- 
ernor for not Dragoonmg in their favor as his predecessor 
did, &c. 

The act to settle the Church is very loosely worded ; 
which, as things stood then, when it was made, could not 
be avoided — the Dissenters claiming: the benefit of it as 
well as we. And the act without such resting (wresting?) 
will admit a construction in their favour as well as ours. 
They think it was intended for them, and that they only 
have a right to it. 



PKESBYTEEIAN CHUECH, JAMAICA. 139 



There is no comparison in our numbers ; and they can 
on the deatli of the Incumbents call persons of their own 
persuasion in every place but the city of New York. * * * 
I believe at this day, the Church had been in a much 
better condition had there been no Act in her favour ; for 
in the Jersies and Pennsylvania, where there is no act in 
her favour there is four times the number of Churchmen 
that there are in this province of New York, and they are 
so most of them upon principle. Whereas nine parts in 
ten of ours will add no great credit to whatsoever Church 
they are of, &g. 

Mr. Yesey, m\\o had and still makes a tool of that 
weak man Poyer, with him prevailed upon Mr. Evans 
of Philadelphia and Mr. Talbot, as I am told by some, to 
sign a representation in direct terms against the Governor, 

&G. &G. 

What ground Mr. Poyer had for the apprehension 
that justice would not be done him by the Judges be- 
fore whom his cause would be tried, appears from the 
following : 

Extract of a letter from Col. Heathcote to the Secretary. 

Neav York, Feb. 11, 1711. 

Sir, — The Ships being still detained by the Ice gives me 
an opportunity of saying something more* concerning the 
affairs of the Church at Jamaica. And I am not a little 
surprised that the Church's misfortune there is wholly 
charged on account of the alterations of some of the offi- 
cers there, and that they dare not go to law for that 

* Col. Heathcote had addressed the Secretary before, under date of Jan. 
5th and Jan. SOth, 1711, giving the same version of Mr. Foyer's difRculty 
with the Governor as that contained in Col. Lewis Morris's letter. Both 
were members of the Society. 



140 HISTORY OF THE 

reason : which is a very great mistake because no officers 
are wanting to do Mr. Poyer justice there either in respect 
of his salary or otherwise but a Sheriff, that he might 
be safe as to liis Juries, for as his actions will be above £20 
in value, so must be tried by the Chief Justice, Mr. 
Mompesson, who never professed any other religion but 
that of the Church of England — and the present Sheriff, 
who had the charge of that County for above a year, is a 
member of the Church at Jamaica, and was put in that 
post by Col. Hunter at the request of Mr. Foyer's friends. 
And altho' the removal which was made among the offi- 
cers Avas what I would not have advised the Gov'r to, yet 
the mistake was not so great as represented ; for some 
time after those changes were made, blaming one of the 
gentlemen of the Council, who advised the Governor to 
it, his answer was that the cry of the people was so loud 
against several of the officers then in place that it was 
absolutely necessary ; and as for those whom he and his 
friends had recommended, the most of 'em were dissent- 
ers, they were on all other accounts much fitter for it : nor 
were all the old officers turned out, nor all in the new 
commission dissenters, as I had been told, for that 
several of the Church were still in place and many who 
had been in before were continued — it being their design 
to cast out ill men and not the Church. Now altho' I was 
not of his mind, yet there was truth in some things he 
offered; for indeed many of the instruments made use 
of to settle the Church at Jamaica, in its infancy, were 
of such warm tempers, and if report is true so indifferent 
in their morals, that, from the first beginning, I never 
expected it would be settled with much peace or reputa- 
tion. For instead of taking an effectual care upon its first 
settlino; that none were employed therein but the best and 
soberest men, and those of the fairest character and best 



PRESBYTERIAN CHUKCH, JAMAICA. 141 



reputation among the people, and caressing and making 
use of such to help settle it, one Mr. Cardell,* a transient 
person, and of very indifterent reputation, was recom- 
mended, and made High Sheriff of that County ; and the 
settling of the Church was left in a great measure to his 
care and conduct. By these imprudent measures the lead- 
ing men were disobliged which soon chased away most 
of the good and sober peoj^le and left her only a very thin 
conoTco-ation. 

The following is the record of the Court in the suit 
of Mr. Poyer for his first quarter's stipend, to which 
there are so many allusions in the preceding papers. 
Samuel Coe and Daniel Smith were the Church- 
wardens. 

Queens County, Ss. 

At a Special Court, held at Jamaica, the 27th day of 
October, in the 9th year of the reign of our Sovereign 
Lady Anne, Anno Dom. 1710 — Present, John Coe, 
Judge ; Samuel Bayley, Richard Oldfield, Justices: 

Mr. Thos. Poyer per Mr. Clows complains that the 
Church Wardens do refuse to pay the one quarter's 
salary. 

Court considered of the compl't and find for the def'ts 
with costs of suit. 

The reasons of the Church Wardens against the compl't 
of Mr. Thos. Poyer. Qui tam, &c. 

1st. Because w^e had no money. 

* " He seized upon the church land, divided it into lots, and leased them 
out for the benefit of his own party. This man, it seems, sustained a des- 
picable character, and being afterwards apprehended for some offence, and 
thrown into prison, hanged himself in despair." — Thomp. II. 107. 



142 HISTORY OF THE 

2dly. We had no orders from the Justices and Yestry, 
according to an Act of Assembly to pay any. 

3dly. Because we thought Mr. Thos. Poyer not quahfied, 
according to the Act of Assembly of this Province as 
Minister or Incumbent of Jamaica, to demand the whole, 
or any part of the said salary. 

True Copy, Joseph Smith, Clerk. 

Mr. Poyer to the Secretary. 

[extract.] 

Jamaica, L. Island, March 7, 1712. 
By the advice of Counsel I have lately served the Dis- 
senter who is in possession of the Parsonage house and 
Glebe with a lease of Ejectment for continuing the claim 
but with no design of j^rosecuting to effect, for in that I 
shall not presume to do anything till I receive the express 
commands of the Venerable Society. 

In 1712 the Society for the Propagation of the Gos- 
pel in Foreign Parts laid the difficulties of Mr. Poyer 
before the Queen's most Excellent Majesty, and peti- 
tioned "that in causes relating immediately to the 
Church an appeal may lie to your Governor and Coun- 
cil there, and to your Majesty and Privy Council here, 
w^ithout any restriction or limitation of the value or 
sum appealed for." 

Order of Council relating to appeals concerning the Church at 

New York. 
[extract.] 
At the Court of St. James the 8th of January 1712. 
Present, — the Queen's most Excellent Majesty in Coun- 
cil. 

Upon reading this day at the Board a report from the 



PRESBYTEKL^N CHURCH, JAMAICA. 14 d 

Lord's Commissioners of Trade and Plantations in the 
words following, viz. (the report after reciting the hard- 
ships of Mr. Thos. Poyer, Clerk, agreeable to the repre- 
sentations of the Society aforesaid, that he was " wrong- 
fully kept out of the parsonage house and glebe by the 
violence of some sectaries disaffected to the Church," con- 
cludes as follows.) This being the state of the case we 
are humbly of opinion that in cases where the Church is 
immediately concerned, as in the present case, your Majes- 
ty be graciously pleased to allow the Clergy liberty of ap- 
pealing, from the Inferior Courts to the Governor and 
Council, only without limitation of any sum, which is hum- 
bly submitted. 

Ph : Meadows, F. Ffoley, 
R. MoxcKTON, J. A. Cotton. 
Whitehall, 25th Mvem. 1713. 

Her Majesty in her Privy Council taking the same into 
consideration was graciously pleased to approve the said 
report, and to order, as it is hereby ordered, that in cases 
where the Church is immediately concerned, (as in this 
case) liberty be given to the Clergy to appeal from the in- 
ferior Courts to the Governor and Council only without 
limitation of any sum; and her Majesty is graciously 
pleased to order that as well in this, as in other like cases 
liberty be given to the Clergy to appeal from the Gov- 
ernor and Council to her Majesty in Privy Council^ with- 
out limitation as aforesaid &c. 

(Signed) Edwaed Southwell. 

Letter from the Bishop of London to Mr. Poyer. 
Sir — I do not in the least believe it was in your 
thoughts to give any uneasiness to the Church or Gov- 
ernment ; but I must think that your indiscretion hath 



144 HISTORY OF THE 

been the cause of it ; of which I should have warned you 
could I have had the opportunity to do it ; and must 
now entreat you for the future to have a care of foolish 
and unwary Advisers. Pray therefore think your Gov- 
ernors to be wiser than yourself, and if you miscarry un- 
der that conduct, you will come off with reputation, let 
the event prove what it w411 : for I must tell you that 
your application over into England hath done you and 
the rest of our Brethren no great Service, by referring 
your case to j^eople at such a distance, as neither do or 
can know any thing of the merits of the cause. Be wiser 
therefore for the time to come, and believe me that I 
shall be always ready to approve myself, 

Your most assured Friend and Brother, 

H : LoxDox. 
Fulham, May 21, 1712. 

At length an order was passed b}' the Societj^ for the 
Propagation of the Gospel for defraying the expenses 
Mr. Pojer miglit incur in recovering his salary by due 
course of law ; and in 1716 he commenced his suit, 
and at length recovered £16 Ws. from the Church- 
wardens. This strife continued from year to year, and 
" proceeded," says Dr. Elihu Spencer, "to such lengths 
that many of the principal inhabitants were harassed 
with severe persecutions, heavy fines, and long impris- 
onments, for assuming their just rights, and others fled 
out of the Province to avoid the rage of Episcopal 
cruelty." As we have seen, the power of the throne 
itself was invoked in this controversy. That the Pres- 
byterians should have held out, or that they ever suc- 
ceeded in recovering their just rights against such odds, 
is truly matter of astonishment. Let the present and 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, JAJ^LAJCA. 145 

fature generations never forget that eternal vigilance 
was the price their ancestors paid for the success with 
which their exertions were crowned. From soch men 
it is an honour to have descended, and their memory 
should be held in grateful remembrance. 

Mr. Poyer to the Secretary. 

[extract.] 

Jamaica, Nov. 4th, 1718. 
Hon'd Sir, — The people of this place are encouraged 
in their obstinacy by their minister, a very designing man 
and who persuades them to what he will, even not to obey 
the Lawful commands of the magistrates, and they stick 
not to say that tho' there is a Law for £60 per ann. to 
be yearly collected for the minister of this Parish, and 
tho' Coll. Lewis Morris, the Chief Justice of this Prov- 
ince, has ordered a Writ of Mandamus for collecting 
the arrearages of the Minister's salary — Notwithstanding 
these orders, they say, if the Constables offer to collect it 
upon the Warrants the Justices have given, pursuant to 
the Writ aforesaid, they will scald them, they will stone 
them, they will go to Club Law with them, and I know 
not what. 

The minister who in the above letter is represented 
as exerting such an influence over his people, was the 
Kev. George McNish. He was settled, as stated al- 
ready, in lYll, although it is highly probable he 
had preached here, more or less, for a year and a half 
before. Li 1710 Mr. McNish was the Moderator of the 
Presbytery. Through his influence the Kev. Mr. Pum- 
ry of ISTewtown united with the Presbytery of Phila- 
delphia ; and in 1717 the Presbytery of Long Island 
was formed. Mr. McNish may therefore be regarded 



146 HISTORY OF THE 

as the father of the Presbyterian Church on Long Is- 
land. The Presbytery of Long Ishmd was the first 
presbytery formed in the Province of I^ ew Yoi'k, and 
for many years, the Presbyterian Churches in the city 
of 'New York and the county of Westchester were sub- 
ject to its jurisdiction ; he may, therefore, with equal 
propriety, be regarded as the father of Presbyterian- 
ism, in its distinctive form, in the State of New York. 
In 1716, he was again Moderator of tlie Presbytery of 
Philadelphia, and consequently preached the Synodical 
sermon at the first meeting of the Synod of Philadel- 
phia in 1717. His text was John xxi. 17, Lovest thou 
Tnef The same year (as he appears to have contem- 
plated making a visit to Great Britain) he was deputed 
by the Synod to act as its representative abroad, for 
the promotion of religion in this country. This visit, 
however, he did not make ; but the appointment, and 
other important services assigned him, prove that he 
was a leading and influential minister, and enjoyed, in 
no small degree, the confidence of his brethren. 

Mr. McNish is said to have possessed about 1000 
acres of land at "Wallkill, Orange Co. He left but one 
child, a son named George, who married a daughter of 
Joseph Smith of Jamaica, and settled in Kew Jersey.* 
In the records of the Synod for 1723 there is the fol- 
lowing entry : 

" Upon reading the list of ministers the Synod found to 
their great grief that Mr. McNish was dead." 

In the Church Register of Kewtown it is stated that 

* He was licensed to preach, but whether ordained is not known. He 
preached at Newtown between 1744 and 1746. He died at Wallkill in 1779, 
aged ^b.— Webster's Hist, of Presb. Ch. 



PKESBYTEEIAN CHUECH, JAMAICA. 14T 



he died March lOtb, 1722.* Mrs. Elizabeth Everitt, 
who died in ISttO, at the advanced age of ninety -five, 
said that she had often seen his headstone in our bnry- 
ing-ground. He was consequently the third minister 
this church had lost by death, and the second buried in 
this town. 

Although Mr. Mcl^ish was minister of this congre- 
gation ten or eleven years, it is probable he never 
preached in the house of worship belonging to it after 
his installation, as it was not restored until several 
years after his death. Tradition says that he preached 
in a buildino; at the eastern end of the villao-e, which 
was the " Meeting House," undoubtedly, which the 
Presbyterians are represented to have built in the Me- 
morial which the Episcopal missionaries sent home to 
the Bishop of London. 

Jamaica Aj^prill y^ § 1*^23 

At a town meeting held at Jamaica at y® time aforesaid 
it was voted by y^ majority of y® freeholders then & there 
assembled 

Voted at y^ same meeting that Just Oldfield Sam" Smith 
& Jonathan Watters are to take in their possession the 
parsonage house & home lot for to take care of y^ same 
untill such time as y^ town shall recall it out of their hands 

Just Beats protest against the above said vote 

Mr Clows protest against the above said vote as unnes- 
ary Incertain unreasonable & illeagull 

at a town meeting ordered by Just Whithead & Just 

Messenger Entered by me Nehemiah Smith 

Clerk 

JRecords III, p. 475. 

* Mr. Pumry, minister of Newtown, appears to have appreciated more 
than many, the importance o^ memoranda of this sort. 



148 HISTORY OF THE y 

THE REV. ROBERT CROSS" 

was the next pastor. He was a native of Ireland, in 
which country he received his education. He was born 
near Bally Kelley, anno 1689. On the 19th of Septem- 
ber, 1717, at the first meeting of the Synod of Phila- 
delphia, he presented his testimonials as a probationer, 
lately come from Ireland, which were approved, and 
he was recommended to the Presbytery of Newcastle. 
He was ordained and settled at Newcastle, March 
ITth, 1T19, as the successor of the Rev. James Ander- 
son, transported by the Synod to New York. From 
the records of the Presbj^tery of Newcastle, it appears 
that he received the call of this congregation September 
18th, 1723 ; and between that date and the 16th of 
October, he left Newcastle and came to Jamaica. He 
was minister at the time the people here recovered 
their property, and had the satisfaction of gathering 
the flock once more beneath their own vine and fig- 
tree, and of witnessing the joy of men w4io had be- 
come venerable for ^^ears, since the period of exile from 
their house of worship. He married Mary Oldfield, a 
daughter of Mr. Justice Oldfield. Rev. Mr. Poyer 
married Sarah, another daughter of said Oldfield. 

In the year 1721, ejectment suits were brought by 
Mr. Poyer, in the Supreme Court of New York, against 
several tenants in possession of the parsonage lands. 
Judgment, as the Town Records show, went against 
Mr. Poyer.* At length, in the year 1727, the Pres- 

* Jamaica Jenewarv ye ^()^ 17 24-5 

att a town meeting held at Jamaica at the time aforesaid voted whereas 
lately at the Supream Cort of ye city of New York Ejectments was broght 
by Mr thomas poyer a church of Enland minister against sewerall Tent^ in 



PKESBYTEEIAN CHUKCH, JAMAICA. 149 

bjterians, after great expense, by a due course of law 
recovered their church, and had their title to the par- 
sonage and glebe lands confirmed to them. Lewis 
Morris, afterwards Governor of IS^ew Jersey, was, at 
that time, Chief Justice, and presided at the trial. He 
encountered no little obloquy ; his character was as- 
persed ; and, not long after the trial, he was suspended 
from the ofiice of Chief Justice by Governor Cosby. 
Judge Morris wrote to the Board of Trade, showing 
that the resentment of the Governor was causeless ; 
and he thought it necessary", on soliciting that his office 
might be restored, to publish the grounds of his de- 
cision in the above case. 

Fulham Manuscripts. 
[extract.] 

New Yokk, July 14, 1*727. 
My Lord : — I have been informed by Mr. Poyer that 
there is an Action commenced by the Presbyterians of 

possesion of the parsonage lands viz homestead & out lands in this town 
formerij sett apart for the use of a minister & whereas judgement went 
against the said Mr. Pover as may appear : now according to the town vote 
made June ye 19 : — 1676 which is that there shall be forty acres of medow 
designed & sett apart for a parsonage lot in y® east neck joyning to the 
lotts of meadows laid out with upland proporsionable to other lots 
laid out in ye town to continue at ye disspose of the town to a min- 
isster when they hare occasion to make use of it wee doe vote & 
agree that Mr Rob' Crose minister of ye said town shall have the use bene- 
fit & possession of ye said homstead meadows & upland laid out & appre- 
priated for the use abovesaid there being need & occasion for it to be & 
remaine to him & his assigns duering he shall continue our minister 

voted at ye same ^own meeting that Jon'^i Watters & Sani'i Smith doe 
immediately put Mr Rob' Cross minister in possesion of ye abovesaid lands 
& meadows wherein he is not allready possesioned 

Samuell Clowes enter his protest against }•• two last votes aflBrming it 
not to be in ye power of ye whole township much less of ye major part 
of this town meeting to make svich votes 

Entered by me Nehemiah Smith Clerk 

Records III., 476-7. 



150 HISTORY OF THE 

Jamaica in Long Island, for the English Church which 
they pretend was built by, and was taken by violence from 
them, by my Lord Cornbury. 

I know nothing certain about their claims, but if they 
take the course of law, I cannot heljo it ; but they having 
committed a riot in taking jDossession of the church, the 
Attorney General here has entered an information against 
them, and refused them a noli prosequi upon their appli- 
cation, tliat their rashness may be attended tvith charge and 
trouble at least, if not punishment, ivhich may ^:)e?7ia/).s dis- 
courage them in their suit, or mQ,ke them loilling to compro- 
mise it. 

My Lord, &c., 

W. Burnett. 

Governor Burnett was the son of the Bishop of Sa- 
rum, and was the Governor of New York from 1720 
to 1728. 

Revd. Mr. Poyer to the Secretary. 

Rev Sir Jamaica June 16'^ 1V31 

By this opportunity I beg leave humbly to represent to 
my Honb^® Patrons the Venerable Society for Propagating 
the Gospel in Foreign Parts that I have been their Mis- 
sionary here 21 years & may without incurring the imputa- 
tion of boasting say that my diligence in the discharge of 
my functions has been little inferior to any I pray God to 
give a blessing to the seed sown but so it is that besides 
the great and almost continual contentions that I have strug- 
gled withal amongst the Lidependents in this Parish hav- 
ing had several law suites with them before I could have 
the Salary which the Country has settled upon the minis- 
ter of the Church of England several other law suits for 
Glebe lands which we have lost and at last even the Church 



PKESBYTEKIAN CHUKCH, JAMAICA. 151 

itself of which we had the possession 25 years is taken from 
us by a trial at law (with what justice I cant pretend to say) 
tho' I say I have endeavoured as patiently as I could to 
bear up under all these trials besides the loss of two Wives 
and Several children yet the iniirmities of old age bear 
very hard upon me insomuch that I find myself almost un- 
able to officiate at the three towns of Jamaica Newtown 
and Flushing as I have hitherto done and which is abso- 
lutely necessary for the Minister of the Parish to do. 

The intent of these are therefore to beg that my dis- 
tressed state and condition may be laid before the Yener^^^ 
Society and that they may be pleased to permit me to quit 
my Mission and to return to great Britain as being for the 
reasons aforegiven not capable of bearing such fatigues and 
discharging my duty as I have done for so many years in 
this place. I humbly beg of my most honored patrons to 
consider my case & circumstances & I remain &g 

Thos Poter 

Mevd. Mr. Campbell to the Secretary/. 

New York November 3*^ 1731 
Rev Sir 

* * * Mr Poyer is a much better man and Christian 
than himself [Mr Vesey is referred to] whom he endeavors 
to remove from his Mission in Jamaica, he is a Grandson of 
Coll Poyer who died in the gallant defence of Pembroke 
Castle in the time of Oliver Cromwell which alone I hope 
will recommend him to the favour and protection of the sen- 
sible and generous Dr Humphreys ; he is a good natured 
honest man and is beneficent to his neighbors, which I take 
to be qualities superior to any Mr Yesey is possessed of; 
He has prevailed with Mr Poyer to send a letter home de- 
siring to be recalled which would infallibly ruin the poor 
Gentleman and his numerous family ; 



152 HISTORY OF THE 

Therefore I entreat you to take care that the Society's 
answer may entirely leave it at his own choice ; whether 
to go home or not ; this I write at the desire of his best 
friends. 

The secret of this is that Mr Vesey wants to get quit of 
Mr Colffan and send him to Jamaica tho he must needs be 
sensible that Mr Poyer will be ruined if he goes home or 
leaves his Mission ***** 

Mr. Campbell to the Secretary. 
[extract.] 

New York, Jan. 25, 1732. 
Sir : — The Presbyterians by the sly tricks and quirks of 
the common law, got the church, the parsonage house, and 
lands into their possession, and now they are resolved to 
deprive the next missionary of £60 currency settled as a 
yearly salary, by an Act of Assembly. The next mission- 
ary may depend upon it, he must either engage in a Law- 
suit against the Dissenters, or throw up tlie salary above- 
mentioned. 

Mr. Colgan to the Secretary. 
[extract.] 

Jamaica, June 14th, 1734. 

Rev'd Sir : Upon my first coming into the 

parish, I found the Church in a declining condition. The 
Quakers and Independents have been very busy to subvert, 
and by many studied arts and rules, utterly to destroy it — 
I may say the Christian religion here. One of their strat- 
asrems was to sue for an edifice wherein divine service was 
performed by Ministers of the Church of England for near 
30 years, by pretence that they had better right in it than 
the Church members. And this met with not a little suc- 
cess, for in suing Mr. Poyer, my predecessor, who being 
defendant in the case, they, upon a very odd turn in the 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, JAMAICA. 153 

trial, cast him. I am informed that in this suit, the Coun- 
sel upon the part of the Church always designed to put 
the matter upon some points of law which are clearly in 
the Church's favour, and accordingly at the time of trial of- 
fered to demur in law, but was diverted therefrom by the 
late Chief Justice, Lewis Morris, Esq., (before whom the 
trial was,) who told them that he would recommend it to 
the Jury to find a special Verdict, and if they did not, but 
found generally and against the Church, he would then al- 
low a new trial — which, after the Jury had found a general 
verdict against the Church, he absolutely refused, when 
the Counsel for the Church laid claim to his promise, and 
strongly insisted upon the benefit thereof. I have been 
told by some of the Counsel for the Church that the only 
seeming reason he gave for his denial was that a bad prom- 
ise was better broken than kept, and thus an end was put 
to the controversy. 

The town having recovered their house of worship, 
Mr. Cross, the Presbyterian minister, was immediately 
put in possession of it, and his successors enjoyed the 
undisturbed possession of it as long as that venerable 
edifice remained. Still, however, the Episcopal clergy 
continued to be supported by a tax on the inhabitants, 
Presbyterians, Dutch Reformed, and others, from 
which they were not relieved until the Revolution of 
1776. But to this subject I shall have occasion to re- 
fer again. 



154 HISTORY OF THE 



CHAPTEE VI. 
17^4.-1774^. 

A FREE SCHOOL — THE TOWN TAKE POSSESSION OP THE CHURCH — MR. CROSS 
CALLED TO PHILADELPHIA — THE PEOPLE STRENDOUSLY OPPOSE HIS RE- 
MOVAL — HIS REMOVAL — HIS EPITAPH — WALTER WILMOT — PUT IN POS- 
SESSION OF THE PARSONAGE — MRS. WILMOT — HER DEATH — MR. WHITEFIELD 
VISITS THE PLACE — HIS PREACHING ON REGENERATION TROUBLES MK. 
COLGAN — EFFECT — MR. WILMOt'S DEATH — EPITAPH — MR. COLGAN RE- 
JOICES — DAVID BOSTWICK — TOWN FORMALLY SURRENDERS CHURCH PROP- 
ERTr TO THE PRESBYTERIANS — THE RECORD — MR. BOSTWICK CALLED TO 
NEW YORK — COMMITTEE OF SYNOD MEET AT JAMAICA ON HIS REMOVAL — 
MR. BOSTWICK APPOINTED TO SUPPLY NEW YORK — COMMITTEE OP SYNOD 
MEET AT PRINCETON — VOTE FOR HIS REMOVAL — HIS MINISTRY IN NEW 
YORK — HIS PUBLICATIONS, CHARACTER AND DEATH — ELIHU SPENCER — 
ORDAINED AS A MISSIONARY TO THE INDIANS — HIS KNOWLEDGE OP THE 
INDIAN LANGUAGES — SETTLES AT ELIZABETHTOWN — REMOVES TO JAMAICA 
— CHAPLAIN IN THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR — SETTLES AT ST. GEORGe's 

del. — removes to trenton, n. j. — his ready talent — epitaph — his 
descendants — b. bradner — wm. mills — number in communion — re- 
vival of religion — effect op an account of the revival at bast- 
hampton — mr. whitefield visits jamaica, the second time —preaches 
in an orchard — a tract by mr. mills — mr. seabury vs. mr. white- 
field — mr. mills declines a call to philadelphia — his death — 
his disease — his children — his mss. — people still resist the tax 
to support the episcopal ministry — mr. bloomer on the political 
troubles of 177(3 — shuts his church for five sundays until the 
king's troops arrive. 

JAMAICA May the forth 1726 at a town meeting 

held at Jamaica at the time aforesaid it was voted by 
y* majority of the freeholders then & there assembled 

voted that Mr. Pier [Poyer] Mr Cross Just Betts Just 
Messinger Just Smith & Clerk Smith are appointed and 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, JAMAICA. 155 

cliosen to see what peojDle are willing to agree to doe or sub- 
scribe toward y incorrigement of a free seoule in y^ town 

entered by me nehe'" Smith cletk 

Records III. p. 478. 

Jamaica febrewary the 21** 1V26-7 

At a town meeting held at Janaica at y' time aforesaid 
it was voted & concluded by y* majority of y" freeholders 
then & there assembled 

that y ground whereon y^ stone building or meeting 
house now stands in Jamaica with y^ said building itselfe 
which are situate near y* middle of the maine street in 
Jamaica abovesaid near where y^ old pound lately stood 
& in y* occupation of Mr Thomas Poyer shall be granted 
& assigned unto John carpenter Jonas Wood and Ben- 
jamin Thurstone, sume of y^ surviving trusteese by whome 
it was built & it is hereby granted and assigned unto 
y* said John Carj^enter Jonas wood tfc Benjamin Thurstone 
to have and to hold the lands in trust for y^ town & to be 
disposed of by them in trust for y* town according to 
y^ first intention of y^ builders 

Just Beets Mr Poyer Just oldfield & Richard Comes 
enter their protest against y* abovesaid vote & Mr clows 
alsoe protest against y* same vote 

Entered by me ISTehemiah Smith clerk 

Records III. p. 478. 

In 1734, it appears that the First Presbyterian. 
Church in Philadelphia had given Mr. Cross a call, as 
the matter of his removal was before the Synod to be 
there determined. The Commissioners from Jamaica 
and Philadelphia were heard at length, " and after the 
most critical examination of the affair, and the solemn 
imploring the divine assistance, the matter was put to 



156 HISTOKY OF THE 

vote and carried against Mr. Cross's transportation." 
Tlie Church at Philadelphia was divided ; there being 
a considerable party opposed to Mr. Cross. The 
next year that part of the congregation in favour 
of Mr. Cross, petitioned the Synod to be erected 
into a new congregation. The petition was granted 
by a large majority. In 1736, a call was presented 
to him from the new congregation, formed agreeably 
to the permission of Synod given the year before, 
"and his sentiments concerning it desired by the 
Synod." In answer, Mr. Cross declared that he 
thought the Synod could not determine this matter 
until his people had been duly apprized of it, and that 
as things now appeared it was " his duty to stay with 
the people of Jamaica." "After much and long debat- 
ing about this affair," the Synod at length adopted an 
overture that judgment should be deferred concerning 
it until the next meeting of Synod, that the people of 
Jamaica might be apprized of the business, and have 
an opportunity to bring in their objections against Mr. 
Cross's removal.* In the mean time, Mr. Cross was 
appointed to supply the new congregation in Philadel- 
phia, for two months, before the next meeting of the 
Synod ; and provision was, at the same time, made for 
supplying the people of Jamaica, during Mr. Cross's 
absence. The next year. May 27th, 1737, the subject 
of Mr. Cross's removal to Philadelphia came again be- 
fore the Synod ; the people of Jamaica presented their 



* Elizabeth Ashbridge, a celebrated qnakeress of that day, has left this 
record : " His people almost adored him, and impoverished themselves to 
equal the sum offered him in the city; but failing in this they lost him." — 
Spragu^s Annals. 



PEE8BYTERIAN CHURCH, JAMAICA. 157 

reasons why he should not be removed, and the repre- 
sentatives of the newly erected congregation at Phila- 
delphia "put in a supplication" designed to invalidate 
" the supplication from Jamaica." Mr. Cross submit- 
ted himself wholly to the judgment of the Synod. " The 
Synod entered upon a very serious debate about this 
whole affair, in which considerable time being spent, 
at last, after solemn calling upon God for light and di- 
rection in such a momentous matter, it was put to the 
vote, Transport Mr. Cross from Jamaica to Philadel- 
phia or not ; and it w^as carried in the aflSrmative, ne- 
mine contradicente. The Synod appointed Messrs. 
Thompson and Anderson to prepare a suitable letter 
to the congregation of Jamaica, signifying what w^as 
done in said affair." This was ordered at the request 
of Mr. Cross. In the minutes of Synod for 1738, there 
is the following entry: "It is reported that Mr. Kobert 
Cross was installed, since our last, according to the 
Synod's appointment, and that the two congregations 
in Philadelphia were since united." He remained pas- 
tor of the First Presbyterian Church, Philadelphia, till 
his death, which took place in August, 1766. He was 
buried in the cemetery of the First Presbyterian 
Church, Philadelphia. The following is the inscrip- 
tion on his tomb : 

*' Under this marble are deposited the bodies of Rev. 
Mr. Robert Cross, who was born near Bally Kally in 
Ireland anno 1689, and died anno 1766, and of Mary, his 
wife, who was born in New^ York anno 1688, and died 
anno 1766. 

"He was removed from a pastoral charge in Long 
Island to be one of the ministers of the First Presbyterian 



158 HISTORY OF THE 

Church, in this city, anno 1737. He excelled in prudence 
and gravity, and a general deportment, was esteemed for 
his learned acquaintance with the Holy Scriptures, and 
long accoimted one of the most respectable ministers in 
this j^rovince. 

"Keadek, imitate his virtues and prepare for 

Death." 

In 1735, Mr. Cross published a sermon, preached 
before the commission of Synod at Philadelphia, which 
he affectionately dedicated to liis people at Jamaica. 
In the dedication he says : '' It is now (my friends) al- 
most twelve years since you called me to the delightful 
work of the ministry among you." He remained pas- 
tor of this church almost fourteen years, and it is evi- 
dent was very highly esteemed in Jamaica. There is 
tradition of a revival of religion in the congregation 
during his ministry, as the fruit of which a consider- 
able number joined the church. It is certain that he 
was one of the most prominent and influential ministers 
of the day in which he lived. 

at a town meeting att Jamaica 5th aprill 1737 
voted by y^ majority of the freeholders then and there 
assembled that I^athan Smith & Hendrick Elderd are 
chosen assessors for the insuing year & they are obliged 
to take a new assessment & deliver a copj^ey of y* same 
to the vestrymen in order for their making the Parish 
Rate Records III. p. 467. 

The Rev. 

WALTER WILMOT 

was ordained here by the Presbytery of New York, 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, JAMAICA. 159 

April 12th, 1738,-^ Mr. Peinberton of Kew York preach- 
ing on the occasion, from Col. i. 7. He was born at 
Southampton, on this island, in 1709 ; was educated 
at Yale, where he graduated in 1735. He married a 
daughter of Jotham Townsend, of Oyster Bay, a mem- 
ber of the Society of Friends. Mrs. Wilmot was a 
woman eminent for piety, but she died at the early 
age of twenty-three years. The sermon preached at 
her funeral in Oyster Bay, where she was interred, is 
in my possession. It was preached by the Rev. Eben- 
ezer Prime, of Huntington, from Ezek. xxiv. 16. I have 
also a copy of the Journal kept by Mrs. Wilmot, which 

* Frydaj 21 aprill 1738 at a publick town meeting of je inhabitants & 
freeholders of Jamaica at ye County Hall Yoted ordered & concluded that 
the parsonage house & homestead together with all & singular the outlands 
meadow tenements & hereditaments thereunto belonging shall be abide 
remain & continue in the peaceable occupation & use of Mr Walter Wilmot 
the present presbeterian minister of the said town for during & so long as 
he shall remain & continue our minister (at ye same town meeting) voted 
yt capt Increas Carpenter Just Henry Ludlum & Just Richard Everit are 
appointed to put Mr Walter Wilmot in possession of ye parsonage house & 
land & meadow as above exprest pr Samll Smith Jun"" clerk 

Records III. p. 4:QQ. 

Whereas at a publick town meeting at Jamaica in Queens County, the 
freeholders of the said town being duly called & did meet at the County 
Hall on friday the 21^ day of aprill anno : 1738 it was then & there voted 
by the majority of the said freeholders that Increase Carpenter Just Henry 
Ludlum & Just Richard Everit should put the Revd Mr Walter Wilmot 
the present Presbyterian miuester of the congregation of Jamaica above 
said in possession of the parsonage house homestead and all other the land 
meadow tenements & hereditements there unto belonging We did there 
fore persuent to the above power on the 26th day of april anno: 1738 take 
the above premises into our possession & the same did deliver into the 
peaceable possession & seisin of the said Mr. Walter Wilmot during so 
long as he shall continue minister of the said congregation as followeth 
the house & homestead we put into his peaceable possession in presence 
of James Cebra & Elijah Barton : the outlands & meadow in presence of 
Benjamin Smith jun"" & James Cebra, as evidences we took with us for 
that purpose entered per Samii Smith Jun' elk 

Records III. p. 465 & 6. 



160 HISTORY OF THE 

was publislied by her husband, after her death. In the 
dedication "to Mr. Jotham Townsend, father of the 
deceased, Mr. Wilmot says : " In the latter part of her 
life, she scarcely seemed to be an inhabitant of this 
world; for as she had frequently intimations of her de- 
parture, so she kept death in view, and made it her 
grand concern to be found ready. Her time, her powers, 
her soul, her body, in a word her all, for some months 
before she left us, seemed devoted to the service and 
glory of her dear Kedeemer." " 'Tis with pleasure I can 
observe your daughter was generally beloved and hon- 
oured whilst she lived amongst us. I believe I shall not 
easily forget you nor your family, out of which I have 
had so desireable a companion. Her stay with me in- 
deed was short; but it was pleasant and very agreeable: 
I may say without vanity, we lived together in perfect 
harmony, and knew no other strife betwixt us, but that 
of making each other happy : in this we strove to excel ; 
and in this, no doubt, she had the pre-eminence. Let us 
join to remember the dear infant, the little image of her- 
self, she has left behind her; 'tis the only remaining 
part of an obedient daughter and tender wife." The 
affecting little volume closes with this passage from her 
private papers : " O how many fears attend me ! O that 
I knew how it must be with my soul when I depart 
this life ! I shall within a few days pass through a 
scene of darkness ; and I know not but it will be the 
dark valley of the shadow of death ; and then except 
the Lord support me I shall fall. O my soul, meditate 
on the season. Make haste and not delay to be found 
crying for a sealed pardon from the great Judge of 
Heaven ; that when death approaches, thou mayest be 



PRESBYTEKIAJN^ CHTJECH, JAMAICA. 161 

found ready to depart : O Lord, be my helper. Grant 
that whether I live or die, I may be the Lord's. Be 
with me this night for the sake of Clirist, Amen. This 
day sweet advice from a near friend, to trust only in 
God." On the above her husband remarks: "This per- 
haps was the last passage she ever wrote. She lived 
without any remarkable alteration till the Friday follow- 
ing; was taken amiss that evening, was soon speechless, 
and in a great measure senseless. On Saturday about 
three of the clock fell asleep ('tis hopeful) in the Lord 
Jesus Christ. On the next Monday following, she was 
interred at Oyster Bay, the place of her nativity ; and 
has left me to bewail an unspeakable loss. When I 
returned home and looked amongst her papers, the 
following lines to me (which must have been w^ritten 
near two months before her death) lay first in sight, 
and came first to hand : 

' De^r partner of my eartlily love, 
I quickly from you shall remove ; 
My soul will take lier hasty flight, 
To everlasting shades of night, 
Or to the endless realms of light.' " 

Mr. Wilmot w^as evidently a man distinguished for 
spirituality of mind and ardor of piety ; and although 
he died young, it cannot be doubted that his ministry 
here was crowned with the happiest results ; but what 
those results actually were, from the paucity of our 
records and the failure of tradition, cannot now cer- 
tainly be known. Li 1740 it is evident Mr, Whitefield 
visited this place, and that his labours, as elsewhere, 
were greatly blessed to the awakening of numbers to 
attend to the salvation of their souls. The efiect of 



162 ' HISTORY OF THE 

his labours may be judged of by the following extracts 
from letters of Mr. Colgan, the Episcopal missionary 
here, at that time^ to the Secretary of the Society for 
the Propagation of Religion in Foreign Parts : 

Jamaica, Nov. 22d, 1740. 
Some enthusiastical itinerant teachers have of late been 
preaching upon this Island, the notorious Mr. Whitfield 
being at the head of them, and among other pernicious 
tenets have broached such false and erroneous opinions 
concerning the doctrine of Regeneration as tend to the 
destruction of true religion and of a holy and virtuous 
life ; and therefore I take this opportunity to beg that the 
Society would be pleased to bestow upon the people of 
this Parish a few of Dr. Waterland's pieces on that subject, 
and of his Lordship, the Bishop of London's Pastoral Let- 
ters upon lukewarmness and enthusiasm. 

The opinions of Mr. Whitefield on the doctrine of 
regeneration are perfectly well known ; he hardly 
preached a sermon without insisting upon it; "and one, 
and perhaps the best of his discourses," says the Rev. 
Joseph Smith, who published a discourse on his 
character and preaching, " was ex jyrofesso on this 
subject." 

It was in 1739 that Mr. Whitefield sailed the second 
time for America. He arrived in Philadelphia in 
I^ovember of that 3'ear, and from thence was invited 
to NcAV York, Avhere he preached in the open air in 
the day time, and in the Rev. Mr. Pemberton's Church 
in the evening, for above a week. It was at this 
time, probably, he visited Jamaica; and, wherever he 
preached, thousands were gathered from various parts. 



PKESBYTERIAN CHURCH, JAMAICA. 163 

" It was no less pleasing than strange to liim to see 
such gatherings in a foreign land ; ministers and peo- 
ple shedding tears ; sinners struck with awe ; and 
serious persons who had been much run down and 
despised, filled with joy."* The Messrs. Tennents, Blair, 
Rowland, and Mr. Frelinghuysen, a Dutch minister, 
received him gladly ; and these devoted men, or some 
of them, were doubtless the " enthusiastical itinerant 
teachers," referred to in Mr. Colgan's epistle, associated 
with Mr. Whitefield. It is gratifj^ing to contemplate 
Mr. Wilmot as a man of kindi-ed spirit with these emi- 
nently holy and useful men. A work of grace, under 
their combined labours, evidently took place here, and 
in the surrounding region, which continued for a con- 
siderable period, as appears from the follow^ing : 

Mr. Colgcin to the Secretary. 
[extract.] 

Jamaica, March 23d, 1743. 
Rev'd Sir, — Our Church here is in a flourishing con- 
dition; her being depressed of late by those clouds of 
error and enthusiasm, which hung so heavily about her, 
has in effect tended to her greater illustration and glory. 
If the Society would be pleased to order me some small 
tracts, such as the Trial of Mr. Whitfield's Spirit, An 
Englishman directed in the choice of his Religion, Bishop 
Stillingfleet's Unreasonableness of Separation, &c. [In a 
previous letter dated Dec. loth, 1741, from Mr. C. to the 
Secretary this sentence occurs : " Enthusiasm has of late 
been very predominant amongst us " — language which 

* Gillie's Memoirs of Whitefield, chap. v. 



164 HISTORY OF THE 

refers to a state of things which we have no difficulty in 
understanding.] 

Mr. Wilmot was of a delicate constitution, and 
soon followed his wife to the grave. She died in Febru- 
ary, and he died on the 6th of the following August, 
174:4:. The following entry is found in the records 
of the church at Newtown : " The Rev. Mr. Walter 
Wilmot was taken sick the loth day of July, 1744, in 
the evening. Departed this life the 6th day of August 
following, about two of the clock in the afternoon, and 
was interred on the 7th inst., and has left his honored 
mother and people to bewail an unspeakable loss." 

Mr. Wilmot was greatly beloved by his people, and 
his death was sincerely regretted. Many children re- 
ceived the name of Walter, or Walter Wilmot, in 
memory of him. He was the fourth minister who died 
pastor of this church, and the third buried in this town. 
His grave-stone still stands in the burying-ground be- 
longing to the congregation — the inscription on which 
is as follows : 

Here lyes 

the Rev, Walter Wilmot^ 

Deo' d Aug. y' Uh, 1744, 

^tatis 35. 

No more from sacred desk I preach, 

You hear my voice no more, 
Yet, from the dead my dust shall teach 

The same I taught before. 

Be ready for this dark abode. 

That when our bodies rise, 
We meet with joy the Son of God, 

Descending from the skies. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, JAMAICA. 165 

Rev^d Mr. Colgan to the Secretary. 

Jamaica, Sept. 29, 1744. 
Rev'd Sir, — The several Churches belonging to my 
Cure (as those of Jamaica, Newtown & Flushing) are in 
a very peaceable and growing state, whilst other separate 
Assemblies in this Parish are in the utmost confusion* & 
this I can write with a great deal of truth that Independency 
which has been triumphant in this town for the 40 years 
last past is now in the providence of God in a very faint 
& declining condition which gives us hopes that better 
Principles than such as issue out thence will generally 
prevail amongst us & that we shall be better united than 

heretofore Rev'd Sir &q &c 

Thos Colgai?-. 
The Rev. 

DAVID BOSTWICK 

was ordained here October 9th, 1745, on which occasion 
President Burr preached from 2 Tim. ii. 15 : Study 
to show thyself ajjyproved of God. The sermon was 
published. The Rev. Mr. Pemberton, then minister 
of Xew York, delivered the charges, or *'an exhorta- 
tion," as it w^as called, to the minister and people. 

Mr. Bostwick was a native of New Milford, Ct., born 
January 8th, 1721, and is said to have been of Scotch 
descent. He was educated at New Haven, and after 
instructing an academy at Newark, N. J., for a short 
time, became minister here, at the age of twenty- 
four. " He continued here ten years, enjoying the 
respect and affection not only of his own people, but 
also of his brethren in the ministry." He married 
Miss Hinman of Woodbury, Ct. 

* He refers to dissensions in the Dutch Churches of Newtown and Ja- 
maica in regard to Rev. J. H. Goetschins. 



166 HISTOEY OF THE 

In 175^1: lie was appointed by the Synod of ]S"ew 
York, with others, to visit the destitute parts of Vir- 
ginia and li^orth Carolina to perforin missionary 
labour. His pulpit was ordered to be supplied, 
during his absence, by Messrs. Gumming, Horton, 
Dagget and Park. 

At a general town meeting, held on the 21st of 
April, 1753, the town, by a unanimous vote, three per- 
sons only dissenting, viz., Samuel Clowes, Jr., Robert 
Denton and Joseph Oldfield, gave the meadow and up- 
land which in 1676 had been " set apart for the use of 
a minister of the Presbyterian denomination," to the 
elders and deacons of that congregation, to be sold, to 
have and to hold the money arising from the sale — the 
interest to be devoted to the support of a Presbyterian 
minister forever. Daniel Smith, Elias Baylis, Increase 
Carpenter and Nehemiah Smith, are the persons named 
as the elders and deacons at that time. 

Queens County ss : you are hereby required to give 
warning to all the freeholders of the town of Jamaica to 
meet at the County Hall of the said County in Jamaica 
aforesaid on Saturday the 21st instant at two of the clock 
in the afternoon of the same day to consult upon some prop- 
er meathods for disposing of the Parsonage outlands & 
meadows, for the support of the ministry : agreeable to 
the true intent & meaning of a voate of the said town 
made at a towne meeting of the said town on the ninth 
day of June anno Dom 1676: & hereof you are not to 
fail Given under our hands & seals this 16th day of april 
anno 1753. Samll Smith 



T T-k I Justices 

James JJentox 

To the Constable of Jamaica These Records iv. p. 6. 



PRESBYTEKIAN CHUKCH, JAMAICA. 167 

At a general town meeting held at the County Hall in 
Jamaica on Saturday the 21st day of april anno Domini 
1753 

Present Sam'l Smith "] 

Jas Denton Esqs V Justisses 
Abm Polhemus J 

It was voted by the majority of the freeholders then & 
there assembled that whereas at a town meeting on the 9th 
of June 1676 it was voted and concluded that there should 
be forty acres of meadow designed & set apart for a Parson- 
age Lott in the east neck joining to the lotts of meadow 
layd out with upland projoortionable to other lotts laid out in 
the town to continue at the dispose of the town to a minister 
when they shall have occasion to make use of it & whereas 
the town hath continued the said meadows & upland set 
apart therewith for the use of a minister of y Presby- 
terian denomination since that time & now find that the 
land is not of so much use for the support of the present 
minister who is the Reverend Mr. David Bostwick nor 
likely to be of such use to his successors in the ministry 
of the said town as if the same was sold and disposed of 
& the money arising by the sale thereof put out to intrest ; 
it is now therefore voted & concluded by the town at their 
meeting on this 21st day of april 1753 that the said 
meadow & lands set apart therewith be given and granted 
by the town, & they are hereby accordingly given & 
granted to Daniel Smith Elias Bayles Increas Carpenter 
& Nehemiah Smith the present elders & deacons of the 
Presbyterian church & congregation in the towne To have 
<& to hold the same to them their heirs & assigns for ever 
in trust nevertheless that the said Daniel Smith Elias 
Bayles Increas Carpenter & Nehemiah Smith or the major 
part of them & the survivors of them or the major part 



16S HISTORY OF THE 

of such survivors & the last survivor of them do grant 
bargain & sell the }3remises in fee simple to the best ad- 
vantage that they can & that they & the major part of 
them & the survivors and major part of such survivors & 
survivor of them do put out the money arising by the sale 
of the premises to interest upon land security for y* use & 
benefit of the said town in their maintenance & support 
of a Presbyterian minister for the use of the said town & 
it is hereby further voted & concluded that so often as 
new securities from time to time shall be taken that the 
same be to the elders of the said Presbyterian church & 
congregation in said town of Jamaica for the time being 
& that the interest of the said money arising from the said 
sale be for the maintenance & use of such Presbyterian 
minister as shall be chosen by the said town for ever. 

The above vote clear only Sam'l Clows Jr. Robert 
Denton & Josej^h Oldfield protest against the above vote. 

Enterd p SaniU Smith elk 

Records IV. p. 5. 

In 1755, Mr. Bostwick was invited to take the pas- 
toral charge of the First Presbyterian Church, in the 
city of ^ew York. The Presbytery of New York 
referred the call to the Synod, which body appointed 
Messrs. Grilbert Tennent, Prime, William Tennent, 
Burr, Treat, Davenport, John Smith of Rye. McCrea, 
Beatty, Hunter, Allen, Read, Buel, Sacket, Brown, 
Lewis and Rodgers, to be their committee, to meet at 
Jamaica on the 29th of October, 1755, " to determine 
that aftair, and any other matters relative to it, that 
may come before them." 

At the meeting of Synod in 1756, " the committee 
appointed to meet at Jamaica on the affair of Mr. 



PEESBYTEKIAN CHUKCH, JAMAICA. 169 

Bostwick's removal, laid the minutes of their proceed- 
ing before the Synod, which were approved, and are 
as follows : 

"At a meeting of the committee of the Synod of 
New York at Jamaica, October 29, 1755, according to 
appointment; Present, Messrs. President Burr, Samuel 
Sacket, Samuel Buel, Israel Read, James Brown, Tim- 
othy Allen. 

^''Postjoreces, sederunt qui sujpra. 

'' The committee was opened by a sermon preached 
by Mr. Buel, from Job xiv. (xv?) 8. 

" Mr. Burr chosen moderator, Mr. Allen, clerk. 

"The affair of Mr. Bostwick's removal came under 
consideration. The committee having heard all the 
several parties concerned in that affair liad to offer, 
after much deliberation, adjourned the farther con- 
sideration of it till to-morrow, half an hour past eight in 
the morning, to which time the committee is adjourned. 
Concluded with prayer. 

" Z^th day. The committee met according to adjourn- 
ment. Uhi jpost jpreces sederunt. 

"The committee proceeded to a long deliberation 
on the affair of Mr. Bostwick's removal. 

^^Eodem die, (same day,) seven of the dock, P. M. 

" Messrs. Gilbert Tennent, William Tennent, James 
McCrea, Charles Beatty, Andrew Hunter, and John 
Rogers, came, being prevented attending the preceding 
sederunts (sessions) by the tempestuousness of the 
weather. 

" The affair of Mr. Bostwick's removal from Jamaica 



170 HISTOIiY OF TIIE 

to New York, reconsidered ; and after much consulta- 
tion, concluded to defer the further consideration of it 
till to-morrow morning, at eight of the clock, to which 
time the committee is adjourned. Concluded with 
prayer. 

"31.925 day. The committee met accor^ding to adjourn- 
ment. Uhi post preces sederunt. 

"The affair of Mr. Bostwick's removal, &c., reas- 
sumed. 

"The committee not having sufficient light to coino 
to a full determination of that affair at this time, con- 
clude that it be referred to the standina^ commission of 
the Synod of New York, to be convened by the mod- 
erator, at Princeton, on the second Wednesday of April 
next, at eleven of the clock, a. m. ; and that Mr. Bost- 
w^ick be appointed to supply at New York, the whole 
months of December and January, and tlie first two 
Sabbaths of February next; and that the Pi'esbytery of 
New York provide a constant supply for Jamaica, 
durino; Mr. Bostwick's absence. And this committee 
recommends it to the people of Jamaica to make the 
necessary winter provisions for Mr. Bostwick's family 
as usual. Concluded with prayer." 

"The commission of the Synod made report to the 
Synod, that they met on the affair of Mr. Bostwick's 
removal referred unto them by the committee. The 
minutes of their proceedings are as follows : 

" The commission of the Synod of New York, regu- 
larly called, met at 

'■^Princeton, April 14:th, 1756. 

^^ Present: Messrs. the Moderator, Aaron Burr, John 



PEESBYTEEIAN CHUKCH, JA^IAICA. 171 



Pierson, William Tennent, Kicbard Treat, James Dav- 
enport, John Rogers, Azariali Horton. 

'' Absent: Messrs. Elilm Spencer, David Bostwick, 
Gilbert Tennent, Charles Tennent, Ebenezer Prime, 
James Brown, Samuel Finley. 

" Corresjpondents : Messrs. Timothy Jones, Timothy 
Allen, Charles McKnight, John Brainerd, Charles 
Beatty, David Lawrence, Caleb Smith. 

'^Post preces, sederunt. 

" Mr. Caleb Smith was chosen clerk. 

"The commission w^as opened by a sermon, preached 
by the moderator, from John xviii. 36. 

" The Rev. Mr. Johannes Light, a minister of the 
Reformed Dutch Church, was desired to sit as a cor- 
respondent. 

" The affair of Mr. Bostwick's removal from Jamaica 
to New York, was brought before the commission, by 
a letter from the elders and deacons of the Presbyterian 
congregation in 'New York, representing their con- 
tinued unanimity for Mr. Bostwick, and that the rea- 
sons for his removal to them are very much strength- 
ened and increased by his labours among them the last 
winter, which appeared more fully by their commis- 
sioners, who were sent for that purpose. The mod- 
erator also reported that he had accidentally left at 
home, a letter he had received from Mr. Bostw^ick, 
representing his low state of health, and fear that he 
could not attend the commission, and in case he did 
not, that he would acquiesce in their judgment, about 
his removal to New York. 

"The commission having read the papers containing 
a representation of the state of the Presbyterian con- 



172 HISTORY OF THE 

gregation at Jamaica, and tlieir reasons against Mr. 
Bostwick's removal : after mnch deliberate considera- 
tion of the important affair, and earnest prayer to God 
for direction in it, adjourned the further consideration 
of it till to-morrow morning at eight of the clock. 
Concluded with prayer." 

" loth day. At eight of the cloc\ A. M.^ the coin- 
mission met. Post ^reces^ sederunt qui sicpra. 

" The Rev. Mr. David Cowel was desired to sit as a 
correspondent. 

"The affair of Mr. Bostwick's removal reassumed. 
The commission having weighed the reasons for and 
against it with deep concern, and great deliberation, 
considering the peculiar circumstances and great im- 
portance of the Xew York congregation, how long they 
have been destitute; how many fruitless attempts have 
been made to re-settle the Gospel among them ; the lit- 
tle hopes of their being so well united in any other 
person ; and especially the desirable prospect that ap- 
pears of Mr. Bostwick's great usefulness in that place ; 
cannot but judge it to be his duty to remove; and his 
pastoral relation to the church and congregration at 
Jamaica is dissolved for that purpose. But as the com- 
mission have a tender concern for the congregation of 
Jamaica, a great sense of their importance and how 
their case calls for special regard, they desire the mod- 
erator, in his journey to Boston, to look out for a can- 
didate to be sent among them, and appoint the said 
moderator to supply them one Sabbath on his return ; 
and Messrs; Simon Horton, Ebenezer Prime, and Ben- 
jamin Talmage, are appointed to supply at Jamaica the 



PKE6BYTERIAN CHUKCH, JAMAICA. 173 

three Sabbaths immediately succeeding Mr. Bostwick's 
departure, of which Mr. Bostwick is appointed to give 
them notice. And the Presbyteries of Kew York and 
Suffolk are ordered to take special care that they be 
constantly supplied till next Synod. The commission 
also considering that the congregation of Jamaica will 
necessarily he put to charge in obtaining a re-settlement 
of the Gospel ministry^ do earnestly recommend to the 
Presbyterian church in New York^ to exercise a Christ- 
ian generosity tovKird the people of Jamaica^ that they 
may be better enabled to settle another minister^ 

This account of Mr. Bostwick's removal is instruct- 
ive, as it illustrates the importance which was attached, 
by the fathers of the Presbyterian Church, to the pas- 
toral relation. The same caution was evinced w^hen 
Mr. Cross was removed to Philadelphia. 

Mr. Bostwick remained pastor of the old Wall- 
street Church for about seven years. He died after a 
few days' illness, IsTovember 12th, 1763, in the 41th year 
of his age."^ Smith, in his History of New York (see 
Appendix, p. 307), gives this portrait of Mr. Bostwick : 
"He is a gentleman of a mild, catholic disposition ; and 
being a man of piety, prudence and zeal, confines him- 
self entirely to the proper business of his function. In 
the art of preaching he is one of the most distinguished 
clergymen in these parts. His discourses are methodi- 

* In the cemetery at Newark, N. J., there is a monument to his widow 
with this epitaph : 

"In memory of Mrs. Mary Bostwick, relict of the Rev. David Bostwick, 
late pastor of the Presbyterian Church in New York, who departed this 
life 22 September 1778, aged 57 years." 

They had ten children. One son Andrew was a colonel in the Revolu- 
tionary Army. One of his daughters married General McDougall, and 
another General Roberdeau, of the Continental Congress. 



17^ HISTORY OF THE 

cal, sound, and patlietick, in seJitimenf, and in point of 
diction singularly ornamented. He delivers himself 
without notes, and yet with great ease and fluency of 
expression ; and performs every part of divine worship 
with a striking: solemnitv." 

A treatise from his pen, entitled "A Fair and Ra- 
tional Yindication of the Right of Infants to the Ordi- 
nance of Baptism" was published in 1T6J:, and reprint- 
ed in London the following year. This work was 
republished in Kew York in 1837. It has a brief me- 
moir of the author prefixed, from which the following 
passages are taken : 

"He was remarkably supported under his last ill- 
ness, and died in the faith and hope of the Gospel. 

" As a preacher Mr. Bostwick was uncommonly 
popular. His gifts and qualifications for the pulpit 
Avere of a high order. Ilis appearance and deport- 
ment were peculiarly venerable; possessing a clear 
understanding, a warm heart, a quick apprehension, a 
lively imagination, a solid judgment and a strong voice; 
he spoke in a distinct, deliberate, and impressive man- 
ner, and with a commanding eloquence. 

" He dealt faithfully with his hearers — declaring to 
them the whole counsel of God — showing them their 
danger and their remedy; speaking with the solemnity 
becoming the importance of the subject, and in lan- 
guage pure and elegant, yet plain and affectionate : 
never below the dignity of the pulpit, nor above the 
capacity of any in his auditory." 

Mr. Bostwick was the author of a memoir of Pres. 
Davies, prefixed to his sermon on the death of 
George II. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHIJECH, JAMAICA. 175 

After liis removal from Jamaica, the Rev. Simon 
Horton, of IN'ewtown was called to be the minister of 
the place, as appears from the following passage in 
r)r. Berrian's late history of Trinity Church, IN'ew 
York : 

"In the beginning of the year 1756, the Rev. Mr. 
Barclay acquainted the Society that the Church had suf- 
fered a great loss, by the death of Mr. Colgan, formerly a 
catechist in this parish, but, for many years, a laborious 
and worthy minister at Jamaica Town in L. I. ; and that 
the churches under his care were very apprehensive of 
great difficulties in obtaining a Clergyman of the Church 
of England to succeed him, because the dissenters Avere a 
majority in the vestry of that parish. It too soon appeared 
that their apprehensions were not without good reason, 
for the dissenters prevailed by their majority in the vestry 
to present one Simon Horton, a dissenting teacher, to Sir 
Charles Hardy, the Governor, for induction into the Parish, 
but the Governor would not admit him into that cure. 
After more than six months his excellency was pleased 
to collate to the cure of the Church, the Rev. Samuel 
Seabury, Jr."— P. 118. 

Mr. Bostwick was succeeded in this place by the 
Rev. 

ELIHU SPENCER, D. D. 

He was a descendant of Jared Spencer, one of five 
brothers, who emigrated from England to Massachu- 
setts early in the seventeenth century. His parents 
were Isaac and Mary Spencer, and he was born at East 
Haddam, Conn., February 12th, 1721. He entered 
Yale College in 171:2, and was graduated in 1746. He 
was ordained to the work of the ministry in Boston, 



176 HISTORY OF THE 

September, 1748, with a special view to a mission 
among the Indians. "A better testimony to the piety 
of the Rev. Dr. Spencer cannot be offered than by 
statuig that lie was particularly recommended to the 
commissioners at Boston, by David Brainerd, who was 
one of the best of men, as a suitable character for the 
missionary scfi'vice among the aborigines."^ He was 
also recommended by Jonathan Edwards. He entered 
on the study of the languages of the Indian tribes, and 
could speak several of them witli great ease and 
fluency.f 

But the Presbyterian Church at Elizabethtown, ]N^. J* 
becoming vacant by the death of that great and 
good man, President Dickinson, the preaching of Mr. 
Spencer proved so acceptable to that congregation, 
that a call was presented him to become their pastor. 
The leadings of Providence were such tliat lie felt it 
his duty to accept, and was installed there February 
7th, 1750. Soon after, he married Joanna, daughter of 
John Eaton, Esq., of Shrewsbury. In 1753, he was in- 
vited by Gov. Belcher to become Chaplain of the New 
Jersey Regiment, engaged in the French and Indian 
war, which he does not appear to have accepted. In 
1752 he was appointed a Trustee of the College of New 
Jersey, and held this office as long as he lived. 

"In 1756," says Dr. Miller, '-he left Elizabethtown, 
and accepted a call to the pastoral charge of the Pres- 
byterian Church at Jamaica, L. I." He labored here 
either as pastor, or stated supply, from May 2 2d, 1758> 
to May, 1760. He was then appointed by Gov. De 
Lancey, of New York, a chaplain to the New York 

* Alden's Epitaphs, p. 194:. + Dr. Miller. 



PRESBYTERIAK CHURCH, JAMAICA. 177 

forces, about to march to the French and Indian war, 
which was still raging. Tradition says that the con- 
gregation consented to part with him thinking they 
could entrust their children, who had enlisted in the 
army, to his care. The following is found in the 
printed minutes of the Synod of Kew York, p. 283 • 
" In case Mr. Spencer shall go out as chaplain with the 
Kew York forces, the Synod appoints Mr. Simon Hor- 
ton to supply Jamaica three sabbaths, and Mr. John 
Smith two sabbaths, and that the Presbytery of Suf- 
folk supply seven-eighths of the remaining time of his 
absence." Whilst at Jamaica he prepared for the 
press his Letter to President Styles on " The Dissent 
ing Interest in the Middle Colonies of America," whicli 
attracted no small share of public attention. He was 
likewise author of a pamphlet on the origin and growth 
of Episcopacy. 

On his return from the army he laboured in the con- 
gregations of Shrewsbury, Middletown Point, and Am- 
boy; and in 176^, was sent by the Sjmod of Kew York 
and Philadelphia, in company witli J)v. M'Whorter, of 
Kewark, to the Southern ChurcheSj especially in JS^orth 
Carolina, on an important service. 

After Dr. Rodgers' removal from St. George^s, Dela- 
ware, to the city of New York, he succeeded him in 
that pastoral charge, where he remained five years. 
He removed to Trenton, N. J., in 1770, and continued 
to be the pastor of that church until December, 1781:, 
wdien he died. He is said to have been a man of 
prompt, popular, excellent talents ; of higlily respect- 
able literary character ; one of the most ready exteni' 

pore preachers of his day, and eminent for his zeal and 

8* 



178 HISTORY OF THE 

usefulness. "Whenever, at the meeting of any judi- 
catory, the ministers were at a Joss about a preacher, 
and he appeared, the remark was — Here comes ready- 
money Spencer; now we shall have a sermon." 
The following is the inscription on his gravestone : 
" Beneath this stone lies the body of the Eev. Elihu 
Spencer, D. D., pastor of the Presbyterian Church of 
Trenton and one of the Trustees of the College of Kew 
Jersey : who departed this life on the 27th of Decem- 
ber, 178J:, in the 6J:tli year of liis age. Possessed of 
line genius, ot* great vivacity, of eminent, active piety, 
his merits as a minister and a man stand above the 
reach of flattery. Having long edified the Church by 
his talents and example, and finished liis course with 
joy, he fell asleep full of faith, and waiting for the hope 
of all saints." 

Dr. Spencer left a numerous family. Only one son, 
John Spencer, Esrp, a lawyer, reached adult age. His 
third daughter, Margaret, married Jonathan Dickinson 
Sergeant, Esq., a distinguished member of the Phila- 
delphia Bar, and member of Congress. The Hon. John 
Sergeant, and the Hon. Thomas Sergeant, eminent ju- 
rists, and the late Mrs. Sarah Miller, of Prir.ceton, wife 
of Rev. Dr. Miller, were their children. "^^ The Eev. 

BEXOXI BRADXER 

preached here, after Dr. Spencer, from 1760 to 1761. 
He was son of the Rev. John Bradner, the first min- 
ister of Goshen, in this State, and was born in 1734. 
He graduated at Nassau Hall in 1755. It is not 
certain whether he was installed as pastor, or preached 

* Dr. Miller, in Sprague's Annals, pp. 165-169. 



PRESBYTERTAK CHUECH, JAI^IAICA. 179 

here merely as a candidate : tradition says tliat he was 
installed. He married, in Jamaica, Miss Eebecca Brid- 
ges. He is said to have been troubled with shortness 
of breath, and to have been of a consumptive habit. 
He left about June 22, 1761, on account of a division 
in the congregation, although the greater part are said 
to have liked him. He is never mentioned as a mem- 
ber of Synod ; but his name appears as a corresponding 
member, in 1761. Mr. Braclner became minister of 
Blooming Grove Church, in Orange Co., in June, 1786. 
In 1802, he ceased from the labors of the pulpit. He 
died after a long and distressing illness, January 29th, 
1801, in the seventy-lirst year of his age. The Rev. 

WILLIAM MILLS, 

a native of Smith town, on this Island, Was the next 
pastor. His father's name was Isaac, who with two 
brothers settled at Mills' Pond. He was born 
March 13th, 1739, was a graduate of Nassau Hall in 
1756, studied theology at Neshaminy, was licensed by 
the Presbytery of New Brunswick in March, 1760, was 
ordained at Flemington, K J., April 21st, 1762, and 
was installed here soon after, having begun to preach 
as a candidate on the first Sabbath in July, 1761. He 
married Mary, the daughter of John Reading, Esq., act- 
ing Governor of New Jersey in 1747, and again in 1757. 
At the time of his settlement here, there were but 
twelve persons, members in full communion of the 
church. There were no records to be found belouijino: 
to the church. In a book of minutes which he beffan 
to keep August 30th, 1767, he says, "When I settled 
in tliis place, which was in the year 1762, I found no 



180 HISTORY OF THE 

records belonging to the cliurcb, no, not so mucli as a 
Register of the names of such as were in fall commun- 
ion. And as the congregation were unacquainted with 
the business of church sessions, the business of the 
church which we had to transact was done without 
strictly attending to the forms of Presbyterianism. 
Another reason why no minutes have been kept of our 
proceedings is, that we have been happy enough to 
have Utile or none of that business to do which church 
sessions are very generally employed about, in their 
meetings. There have, it is true, been a very consider- 
able number added to the church in this time, who have 
ordinarily been examined by the cliurch sessions, or in 
their presence, whose names are preserved in a Regis- 
ter kept for that purpose. But notwithstanding all 
this, I wish, I heartily wish, that minutes had been 
kept both before, and since my settlement in this 
church, of its proceedings." The names of ruling 
elders given are Joseph Skidraore, Esq., Daniel Baylis, 
Elias Baylis, and Increase Carpenter. At the meeting 
of; the session, June 21, 1770, Nicholas Smith and 
Samuel Denton, are stated to be present as Elders. 

Mr. Mills appears to have been highly esteemed by 
his people as an exemplary Christian, and faithful min- 
ister of the Gospel. During his ministry there occur- 
red a revival of religion, probably in 1761, by which a 
considerable number were added to the Church. The 
last of the fruits of that gracious work, Mrs. Elizdeath 
Everitt, who was born May 4, 171:5, left this world in 
18-10, at the advanced age of 95, liaving been a com- 
municant nearly 75 years. It appears to have com- 
menced at a time when Mr. Mills was absent from 



PEESBYTERIAK CHtTRCH, JAMAICA. 181 

lioine, and tlie people were assembled on the Lord's 
day to attend upon such services as the Elders are in 
tlie liabit of conducting in tlie absence of the minister. 
Among other things, a letter was read from Dr. Bael, 
the minister at Easthampton, giving an account of a 
remarkable revival among his people. In the narrative 
of this revival, which Dr. Buel published, he says, 
" Some past accounts of this work have been owned of 
God; which gives ground to hope that a more par- 
ticular account may have a happy effect, by the divine 
blessing, for the revival of religion in other places." 
The effect, when his letter was read at Jamaica, w*a3 
surprising. The Spirit of God seemed at once to fill 
the place where they were sitting, the whole congrega- 
tion was melted to tenderness. An aged member of 
the church, w^ho deceased several years ago, informed 
the waiter, that she well remembered, though she was 
but a small child at the time, tlie very solemn appear- 
ance of the family, and their serious conversation, on 
their return from the house of God. On Mr. Mills's 
arrival, he found a gracious work had commenced ; 
and, subsequently, a goodly number were received 
into the communion of the church as the fruit of it. 
It was during the summer of 1761, that Mr. White- 
field visited Jamaica, the second time, when such 
crowds fiocked to hear him that he preached in the 
open air, standing, it is said, under an apple tree, not 
far from the spot on which Union Hall. Academy is 
now located. In a letter written at this time, he says : 
"At present my health is better than usual, and as yet 
I have felt no inconvenience from the summer's heat. 
I have preached twice lately in the fields, and we sat 



182 HISTORY OF THE 

under the blessed Redeemer's sliadow with great de- 
light. My late excursions upon Long Island, I trust, 
have been blessed. It would surprise you to see above 
one hundred carriages at every sermon in the new 
world." There are still remaining a few who remem- 
ber the interest and gratitude with which they often 
heard their pious parents refer to this season of lieav^- 
enly refreshing. 

One of the methods which Mr. Mills adopted for 
doing good was the writing and distribution of small 
tracts. Bj the kindness of Mr. Thomas Baylis, an 
elder of the Second Presbyterian Church, Brooklyn, 
and a descendant of one of the former elders at Ja- 
maica, I am enabled to present one of these tracts dis- 
tributed by Mr. Mills, and preserved in Mr. B.'s family. 

The Happy Mail's Pedigree. 

The Happy Max, was born in the City of Regeneration 
— in the parish of Repentance unto Life : he was educated 
at the School of Obedience, and lives now in Perseverance : 
he works at the trade of Diligence, notwithstanding he has 
a large estate in the county of Christian Contentment ; and 
many times does jobs of Self-Denial ; he wears the plain 
garment of Humility, and has a better suit to put on when 
he goes to Court, called the Robe of Christ's Rigliteous- 
ness ; he often walks in the valley of Self- Abasement, and 
sometimes climbs the mountain of Spiritual-Mindedness ; 
he breakfasts every morning upon Spiritual Prayer, and 
sups every evening on the same ; he has Meat to eat that 
the world knows not of, and his Drink is the sincere Milk of 
the Word : — Thus, happy he lives, and happy he dies. 
Happy is he who has Gospel Submission in his will — due 
order in his affection — sound peace in his conscience — 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, JAMAICA. 183 

Sanctifying Grace in his soul — real Divinity in his breast 
— true Humility in his heart — the Redeemer's yoke on his 
neck — a vain world under his feet — and a crown of Glory 
over his head. Happy is the life of such an one : — In or- 
der to attain which — Pray frequently — Believe firmly — 
wait patiently — work abundantly — ^live Holily — die daily 
— watch your hearts — guide your senses — redeem your 
time — love Christ — and long for Glory. 

The following is an extract of a letter from Mr. Sea- 
biiiy to the Secretary of the Society for the Propa- 
gation of Religion in Foreign Parts, referring to Mr. 
Whitefield's visit to Jamaica : 

Jamaica, October 6th, 1764. 
Rev'd Sir, — Since my last letter to the Honored So- 
ciety we have had a long visit from Mr. Whitefield in this 
Colony, where he has preached frequently, especially in 
the city of New York, and in this Island ; and I am sorry 
to say I think he has had more influence than formerly^ 
and I fear has done a great deal of mischief. His tenets 
and method of preaching have been adopted by many of 
the Dissenting Teachers, and this town in particular has a 
continual^ I had almost said, a daily succession of Strolling 
Preachers and Exhorters, &c. 

In 1767, Mr. Mills received an urgent call to the 
Second Presbyterian Church in Philadelphia, but the 
Presbytery decided against it. An appeal was taken 
by the commissioners to the Sjmod, which was an- 
swered by a long remonstrance from the congregation 
of Jamaica, an address from the Presbytery, and a let- 
ter from the Rev. Ebenezer Prime, of Huntington. 
Mr. Mills also declared that he esteemed it his duty to 
remain in Jamaica. After a full hearing of the case, 



184 HISTORY OF THE 

the Synod confirmed the judgment of the Presbj^tery, 
that it would not be for the edification of the Church 
to remove him. 

This excellent minister died in the 36th year of his 
age. He had repaired to New York for medical aid, 
being aflfected with a chronic disease, and there he 
ended his days, March 18th, 1774. His remains were 
brought to Jamaica, and interred under the communion 
table in the old Stone Church. The following notice 
of his death appeared in Kivington's Gazette for March 
24th, 1774. 

On Friday last, died in this city, in the 36tli year of his 
age, the Rev. William Mills, minister of the Presbyterian 
Church at Jamaica, L. I. His amiable disposition, his 
peaceful and prudent conduct, his unaffected piety, and 
rational devotion, remarkably endeared him to those ac- 
quainted with him ; and as his life was a bright example of 
the Christian virtues he inculcated on others, so in the 
prospect of dissolution, he enjoyed that calm serenity of 
soul, and that good hope which are the peculiar blessings 
of the righteous. " Mark the perfect man and behold the 
upright, for the end of that man is peace." 

His remains were interred on Monday last at Jamaica ; a 
large number of the most respectable inhabitants of that 
town and the country adjacent, attended at the funeral, 
when a sermon well adaj^ted to the occasion was preached 
by the Rev. Dr. Rodgers, from Matt. xxv. 21. 

In a letter of Mrs. Eliz. Hackett, a sister of Mrs^ 
Mills, and residing in her fiimily, dated December 21st, 
1773, addressed to her niece, Mrs. Mary Green, of Deer- 
field, K. J., it is stated that Mr. Mills had been in a 



PKESBTTERIAN CHURCH, JA^IAICA. 185 

very poor state of health since the preceding March, 
that he had consulted physicians both at New Tork 
and Philadelphia, whose opinions were that he was past 
the power of medicine. Tliej called his disease an in- 
duration of the pancreas. " We have but little encour- 
agement that ever he w^ill be a well man again. 
He has not preached since the first of April, and I have 
no hopes that ever he will again." It appears that he 
Avas sick about one year. 

He left six children, of whom several emigrated to 
the West. William settled at Cincinnati, and Isaac at 
Elizabethtown, Ohio, whicli town he named after 
Elizabethtown, 'N. J., to which place Mrs. Mills went 
to reside after her husband's decease. Before his death, 
Mr. Mills requested his sermons, of whicli he is said to 
have had a great number, and his writings to be de- 
stroyed ; but at the solicitation of the Kev. Mr. Wood- 
hull, of Newtown, who was his nephew, they were 
given to him. Mr. Woodhull was a son of his sister, 
Joanna, who married Nathan Woodhull, of Setauket. 
A considerable amount of property appears to have 
been left by Mr. Mills, as three improved tarms, be- 
longing to his estate, were advertised in Kivington's 
Gazette, to be sold shortly after his death. 

During Mr. Mills's ministry the people again refused 
to raise by tax the £60 which were appropriated to the 
support of an Episcopal missionary. This tax, as w^as 
stated at the close of a former chapter, was laid upon 
the people of all denominations. In 1769 the people 
of Jamaica refused to pay the stipend to the Episcopal 
minister, and at length made an appeal to the Court of 
Chancery, to be relieved from the burden. Mr. Bloomer 



186 niSTOKY OF THE 

tlie missionary, who addressed the Secretary in the fol- 
lowing, was inducted, on the 28d of May, 1769. 

Mr. Bloomer to the Secretary. 
(extract.) 

Jamaica, Feb. 15th, 1770. 

Rev. Sir, — I am sorry to acquaint the Society that my 
happiness is much obstructed on account of a troublesome 
lawsuit I am under the oblis^ation of commencing against 
the Parish for a salary of £60 a year allowed by an act of 
the Province to the minister who is legally inducted by the 
Governor. The law for raising this sum obliges the people 
of the Parish, consisting of all denominations, annually to 
elect ten Vestrymen and two Churchwardens who are to 
call within one year after a vacancy, a sufficient Protestant 
Minister of the Gospel, whom they are to present to the 
Governor, or Commander in Chief for induction. And as 
dissenters compose a great majority of the Parish, they are 
careful to admit none into these offices but such as are op- 
250sed to calling and presenting a minister of the Church 
of England. And in order to evade paying the salary 
(which being raised by tax, they complain of as a burden) 
and at the same time comply with the law, they some years 
ago called and presented to the Governor, a minister of 
the Presbyterian persuasion, but he was refused induc- 
tion : — and as the act only specifies that he who is called 
shall be a sufficient Protestant Minister of the Gospel, 
without confining them to any particular denomination^ 
they imagine that the law has been complied with on their 
parts, and absolutely refuse paying me any money raised 
by virtue of that act, notwithstanding my being inducted 
by authority from his Excellency, the Governor, as I am 
destitute of a call from them, who being dissenters, and 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, JAMAICA. 187 

chiefly Presbyterians, are averse to the supporting of the 
Church of England. 

The Court decreed in favour of Mr. Bloomer, and it 
does not appear that the people obtained any redress 
until the Revolution relieved them. That event put 
an end to the controversy which had continued in this 
place, between the Presbyterians and Episcopalians, 
for three quarters of a century. 

REV. MR. BLOOMER TO THE SECRETARY. 

Jamaica, Febrvary 1th., 1776. 
Revd. Sir, 

* * * The state of my mission is much the 
same as I informed you in my last only greatly troubled 
on account of their political sentiments which are strictly 
loyal & peaceable. Last week a number of Troops by 
order of the Continental Congress disarmed this Township 
& Hempstead & carried off about twenty of the principal 
persons of Mr. Cutting's & my congregation prisoners to 
Philadelphia they being accused of opposing the present 

measures. 

I am Revd. Sir &c. &c. 

Joshua Bloomer. 

rev. mr. bloomer to the secretary. 

Jamaica, Aj^ril 9lh, 1777. 
Revd. Sir, 

* * * I feel myself happy in having it in my 
power at this time to write to you from a land restored 
from anarchy & confusion to the blessings of Order and 
Good Government. The arrival of the Kings troops & 
their success on this Island has rendered every loyal subject, 
of which there are a great number here, happy ; previous 
to that event the Rebel Army Avhich were quartered at 



1S8 HISTORY OF THE 

New York had assumed the whole power and their Govern- 
ment Avas in the highest degree arbitrary and tyrannical ; 
loyalty to our Sovereign was in their judgment the worst 
of crimes and was frequently j^unished with great severity. 
The principal members of my congregation who conscien- 
tiously refused to join in their measures, excited their 
highest resentment, their houses were plundered, their per- 
sons seized, some were committed to prison & others sent 
under a strong guard to the distant parts of Conn* where 
they were detained as prisoners for several months 'til 
after repeated solicitations to the Governor & Assembly 
of that Province they were permitted to return to their 
FamiUes. The service of the church also gave great 
offence, the Prayers for the King and Royal Family being 
directly repugnant to their independent Scheme, they bit- 
terly inveighed & frequently by threats endeavored to 
intimidate the ministers and cause them to omit those 
parts of the Liturgy. AVhen Independence was declared 
by Congress they grew more violent, and I received a let- 
ter from one of the committee of Xew York informins" me 
that my persisting in praying for the King gave great 
offence c^ conjuring me as I regarded my personal safety 
to omit it for the future. Upon consulting my Church- 
wardens & vestry what measure it was most prudent for 
me to pursue at this critical juncture they unan- 
imously advised me, that as the Kings Army lay at Staten 
Island <fc was daily expected to march into my Parish from 
whom I should obtain relief, to shut up my church. I 
agreed with them in opinion as if I did not take that measure 
I was persuaded that I should be sent to some remote part 
of New England from whence perhaps it would be a long 
time before I could be reUeved. My Church was accord- 
ingly shut up for five Sundays when the Kings troops 
landed whose success has restored us to those relidous 



PKESBYTEKIAN CHUECH, JA3IAICA. 189 

principles of which we were deprived by tyranny & per- 
secution. I hope my conduct in this as well as in all 
other matters will gain the approbation of the Venerable 
Society as their displeasure would give me the greatest 
pain ; their approbation the highest satisfaction. The 
Church in this Province has suffered greatly by the death 
of its Ministers viz : Dr Auchmuty at New York Mr 
Avery at Rye & Mr Babcock at Phillipsburgh. 

I am Revd Sir &c 

Joshua Bloomek. 



190 HISTORY OF THE 



C H A P f E K Y I I . 
1775-1815. 

MATTHIAS BURNET ORDAINED — MARRIES IX JAMAICA — THE REVOLUTION — 
PRESBYTERIAN MINISTERS SUPPORT THE CONTINENTAL CONGRESS — REVO- 
LUTIONARY INCIDENTS — MR. BURNET HAS INFLUENCE WITH THE LOYALISTS 

SAVES THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH FROM DESTRUCTION — HIGHLANDERS 

ATTEND HIS PREACHING — THE SCOTCH WOMAN AND HER BOTTLE OP 

WATER — MR. ONDERDONk's REVOLUTIONARY INCIDENTS ELIAS BAYLI3 

ARRESTED — SENT TO THE PROVOST — SINGS IN PRISON — HIS DEATH — 
OTHER WHIGS SEIZED — WHIGS RETURN AT THE CLOSE OP THE WAR — MR. 
BURNET LEAVES, AND SETTLES AT NORWALK — DEATH — GEORGE FAITOCTE 
INSTALLED — ONE OF THE ORIGINAL TRUSTEES OF U. H. ACADEMY — THE 
OLD STONE CHURCH TAKEN DOWN, AND A NEW ONE BUILT — MR. 
FAITOUTE's DEATH. 

THE Key. 
MATTHIAS BURXET, D. D., 

received the call of tins clinrcli in the fall of 1774, and 
was ordained by the Presbytery of Xew York, and in 
stalled as pastor in April, 1775. He was born at Bot- 
tle Hill, 'N. J., January 2ith, 1719, and graduated at 
Princeton in 1769. His first wife was Miss Ann 
Combs of Jamaica, an Episcopalian; he afterwards 
married a daughter of Rev. Mr. Roe, of Woodbridge, 
IS". J., who survived him, and died but a few years 
since in the city of Xew York. 

Mr. Burnet came here just at the breaking out of 
the Revolutionary war, and continued here till its close. 
It must be owned that he was one of the very few, if 



PKESBYTEKIAN CHURCH, JAMAICA. 101 

not the only one of tlie Presbyterian Clergy, who did 
not openly esj^ouse the cause of civil liberty. Wither- 
spoon, Kodgers, Duffield, Spencer, and the whole 
Synod, in its official capacity, without a dissenting 
voice, threw their influence on the side of the Colonies, 
against the usurpations of tlie government. In a pas- 
toral letter, adopted May 22d, 1775, the Synod exhor- 
ted the people to endeavor to maintain union, to treat 
with respect, and encourage the Continental Congress, 
then sitting at Philadelphia, by letting it be seen that 
" the whole strength of this vast country " can be 
brought out to carry their resolutions into execution. 
At the same meeting, the Synod earnestly recommend- 
ed it to all the congregations under their care to spend 
the afternoon of the last Thursday in every month in 
public solemn prayer to God, during the continuance 
of the struggle. 

A large majority of the people of Queen's County 
were decided loyalists. Jamaica declined to send a 
deputy to the Provincial Congress, at a town meeting 
held March 31st, 1775, by a vote of 91: to 83. At a 
town meeting held on the 6th of the preceding Decem- 
ber patriotic resolutions had been passed, and a Com- 
mittee of correspondence and observation appointed of 
which the Pev. Abraham Keteltas was chairman. A 
protest against the resolutions and committee was put 
forth in January following, signed by 136 persons, 91 
of them freeholders. Joseph Pobinson of Jamaica, 
was deputy chairman of the county committee ; and 
Elias Baylis (chairman), Joseph Pobinson, Amos Den- 
ton, John Thurston, ISToah Smith, and J^athaniel Tuthill, 
were the sub -committee of Jamaica appointed under a 



192 HISTORY OF THE 

recommendation of Congress, May 29tli, 1775, all of 
them, presumed from the names, to be members of the 
Presbyterian congregation. Elias Baylis was an elder. 
Congress ordered all persons in Queens County sup- 
posed to be imfriendly t% the American cause to be 
disarmed ; and Col. Heard, of Woodbridge, X. J. with 
a force of near 900 marched to Jamaica in January, 
1776, and took into custody certain leaders among the 
disaffected, and disarmed all who could be found who 
voted against delegates to Congress ; and then pro- 
ceeded on the same errand to other towns. The patriots 
or defenders of American liberty formed themselves 
into a company of minute men, and elected John 
Skidmore, Esq., Captain. Another company was 
formed who elected Ephraim Baylis, Captain. At the 
battle of Long Island, a Jamaica company. Captain 
Jacob Wright, was in Colonel Lasher's 1st New York 
battalion, in Scott's brigade, and on the day of battle 
was in Cobble Hill Fort. The day after the battle a 
detachment of the 17th Light Dragoons were seen 
dashing through Jamaica, during a severe thunder- 
storm, in pursuit of General WoodhuU. They overtook 
him two miles east of the town, where, after he had de- 
livered up his sword, they "showered their sabre 
blows on his devoted head." 

The tables were now turned ; the Loyalists were pro- 
tected and the Whigs seized. As fast as they were 
arrested they were put into the Presbyterian church 
and guarded until a sufficient number were collected to 
send to the prison ship. As they were marched off, 
some, it is said, gazed on them with a fiendish smile of 
triumph. Some escaped; Eev. Mr. Keteltas got 



rHESBYTEKlAN CHURCH, JAMAICA. 193 

across the sound to Connecticut ; J. J. Skidmore went 
up tlie I^orth River. The houses, fences, and farms, 
of the refugees were laid waste ; it was a dark day in- 
deed, for the little band who had declared for American 
Independence. 

" Jamaica was occupied by soldiers during the whole 
war, especially in winter, when the soldiers cantoned 
here after their summer expeditions. On the side-hill, 
north of the village, were several rows of huts, extend- 
ing a mile or so to the east and west, w^ith streets 
between. The huts were partly sunk in the earth, 
w^ith a rude stone fireplace and chimney of sticks and 
mortar, covered with thatch, sedge, reeds, or sods, laid 
over boards. Boards were in such demand that the 
old county hall and other buildings, were torn down 
for building materials. ''^ '^ ^ The parade was between 
the huts and the village. The hospital at one time 
was in the huts. Here, great mortality prevailed, and 
the dead were interred so carelessly that after the 
peace, their bones were seen above ground, and were 
again covered." Benedict Arnold's Legion, lay near 
Black Stump. He v. Sam'l Seabury was chaplain of 
the " King's American Regiment," Colonel Edmund 
Fanning. A sermon on " St. Peter's exhortation to fear 
God and honor the King" preached by him, before 
his Majesty's provincial troops, was published by order 
of Governor Tryon."^ 

During the occupation of Jamaica by the British 
army, Mr. Burnet was permitted to preach nndisturbed, 
and by his influence with the loyalists, preserved the 

* For the above resume and extracts, see Onderdouk's Revolutionary In- 
cidents of Queens County. 



19:t IIISTOKY OF THE 

Presbyterian Cliiircli from destruction. Mr. Onder- 
donk lias preserved many interesting facts relating to 
this period. To Ins work I am indebted for the follow- 
ing : 

Soon after the British were estabhshed in Jamaica, a 
parcel of loyalists perched themselves in tlie belfry of the 
Presbyterian Church, and commenced sawiug off the 
steeple. Word was brought to the pastor, tlie Rev. Mr. 
Burnet. Whitehead Hicks, Mayor of Xew York, hap- 
pened to be at his house, and as Burnet was a loyaUst, soon 
put a stop to the outrage. 

Mr. Burnet, (who had married an Episcopalian,) was 
the only Presbyterian minister in the county* reputed to 
be a friend of the government, and was therefore allowed 
to preach here during the whole war. Ahhough he saved 
the church from desecration, yet after the peace, party 
spirit ran so high that he was forced to leave. 

The Highlanders attended his church, and sat by them- 
selves in the galleries. Some had their wives with them, 
and several children were baptized. Once when the sexton 
had neglected to provide water, and was about to go for 
it, the thoughtful mother called hun back, and drew a bottle 
of it from her pocket. — Pp. 151, 152. 

The Church Pegister shows that a considerable num- 
ber of infants of soldiers belonging to the 71st, 74th and 
80th Pegiments were baptized by Mr. Burnet. Mr. On- 
derdonk also states that General Oliver Delancy,whohad 
been appointed by Howe to induce the loyalists to join 
the king's troops, had his quarters at Jamaica for some 
time, at the parsonage-honse of the Pev. Mr. Burnet. 

But if the minister was a friend of the government, 

* If Mr. 0. had said country, so far as I know, it \yould have been true. 



PKESBYTERIAN CHUECII, JAMAICA. 195 

or concealed liis real principles, liis people did not 
generally take liim for an example in that respect. I 
cannot forbear, in tliis connection, to give from tlie 
same interesting volume, the acconnt of Elias Bajlis, 
an elder of this church, whose descendants are numer- 
ous in this congregation, two of his grand-children 
being ruling elders at this time, and whose daughter, 
Mrs. Abigail Carpenter, was the oldest communicant 
at the time the first edition of this history was issued, 
having made a profession of religion nearly sixty years 
before ; 

The day after Gen. Woodhull's capture, (August 28th, 
1776,) Elias Bayhs, Chairman of the Jamaica Committee, 
was walking over to Nicholas Smith's, at the One-Mile Mill, 
to hear the news, when he was arrested by a neighbour, 
who wished to do something to ingratiate himself with 
the British. 

When the venerable man, blind as he was, was brought 
before the British officer at Jamaica, he exclaimed in sur- 
prise, " Why do you bring this man here ? He's blind : he 
can do no harm." The unfeeling wretch who had informed 
against him, replied : " He's blind, but he can talk." 
Baylis did not attempt to conciliate the officer, but unfor- 
tunately dropped a few words in vindication of the 
American cause. This was enough. He was shut up in 
the Presbyterian church that night, and the next day 
carried to the prison at New Utrecht.* Pie was subse- 
quently removed to the Provost in New York. 

* Daniel Duryee, (afterwards assemblyman,) Wm. Furman, Wm. Creed, 
and two others were put in one pew in New Utrecht church. Baylis wanted 
them to get the Bible out of the pulpit and read to him. They feared to do 
it, but led the blind man to the pulpit steps. As he returned with it, a 
British guard met him, beat him violently, and took away the book. They 
were three weeks at New Utrecht, and then marched down to the prison-ship. 



196 HISTORY OF THE 

Elias Baylis was an elder of the Presbyterian church, 
and stood high in the community for uprightness and 
ability. He had a sweet voice, and could sing whole psalms 
and hymns from memory : it will not be surprising, then, to 
find him beguiling his dreary imprisonment in singing, 
among others, the 142d Psalm: 

Lord, I am brought exceeding low, 

Now let thine ear attend, 
And make my foes, who vex me, know 

I've an Almighty Friend. 

From my sad prison set me free, 

Then I shall praise thy name ; 
And holy men shall join with me 

Thy kindness to proclaim. 

The aged man was visited in prison by his wife and 
daughter. After a confinement of about two months, at 
the intercession of his friends, he was released, barely in 
time to breathe his last Avithout a prison's Avails. He died 
in crossing the ferry with his daughter, and his mortal re- 
mains now repose, without a stone to mark the spot, or 
commemorate his worth. 

The heartless wretch who arrested him fled, on the 
return of peace, to Xova Scotia, dreading the vengeance of 
his fellow-citizens ; but after two years' exile, he A^entured 
to return, but looked so poor and forlorn, that he Avas 
ncA'^er molested. 

Many other Whisks were seized and sent off to the 
prison-ship, and among them John Thurston, Robert 
Ilincliman, and David Lamberson, AA^bo were Presby- 
terians. Daniel Smith was confined in the church 



PRESBYTERIAN CIIURCn, JAMAICA. 197 

about a week, witli old Daniel Baylls. Tlie officer in 
cliarge said to Baylis, " You'll see England." Baylis 
replied, " 'T will be a siglit — won't it?" Increase Car- 
penter was a commissary to the American army ; John 
J. Slddmore, who went away for safety, did not return 
until after peace had been declared. 

The glorious event of peace was celebrated, by the 
Whio: inhabitants of Queens County, at Jamaica on 
the Monday preceding December 13th, 1783. At 
sunrise a volley w^as fired by the Continental troops, a 
liberty pole was erected, and the thirteen stripes dis- 
played from it. In the afternoon, officers of the army 
and a number of gentlemen of the County dined, 
attended by the music of an excellent band, formerly 
belonging to the Line of this State. In May, 1784, the 
courts, which had been closed, were re-opened, and 
were held, until the new court-house was built, in the 
Presbyterian Church.* 

But to return to Mr. Burnet. At the close of the 
war, the influential men of his congregation, who had 
been scattered in various directions, came back to their 
homes ; and, as may well be supposed, were not alto- 
gether satisfied with the course their minister had 
taken. He still, however, had many w^armly-attached 
friends, who argued that it was through his instru- 
mentality the church had been saved from desolation, 
and it w^ould be ungrateful to turn him away.f But 
Mr. Burnet found it necessary to resign his charge. 

* Revolutionary Incidents, pp. 256 and 258. 

t I have been informed, by an intelligent aged person, who was intimate 
in Mr. Burnet's family, that he never spoke either in favour of, or against 
the British government, and that some supposed he was at heart a sincere 
Whiff. 



198 HISTORY OF THE 

At the close of liis farewell service, lie gave out tlie 
120tli Psalm, wliicli will aiforcl an idea of the state of 
feeling on both sides : 

Hard lot of mine ! my clays are cast 

Among the sons of strife, 
Whose never-ceasing quarrels waste 

My golden hours of life. 

! might I fly to change my place, 
How would I choose to dwell 

In some wide, lonesome wilderness. 
And leave these gates of hell. 

Peace is the blessing that I seek, 
How lovely are its charms ! 

1 am for peace ; but when I speak, 

They all declare for arms. 

In Mr. Faitoute's " Brief History" of the Clmrch, he 
thus speaks of Mr. Burnet : '' For the greater part of 
the time Mr. Burnet was with this people, it was a time 
peculiarl}^ distressing. Being seated near the ocean, 
and possession being soon after gained by the British 
troops, after their taking the city of ^ew York, a num- 
ber of the Whigs made their escape from them, leav- 
ing their possessions, and many friends still on the 
Island. I have been told an attempt was made to des- 
troy the Presbyterian Church, or at least to render it 
unfit for holding worship in it, which Mr. B. by his in- 
fluence prevented ; and that he saved the woodland 
from beiug entirely cut ofi" by the enemy. After the 
evacuation of New York, and the return of those mem- 
bers of the Society who had fled, some disagreement 
arose between Mr. B. and his people, which occasioned 
a desire in him to be liberated from his charo^e, and he 
was accordingly liberated by the Presbytery of Xew 



PRESBYTEEIAN CHUECH, JAMAICA. 199 

York ill May, 1785." lie received a call from 'Nov- 
walk, Connecticut, where he settled November 2, 1785, 
as pastor of the First Congregational Church. He an- 
nually visited Jamaica, and in 1790, being invited, he 
preached to an overflowing assembly, in the Presby- 
terian Church, from John iv. 35-38. Say not ye there 
are yet four months^ &c. His sermon was published 
in the American Preacher, Yol. H., and is entitled 
" Moral Peilections upon the Season of Harvest." In 
its conclusion he addressed first the minister and then 
the people. In his address to Mr. Faitoute, he thus al- 
luded to his connection w^ith the congregation during 
the war : " In the days of my youth I was by the lay- 
ing on of hands, and particular designation of the Pres- 
bytery, placed in this part of the great field of Christ's 
Church, where numbers of faithful laborers had been 
before, wdtli a solemn charge to labour in it, and watch 
over it. For several years I devoted myself to this 
charge ; and though with many imperfections, I ac- 
knowledge I did it, yet never with a dishonest heart. 
In troublous and perilous times I kept it, laboured in it, 
and watched over it, readily contributing both by word 
and deed, whatever was in my power for its protection, 
cultivation, and growth, in the fruits of truth and right- 
eousness." 

Mr. Burnet continued at ITorwalk until his death, 
which took place June 30, 1806. The Rev. Dr. Prime, 
in his history of Long Island, says that he remembers 
this event with solemn interest. He preached for Dr. 
Burnet on the preceding day, and parted from him on 
Monday morning, about two hours before his sudden exit. 

The Ilev. James Grlassbrook was received as an or- 



200 niSTORY OF THE 

dainecl minister from England by the ^ew York Pres- 
bytery, in 1786. and began to preach here Marcli lltli, 
1786. He so far gained upon the regards of the people 
as to have a call put into his hands ; but some difficul- 
ties arose, and the prospect of settlement failed. He 
continued here till November, 1787, and was for a time 
stated supply at Pittsgrove (formerly Pilesgrove), Cum- 
berland County, New Jersey. In 1790, he was dis- 
missed from the Presbytery of New York to join the 
Presbytery of Baltimore. Kev. Asa Hillyer, D. D., 
afterwards of Orange, New Jersey, preached for about 
six months, in the year 1788. Messrs. Thompson, Tem- 
pleton, Tate, Close, Eoe, Brush, White, Woodhull, and 
Hart preached here during the rest of that year, and 
the former j)art of 1789. Mr. White preached as a 
candidate for several months, and many w^ere pleased 
with him ; but the Kev. 

GEORGE FAITOUTE 

was the next pastor. He was of Huguenot descent, 
born in the city of New York in 1750 ; and during his 
early years attended the Episcopal Church. He grad- 
uated at the College of New Jersey in 1774, and was 
ordained by New Brunswick Presbytery, pastor of Al- 
lentown. New Jersey, in 1779, where he remained till 
April, 1782, when he was installed at Greenwich, in 
Cohanzy, by the Presbytery of Philadelphia. In May, 
1789, a call was put into his hands from Jamaica. 
" This call," he says in his " Brief History," written in 
1793, "after duly weighing and considering of it, I con- 
ceived it my duty to accept, and accordingly declared 
my ready acceptance of it, at a meeting of the Presby- 



PKESBYTEKIAN CHUKCH, JAMAICA. 201 

lery of Philadelphia, held at Philadelphia, Jane 16, 
1789, as may be seen in the records of tlie Presbytery. 
In the month of Jnly following, I arrived at Jamaica 
with my family, and entered the parsonage honse with- 
out those difficulties which some of my predecessors 
had experienced from the zeal of a few bigoted Episco- 
palians, who were not original proprietors in this place. 
Since the Pevolution, some time in the year 1781, this 
Church obtained a Charter, which has secured to them 
their church property, and troubles of this nature we 
hope will no more arise." 

"A dispute had subsisted for some time whether this 
Church belonged to and was under the care of the Pres- 
byteiy of Suffolk, which then existed, and was afterwards 
dissolved by an Act of the Synod of New York and 'New 
Jersey. But upon the application of the congregation 
to the Synod, by their commissioners, after I had come 
among them, the Synod, at their meeting in Elizabeth- 
toAvn, October, 1789, did agree to annex this congrega- 
tion to the Presbytery of New York, with which they 
so much desired to be connected, and with which they 
believed themselves to have been always connected, 
notwithstanding the claims of the Suffolk Presbytery. 
In consequence of this Act of Synod I took my dismis- 
sion from said Presbytery, and was received by that of 
New York, who appointed a commission to attend at 
Jamaica, and proceed to my installation. The com- 
mission were Rev. Dr. Podgers and Dr. McKnight, wdio 
attended at the time appointed — loth December, 1789. 
Dr. McKnight preached the installation sermon, and 
Dr. Podgers gave the charge and made the exhortation 
to the people." 
9* 



202 HISTORY OF THE 

''The records of this church have been rather defi- 
cient, but such as we liave are at hand, and may be 
consulted. This church consists now of 96 heads of 
families ; the individuals composing these families 
amount to 539 persons, besides my own family, who in 
all are 12 persons. The communicants are 58 persons. 
Since my settlement a few have been added, in this 
respect, to the church. God grant a revival of pure 
religion among us ! Public w^orship is indeed very 
Avell attended, and so man}^ often attend the preaching 
of tlie Gospel, that commonly there is not room enough 
in the Church to give all the hearers comfortable seats." 

Mr. Faitoute continued the beloved pastor of this 
Church for nearly twenty-six years, a considerably 
longer period than any of the other ministers. He 
was suddenly removed from his labours on earth to his 
reward in heaven, on the Lord's day, August 21, 1815, 
having preached, with his usual vigor, in the morning, 
aged 65 years. His sepulchre is in the burying-ground. 
belonging to this congregation. 

He published a sermon in the "American Preacher," 
and I liave read others in MS. He wrote in a simple, 
earnest style. He was one of the original Trustees of 
Union Hall Academy ; and in 1797 was employed as 
Principal of this Institution, attending at tlie same time, 
to his pastoral duties; he is still remembered with res- 
pect and affection by those of his pupils who survive. 

It was during Mr. Faitoute's ministr}^ that the present 
liouse of worship w'as erected. The old stone Church 
had stood Ll-l years; and there are man}^, at this time, 
in the congregation, who, in their childhood and youth, 
knew no other place of worship. It was taken down 




Erectei A. D. ISIS 



PEESBYTEKIAN CHUKCH, JAMAICA. 203 

in 1813, and a portion of the stones of which it was 
composed was used in laying the foundations of the 
new edifice, which was solemnly dedicated to the service 
of God, on the 18th day of January, a. d. ISli. The 
service was as follows : 

Introductory Prayer by Dr. Milldoler. 

Eead 2 Chron. 6th Chapter. 

Sung Psalm 132 — tune New Salem. 

Dedicatory Prayer by Dr. Milldoler. 

Sung Psalm 84 — tune Coronation. 

Sermon by Dr. Milldoler from John ii. 17. 

Concluding Prayer by Dr. Basset of Bushwick. 

Sung Hymn 128, Second Book— tune Mount Olive. 

Benediction by Mr. Faitoute. 

Mr. Faitoute lived to preach in this house about one 
year and a half; and but one of the building com- 
mittee, Mr. James Herri man, survives. The house 
was completed with a steeple, which was 102 feet 
high, and was much admired for its symmetry; but it 
w^as taken down a number of years since, on account 
of an injury which it was supposed to have received in 
the great September gale. In the spring of 1816 this 
house was enlarged by the addition of 13i feet, making 
it 90 feet in length. It is about 46 feet wide, and con- 
tains 144 pews. At the time the lot on which it stands 
was purchased, the old parsonage, which was the house 
adjoining the premises of the late Judge Laraberson, 
near the corner of Fulton and Beaver streets, and the 
glebe which extended south, along the Beaver Pond, to- 
ward Mr. G. Phraner's, were sold, and the place where 
the minister now lives purchased. The present glebe in- 



204: * HISTOKY OF THE 

eludes about nine acres of valuable land. There is also a 
Avood-lot of considerable extent in Springfield, belong- 
ing to the congregation, besides other property to a 
considerable amount. 

The venerable Dr. Shelton has fjivoured the compiler 
with the following interesting description of the Church 
and Congregation, more than fifty years ago : 

"I came to Jamaica in the tall of 1806, and com- 
menced the practice of medicine in connection with 
Dr. Minema, who had been a surgeon in the American 
army during the Avar of the Revolution, and who was 
at that time somewhat advanced in years. I was at 
that time just twenty-two years of age, and was actively 
engaged in the practice of my profession until my son 
succeeded me in the year 1840, when I began gradu- 
ally to withdraw from the more arduous duties of 
general practice, although I have continued to do n:iore 
or less even up to this day. 

"When I came to the village, ]\Ir. Faitoute Avas the 
minister of the Presbyterian chui-ch, and was even then 
an old man and very feeble. The parsonage in which 
he lived was an old revolutionary building, fronting 
upon what is now called Beaver street, and was but 
very recently pulled down. Mr. Faitoute continued to 
preach up to the period of his death, which occui'red 
some ten years after my coming to the village. He 
lived to preacli but about two years in the church now 
standing, when he died very suddenly. In person, Mr. 
Faitoute was small of stature and lame, but very gray 
and venerable in appearance. His disposition and 
manner, both in his intercourse with his people and in 
the pulpit was tender, fatherly, and aflectionate. In 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, JAMAICA. 205 

preacliing, he was earnest and manifested his sincerity 
and interest for the spiritual welfare of his charge, by 
weeping often profusely. His salary was three hundred 
dollars per annum, and was obtained, not as now by 
taxing the pews, but by voluntary subscription. This 
small sum being insufficient for a comfortable support, 
was aided (eked out) by an annual visitation of his 
people, at that time denominated " a spinning party." 
This term, I suppose, was derived from the fact that 
among other contributions brought by the congregation, 
consisting of such articles as butter, cheese, wood, etc., 
were also wool and flax to be spun for the clothing of 
the family ; cotton as an article of domestic economy 
beino; at that time unknown. Mr. Faitoute still further 
added to his means of support by teaching a small 
classical school. 

" The church in which he preached was a square edi- 
fice of stone, directly in the street, and about the centre 
of the village. In dimensions it was exactly forty feet 
square, with a broad aisle running east and west through 
its middle, with a door at either extremity. The pulpit 
was a very small structure, with a sounding board over 
it, as was customary in those times. A smaller aisle 
extended from the larger one at right angles, opposite 
the pulpit to the south wall of the church. Directly 
in front of the pulpit was a long table, in a line with 
the smaller narrow aisle just mentioned. The pews, 
on either side of the pulpit, were placed parallel with 
this table and extending from the middle aisle up to 
the north wall. Around this table sat the elders and 
deacons every Sabbath. It is to be presumed that this 
table was intended primarily for, and was used at com- 



206 HISTORY OF THE 

nninion services, the communicants sitting aronnd it; 
but as ni}^ knowledge on tliat point is not sufficiently 
accurate, I cannot state this as a positive fact. At the 
head of this table, and directly under the pulpit, sat 
Mr. Thomas Baylis, one of the elders, who acted as 
precentor. He had a fine voice, and was a good singer. 
In the broad central aisle was a row of chairs, the high- 
backed chairs of those days, extending from one end 
of it to the other, each numbered and occupied on the 
Sabbath by its own proprietor. The farmers came to 
church in their farm wagons; all of which, with one 
exception, Avere in their every day w^orking trim. The 
one which constituted the exception alluded to, had a 
pair of sides, somewhat better painted and kept in re- 
serve, probably for Sundays. This wagon had the 
letters D. L., Daniel Lndlum, very prominently painted 
on the side, to mark it, doubtless, as belonging to a 
patrician family. They had no tops, wei-e veiy long- 
bodied, and on Sundays had two or three rows of 
the straight-backed, rush-bottomed chairs placed two 
abreast; over them, by way of cushions, were spread 
the counterpanes or bed-spreads of the family, neatly 
folded. Mr. James Hen-iman, who was, at the time 
alluded to, a lad of about twelve years, has told me 
that his father's house being directly opposite the 
church, was the rendezvous of the congregation previous 
to service on the Sabbath ; the only object of this 
gathering being, in the winter season, of course, to 
warm themselves and fill the small foot-stoves which 
the women all carried, with hickory coals. The church 
was never warmed in winter in those days. To ac- 
commodate the people, Mr. Herriman, senior, was al- 



PEESBYTERIAN CHUKCH, JAMAICA. 207 

ways in the habit, on Sabbath mornings, of building 
an immense fire of good dry hickory wood. The peo- 
ple would come in ; sit around it, until sufficiently 
warm, fill their pans and retire. My friend, Mr. James 
Herriman, tells me he can never forget the impression 
produced upon his youthful mind, by the profound 
silence of these venerable worshippers of the early 
times, as they sat, for a few brief moments, around the 
blazing fire. There was no chatting, nor gossipping, 
but profound stillness ; scarce a word w^as uttered. 
The vestibule and outer porch of the sanctuary was 
not in those days an exchange, wdiere the price of com- 
modities, or the current news of the day, or local gossip 
could be discussed and opinions ventilated. Two ser- 
vices were held on Sabbath, morning and afternoon, 
with an interval of one hour between. During this 
interval the people dispersed themselves around among 
the houses in the neighbourhood, (Mr. Herriman always 
entertaining the larger share,) partaking of some slight 
refreshments brouo-ht with them. The foot-stoves were 
again replenished. The venerable old stone edifice was 
never desecrated by stoves or furnaces, foot-stoves alone 
excepted; our pious progenitors seemingly not being 
conscious of any inconsistency in the idea of striking a 
balance between the propriety of warming their feet 
while the total corpus beside went uncared for. 'No 
living soul in those days would have had the hardihood 
and courage to hint at the idea of dift\ising warmth 
more generally and genially through the whole build- 
ing; but when the old edifice had at length yielded, 
like all mundane structures, to the progress of time and 
ruthless innovation, and a new church building had 



208 HISTORY OF THE 

been erected, and men had grown more bold and daring, 
it was ventured to suggest that God could be wor- 
shipped quite as well and devoutly in a warm building 
as in a cold one. Great was the tumult occasioned. 
But the innovators triumphed. Mr. Herriman tells me, 
as undoubtedly genuine, the following story, (doubtless 
often elsewhere revamped and related,) which I cannot 
forbear, even at the expense of time and space, of 
relating. On the first Sunday after the stoves, then 
known as Shoemakers' stoves, were introduced (with 
pipes protruding through the windows) no fires were 
kindled, it being thouglit advisable, as I suppose, to 
accustom the congregation to an innovation so bold and 
shocking. On coming out of the church, Mr. Herri- 
man, who belonged to the reforming party, accosted an 
old lady^one Mrs. Kettletas, with, 'Well, Mrs. K., 
how did you like the stoves?' 'Ah, just as I said, 
and knew it would be ; they made me so faint, I thought 
I should liave had to leave the church.' 

" You requested some information about the general 
appearance of the congregation, on the Sabbatli, in 
that venerable old l)uilding. The men in those times, 
those at least Avho could afi'ord it, wore small clothes, 
buttoned or tied at the knee, with ribbons, and shoes 
with large buckles, or high topped boots ; the hair 
powdered and tied up behind in a queue. This w^as 
my OAvn dress at that day. The poorer class wore 
trousers as now. The women wore bodices high or 
short waisted, with very long, narrow skirts, and long 
protruding bonnets. In winter, they wore cloaks, pre- 
cisely like those of the Quaker ladies at the present 
day, only of red colour. This was then the universally 



PRESBTTEKIAN CHUECH, JAMAICA. 209 

prevailing style, and gave a gay, lively, picturesque 
aspect to the congregation, which contrasted strangely 
with the devout solemnity and awful stillness which 
pervaded the assembly. I liave stated above, that a 
row of chairs, numbered and owned like pews, ex- 
tended through the broad middle aisle. These being 
always occupied on the Sabbath, and facing the pulpit, 
added materially to the grotesqueness and singularity 
of the tout ensemble^ as seen I'etrospectively with more 
modern eyes. The story of a wild young blood, who, 
one Sabbath morning in summer, when the doors, at 
either end of the aisle were wide open, dashed through 
on horseback, at full gallop, to the great alarm and 
peril of these women, and the consternation and dis- 
turbance of the whole congregation, you already know ; 
and I need only add, that story, though of little conse- 
quence, is yet authentic and undoubtedly true. I must 
add, moreover, that the good people of the congrega- 
tion felt the insult that had been offered to them so 
keenly, that they came out of the church, got into their 
wagons and chased the offender some four miles, but 
being w^ell mounted on a fleet horse, he effected his 
escape, and immediately afterwards went into Kew 
Jersey, where he remained six months, before he ven- 
tured to return. 

" The Rev. Mr. Weed succeeded Mr. Faitoute, and 
came to this place fresh from Princeton Seminary, be- 
ing of the very first class wliicli graduated at that 
institution. He came highly recommended by Drs. 
Alexander and Miller. He was a man of the first 
order of talent, and as a preacher was extremely elo- 
quent and powerful, chaining the attention of his audi- 



210 HISTORY OF THE 

tory from the first words which dropped from his lips, 
with a power tliat was irresistible. lie remained with 
this people six years, and his ministry was remarkably 
successful. During the first year of it, there was a pow- 
erful rev'ival of religion, in which a large number was 
gathered into the cliurch ; and his la1)ours continued to 
be blessed, with numerous additions to the church, 
througliout tlie whole period of his ministry. As a 
controvei'sialist, his powers were eminent and remai-k- 
able, and he grappled with the prevalent errors of his 
day, with a boldness and success that marked him as 
no ordinar}^ man, and inspired even his opponents with 
respect and fear. During the period of his ministry 
in this place, the celebrated Quaker preacher, Elias 
Hicks, the founder of the party in the denomination of 
the Friends, known from his name as Hicksites — came 
to Jamaica, and preached at Mr. Hewlett Creed's Hotel, 
on a week day. Mr., now Dr. Weed was among the 
nnmber of his hearers ; and on the following Sabbath, 
before commencing his discourse, he apologized to his 
people for having been seen, during the previous week, 
among those who had been attracted to listen to the 
preaching of a man known to be of such loose and in- 
fidel sentiments as the celebrated Quaker. He said 
that he had felt it his duty to do so, in order that hav- 
ing heard with his own ears, he might the better be 
enabled to judge of the man and his teachings, and so 
to warn his flock of the danger to which they were 
exposed, by exposing the unscriptural and pernicious 
character of his preaching. He then j)roceeded in a 
most powerful discourse to refute the errors of Hicks, 
to point out their dangerous tendency, and with great 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, JAMAICA. 211 



boldness and ability, to warn liis flock to beware of the 
wolf that was prowling about the sheep-cote. 

" Dr. Weed was sncceeded by the Rev. Elias W. 
Crane, who was introduced to the peoj)le by the Hev. 
Dr. ^N^ettleton, and who received a unanimous call. He 
was a man of excellent natural abilities, and good 
learning. As a preacher he was earnest and faithful, 
— the whole burden and theme of his discourses being 
repentance and life eternal. As a pastor, he was the 
most beloved of men, and his memorv is still fraorrant 

•' I/O 

and fresh in the hearts of those who knew him only to 
love him ; and who have taught their children upon 
whose heads his hands were placed in baptism, to 
revere the very mention of his name. He w^as abundant 
in labours, never tiring in the performance of duty. He 
had a pleasant smile and a kind and tender word for 
every one he met. None were beneath his notice. As 
a friend he was tender, kind-hearted, warm and affec- 
tionate to a degree seldom equalled and never sur- 
passed, among the sons of men. His ministry was 
most abundantly blessed, from its commencement to 
its termination, with large accessions to the church. 
Mr. Crane w^as in every sense and point of view, a 
boon to humanity, claiming most eminent gratitude to 
God. It is indeed delightful to think of such a man." 



212 HISTORY OF THE 



CHAPTEE YIII. 
1815-186Q. 

H. R. WEED — REMOVES TO ALBAXT — S. P. FUXCK — DISSEXSIOX — REV. A. XET- 
TLETOX — GREAT REVIVAL — DISSEXSIOX HEALED — MR. XETTLETOX's METHOD 
— E. W. CRANE — HIS USEFUL MIXISTRT — DR. MURRAY's SKETCH OF HIM — 
HIS DEATH — J. M. MACDOXALD — THE NEW ERA IN THE HISTORY OP THE 
CHURCH UNDER MR. WEEd's MINISTRY — THE HIGHLY PROSPEROUS STATE OF 
THE CONGREGATION IX 1841 — INCIDENTS IN MR. MACDONALd's MINISTRY — 
P. D. OAKEY. 

THE Key. 
HENRY R. WEED, D. D., 

succeeded Mr. Faitoute. lie was born at Ballston, 
graduated at Union College in 1812, studied Theology 
at Princeton, was called here in 1815, and ordained as 
pastor January 4th, 1816. Mr. Weed was a much es- 
teemed minister. His labours were gi'eatly blessed. 
An extensive revival of relio^ion commenced durinc: the 
first year of his settlement, as the blessed fruit of which 
above eighty persons were added to the communion of 
the church. He discountenanced the practice of fur- 
nishing ardent spirits at funerals, (it was the custom 
to serve them round to the assembled people,) and for 
many years this practice has been unknown. He also 
declined to baptise the children of parents, not in full 
communion, from which it appears that a contrary 
practice had prevailed. In 1822, his pastoral relation 
was dissolved, and he took charge of a church in 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, JAMAICA. 213 

Albany. Dr. Weed is at present pastor of the Presby- 
terian cliurch at Wheeling, Ya. His ministry here, 
as will be shown in the sequel, was the beginning of a 
new era in the history of the church. The Key. 

SEYMOUR P. FUNCK, 

who graduated at Columbia College in IS 19, and 
studied Theology in the Seminary of the Eeformed 
Dutch Church, at New Brunswick, N". J., was the next 
minister. He was ordained here March 6th, 1823. 
Some dissatisfaction arising in the congregation, the 
pastoral relation was dissolved. May 9th, 1825, and he 
left the place, carrying with him the warm affection of 
ardent friends. His removal was the occasion of a 
very serious dissension in the congregation. Mr. 
Funck never re-settled in the ministry. He died, 
Aj)ril 3d, 1828, aged 32, and was buried at Flatlands. 
The Eev. Asahel Nettleton, D. D., well known for 
his eminently useful labours, far and wide in the 
'churches, was in the providence of God directed 
hither, during the w^inter of 1826, when the congrega- 
tion was in a very divided and distracted state. He 
commenced his labours on the 2-lth of February, and 
continued them till the following I^ovember. He was 
in a feeble state of health, so that he did not attend 
many extra meetings, nor spend much time in visiting. 
But his labours were remarkably blessed. On the 
second day of July, the Lord's Supper was celebrated 
and seventy-two persons were added to the church, on 
profession ; eighteen were baptized. From that day 
the revival received a new impulse. It was often ob- 
served, that it seemed (so great was the solemnity) like 



214: HISTORY OF THE 

the Judgment day. A number of strangers visited 
the town and went home rejoicing in hope. So many 
from other places visited him, while here, that Mr. 
Xettleton thought of devoting one evening in the 
week to conversation with strangers. 

He was instrumental in liealing the divisions of the 
congregation. It is said, that instead of exhorting to 
brotherly love, and descanting on the evils of dissension 
as had been the uniform practice of the ministers who 
were sent here to reconcile the parties, he ignored 
their quarrels, preached on the claims of God, the 
wickedness of the human heart, and the duty of sin- 
ners, aiming directly at the conscience, and thus brought 
them to look inwardly, instead of at the sins of one 
another. In his sermons, outlines, and plans of ser- 
mons, published by Dr. Tyler, in 1845, may be found, 
it is presumed, many of the discourses which he 
preached here with such happy eifect. The congrega- 
tion wished him to take the pastoral charge, but he de- 
clined. He departed this life at East Windsor, Conn.' 
in January, 181:3. His memoirs were published by 
Dr. Tyler, in 1844. The Eev. 

ELIAS W. CRA]S^E, 

was born at Elizabethtown, IS". J., on the 18th of 
March, 1796. "When yet a boy from six to eight 
years of age, he was serious and conscientious in his 
morning and evening devotions." " His serious turn 
of mind, and his great devotion to reading, and readi- 
ness of acquisition, led his parents to entertain the 
idea that it was their duty to give him a collegiate 
education." When about sixteen years of age he en- 



PKESBYTEKIAN CIlURCir, JxVMAICA. 215 

tered the Junior Class in Princeton College, wliere lie 
graduated in September, 1814. During his residence in 
Morristown, N. J., while engaged in the business of 
teaching, he made a public profession of his faith in 
Christ, and attached himself to the church in that 
place, then under the care of Rev. Dr. Wm. McDowell, 
on the 2d day of March, 1816. On the 8th of October, 
1818, by the Presbytery of Jersey he was licensed to 
preach the gospel. December, 1819, he received and 
accepted a call from the church at Springfield, ]^. J., 
and was ordained January 5th, 1820. He remained 
here seven years, a devoted and useful pastor, and was 
permitted to rejoice greatly in seeing the work of the 
Lord prosper in his hands. In the year 1825 the Lord 
poured out his Spirit on that people, and very many 
were brought from death unto life. In the month of 
May, 1825, the church in Jamaica became vacant by 
the removal of the Pev. Mr. Funck its pastor. Mr. 
Nettleton, at his departure, recommended Mr. Crane to 
the people as a fit person to become their pastor. The 
great blessing he was made to this peoj)le, proves the 
sagacity of Mr, IST. as to ministerial character. The 
pastoral relation of Mr. C. to the church of Springfield 
was dissolved, and he Avas dismissed from the Presby- 
tery of Elizabethtown on the iTtli October, 1826, and 
on the 31st of the same month was, by the Presbytery 
of Kew York, installed pastor of the church of Jamaica. 
Jamaica must be regarded as the chief scene of his 
usefulness. Here he S]3ent fourteen years, almost the 
third of his whole life. " When he entered this field,'' 
remarks Dr. Murray, in a sermon preached at Elizabeth- 
town, IN'ovember 29, 1840, on the occasion of his death. 



21G 



HISTORY OF THE 



and from wliicli most of the facts concerning Mr. C. 
have heen derived, " the cloud of mercj was withdraw- 
ing for a season, but spanned with the bow of promise 
that it would again return to water the seed he was 
beginning to sow ;— when called away in the midst of 
his labours, the same cloud was retiring, after fulfill- 
ing all the hopes it had once inspired, glittering all 
over with the same bright bow, as if at once to illume 
and beautify his path to his rest and his reward. A 
few communions before his departure, it was his priv- 
ilege and joy to receive nearly eighty into the church, 
and among them three of his own children." Mr. C. 
was affected witli a disease, not unlike the asthma, 
whose violent and frequent attacks admonished him as 
to the manner of his departure. But he continued 
cheerful and constant in the discharge of his official 
duties, feeling that he was immortal until his work 
was done. On the evening of his decease, and but a 
few hours previous to its occurrence, he was preaching 
in a private house in a distant part of his congregation 
and exhorted his hearers with unusual fervency from 
the text, "But now they desire a better country, that 
is, an heavenly." The services were concluded by the 
hymn, the last he ever read or sang on earth : 

" We've no abiding city here — 

This may distress the worldly mind, 

But should not cost the saint a tear, 
"Who hopes a better rest to find." 

After the services were over, he returned to the 
bosom of his family. Mrs. C. was absent on a visit to 



PKESBYTEKIAN CHUKCH, JAI^IAICA. 21T 

a sister at Norwich, Conn., and lie had made ar- 
rangements to leave the ensuing morning for I^orwich 
for the purpose of accompanying Mrs. C. to her home. 
The family had all retired to rest, except the faithful 
domestic, who for years had been a member of his 
household, when his disease fell upon him w^ith fatal 
violence. Feeling, after a few struggles, that resist- 
ance was hopeless, he committed his spirit, his wife, 
and his children to God, and laid him down and died, 
in the forty-fifth year of his life, and having just en- 
tered on the twenty-third of his ministry. He was cut 
down like a tree that yielded much fruit, and that w^as 
laden with blossoms, even in its fall." 

The following is an abstract of the beautiful sketch 
given of his character, by Dr. Murray, in the sermon 
before alluded to. He was blessed by God with a 
natural disposition remarkable for its amiability and 
sweetness. By his severe trials and afflictions this dis- 
position was never soured or changed. He was one of 
the most desirable friends and companions we have 
ever known. A near and dear relative relates that for 
twenty years, she never saw a ruffle upon his temper. 
And all his brethren in the ministry can say that they 
never met him but wdth pleasure, and never part- 
ed with him but with regret. His pleasant and cheer- 
ful smile always diffused pleasure around him. But it 
w^as religion which chiefly gave lustre to his character. 
His views of the Avay of acceptance with God, and of 
the great doctrines of grace, were clear and distinct ; 
and he sought consolation more from resting on the 
great principles of the Gospel, than from excited feel- 
ing. He lived in the constant sense of God's favour 
10 



218 HISTOEY OF THE 

and acceptance, and seemed to have little else to do 
than to serve God with all his might. 

His character as a preacher and pastor has been 
highly appreciated. It was never his ambition to se- 
cure the fame of a profound scholar, or of a great theo- 
logian, or of an acute controvertist ; and whilst he was 
a good scholar and a sound theologian, and carefully 
discriminated between truth and error, his great object 
was so to preach Christ as to lead his hearers to believe 
in him. We have never heard him preach a sermon 
of which it could not be truly said, both as to the mat- 
ter and manner, that it w^as a sweet savor of Christ, 
and as ointment poured forth. His qualifications as a 
pastor very far surpassed those of many of his brethren. 
It was to him a pleasure, instead of a cross, to mingle 
w^ith his people ; and so frank and winning were his 
ways, that without repelling any, he attracted all to 
himself. His was an uncommonly sympathizing heart. 
Whilst, as a mere preacher, he has left behind him 
some superiors, and many equals; yet, when we re- 
gard him as a preacher and pastor, he has left behind 
him no superior, and but very few equals. In these 
respects the church has lost one of her best models. 

Mr. Crane departed this life on the lOili da}^ of No- 
vember, 184:0. His funeral was attended on the 14th, 
by a large concourse of people, who listened to an ap- 
propriate discourse by the Rev. John Goldsmith, D. D., 
from Phil. i. 21 : " For me to live," &c. The 

REV. JAMES M. MACDONALD 

was installed May 5th, 1841. Hev. Dr. Spring preach- 
ed from 1 Pet. iii. 15 ; the late Rev. Dr. Goldsmith, of 



PKESBYTERIAN CHURCH, JAMAICA. 219 

I^ewtown, gave the charge to the minister, and the 
Rev. Dr. Jacobus, of Brooklyn, now professor in the 
Western Theological Seminary, at Allegheny, Penn- 
sylvania, the charge to the people. On the 16th of 
April, 1850, his pastoral relation to the church was dis- 
solved, and the Presbytery, on the 28th of the same 
month, installed him pastor of the Fifteenth Street 
Church in New York. From his farewell address at 
Jamaica, delivered April 21st, the following summary 
is derived : 

Perhaps days of as great spiritual prosperity as this 
church has ever known, have occurred since 1815. 
That year may, in some sense, be regarded as beginning 
a new era in its history. Previous to that date there 
are not wanting instances in which the Spirit appears 
to have been poured out with considerable power, as 
for example during the ministry of Mr. Cross, and again 
during that of Mr. Wilmot, and again of Mr. Mills. 
But previous to the year 1815, the number of commun- 
icants does not appear, at any time, to have been large. 
In comparison with the number of families in the con- 
gregation, the number of communicants was small. In 
1762, before the revival which occurred in Mr. Mills's 
day, there were but twelve. In 1793, there were but 
iifty-eight. In 1807, there were fifty three. But soon 
after the settlement of Mr. Weed there was a special 
work of grace among the people, as the result of which 
about sixty were added to the communion of the 
church. In 1822, the year in which Dr. Weed left, the 
number of communicants had increased to one hun- 
dred and ninety-three. In 1827, following the revival 
under Dr. ITettleton, there were reported to Presbytery 



220 HISTORY OF THE 

two hundred and sixty-three communicants. In 1831, 
God so smiled on the ministrations of Mr. Crane tliat 
over seventy were admitted to the communion, on pro- 
fession of their faith. The church continued to increase 
by more gradual additions until 1839, about a year be- 
fore Mr. Crane's death, wdien nearly eighty were re- 
ceived into its communion. The number reported to 
the Presbytery in 1841, the spring following Mr. C.'s 
decease, was three hundred and eighty, making an in- 
crease of three hundred and twenty-seven from the 
time of Mr. Weed's accession to the pastorship, and of 
one hundred and seventeen from the time of Mr. 
Crane's. This, however, only shows the number that 
remained, after deducting removals by death, dismis- 
sions to other churches, and otherwise. Durino; Mr. 
Crane's ministry there were four hundred received on 
confession and by certificate, and from the beginning 
of Mr. Weed's ministry to the close of Mr. Crane's, 
about six hundred. 

The above statistics serve to show the highly pros- 
perous state of this church of Christ at the opening of 
the pastorate which had its commencement in the 
spring of 1811. Of the one hundred and seventy or 
eighty families in the congregation, there were not 
more than ten or twelve, at the most, the heads of 
which were not in communion with the church ; and a 
very large proportion of the youth were also members 
of the church. The average age of the seventy-six re- 
ceived at the June communion in 1839, was less than 
twenty years. But God's gracious favour was so far con- 
tinued during this pastorate, that an average of more 
than seventeen were annually received to its member- 



PEESBYTEKIAN CHURCH, JAMAICA. 221 

ship. The largest number in any single year was in 
184:5, when nearly sixty were received, forty-four of 
them on profession of their faith. Again, in 1847, the 
Lord granted some refreshing from his presence, and 
thirty-six were added during that year, mostly on pro- 
fession. The congregation considerably increased. The 
few vacant pews found at its beginning were filled up ; 
and, in consequence of the demand for more, the 
church was enlarged, and the number of pews, includ- 
ing those in the galleries (which were to a considerable 
extent rented) increased to one hundred and forty -four. 
These were soon all taken, and again applications for 
more could not be granted. The charitable collections 
averaged not far from six hundred dollars per annum- 
The rite of baptism was administered to one hundred 
and seventy-six persons, one hundred and fifty of them 
being infanta; and eighty-eight marriages were solem- 
nized. " I suppose I have preached," the address pro- 
ceeds, "on an average, more than one hundred and 
fifty times every year of my ministry among you. I 
remember that I have officiated at about one hundred 
and sevent}^ funerals, preaching in almost every in- 
stance. How often have we stood together beside the 
infant's grave, and from that point sought to catch a 
glimpse of the glory to which they had been taken ! I 
do not forget the sympathy I received from you in 
those bereavements which it pleased the Judge of all 
the earth to bring upon my own family. I have gone 
with the aged, as they approached the banks of Jordan. 
Three of them were over ninety years of age ; seven 
between eighty and ninety ; and eight or ten between 
seventy and eighty. Over thirty were the victims of 



222 HISTORY OF THE 

consumption. Several were strangers at Jamaica. 
One* was instantly killed by a fall from his wagon, 
and crushed beneath the wheels. Another,f a mother 
in Israel, met her Saviour in the waters of the Hudson, 
when the steamboat Swallow perished. One made a 
profession of her faith in Christ at the communion be- 
fore her death, being then in blooming health. One 
died at the Asylum for the Insane. One was a man 
who had been a great opposer to religion in health, and 
whom I never saw in the house of God, who was peni- 
tent and heart-broken in his last sickness. One was a 
young man who, in a few days over a year, followed 
his young wife to the grave. A sprightly child of pa- 
rents in humble life was drowned in a tub by the door 
side. One had been a communicant in this church 
sixty years,:]: and in her old age was a model of intelli- 
gent and cheerful piety. Another,§ a wife and mother, 
lingering with consumption, said of a winter during 
which she was wholly confined to the house and hardly 
expected to see the spring, that it had been the happi- 
est portion of her life. Another was an excellent 
man,! whose snow-white locks and peculiarly beseech- 
ing tones in prayer cannot soon be forgotten, who be- 
ing overtaken with sudden sickness and told only two 
hours before his departure that his end was at hand, 
was as undisturbed as if it was only a journey on which 
he was to start, for which he had been preparing for 
many weeks. And another was a man^ of vigorous 
intellect and earnest piety, whose heaviest sorrow seem- 

* Mr. James Baylis. f Mrs. Ann Lamberson. 

X Mrs. Abigail Carpenter. § Mrs. Huutting. 

II John Rhoades. T[ Nicholas Smith. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, JAIVIAICA. 223 

ed to fall upon liim after his frame had been weakened 

and bowed down by years of sickness, but whose faith 

failed not." 

* * «. * * -x- 

" I have it to mention, to the glory of the God of 
grace, that during the whole nine years of my connec- 
tion with you, there has been nothing to disturb the 
harmony of the congregation, or the kind feeling that 
has existed from the beginning between the people 
and minister. I know not that there is a single mem- 
ber of this congregation, and I may add of this com- 
munity, who has ever sought, by word or deed, to 
injure me. I have endeavoured to live in charity with 
all men, and, w^itli scarcely an exception, have tmet 
with like in spirit on the part of others. I have 
formed many Christian friendships here, which I do 
not think any thing can essentially impair, and which 
it comforts me to hope shall be continued and perfected 
in heaven. I am bidding adieu to a scene where God 
has graciously condescended to honour me infinitely 
beyond my deserts, and where, with many afflictions, 
I have also had many sources of happiness opened 
to me. I have full confidence that that God who 
planted this goodly vine in the wilderness, and has 
watched over it now, for nearly two hundred years, 
will continue to watch over it, and make it even more 
fruitful ; that he will send you another minister, and I 
pray that he may be made more honoured and success- 
ful than any of his predecessors. Finally, brethren, 
farewell. Be perfect, be of good comfort, be of one 
mind, live in peace ; and the God of love and peace 
shall be with you." 



224 HISTOEY OF THE 

More than twenty ministers preceded the writer 
here, the greater number of them pastors ; and but 
one of them survives. From time to time they have 
fallen, nearly every one of them, at some post of use- 
fulness, faithful to their character and office, to the 
last. Six of them died during their pastoral connect io:i 
with the church at Jamaica ; five of them lie buried 
with their people ; five of them made a sudden exit, 
three of them having preached on the very day of their 
death. The Eev. 

PETER D. OAKEY 

was born at ISTew Brimswick, ^. J., June 22d, 1816. 
He united Avith the First Reformed Dutch Church, 
September, 1830, then under the pastoral care of the 
Eev. Jacob J. Janewav, D. D. Graduating: at Euto:ers 
College in 1841, and completing his theological course 
at the Seminary in New Brunswick in 1844, he was 
ordained and installed pastor of the Eeformed Dutch 
Church, Oyster Bay, in September of the same year. 
He resigned his charge at Oyster Bay, having been 
called to the Middle Eeformed Dutch Church, Brook- 
lyn, over which he was installed in March, 1847. He 
was installed over the church in Jamaica, May 25th, 
1850, having been unanimously called almost immed- 
iately after the pastoral relation of his predecessor was 
dissolved.* That pastorate ceased on the 16th of April ; 
he entered on his the following month — a striking evi- 
dence of the harmony and healthful condition of the 
congregation. Mr. Oakey's ministry, before he came 

* The Rev. J. D. Wells preached from Jer. iii. 15 ; Rev. N. C. Locke 
gave the charge to the pastor; and Rev. J. M. Macdonald the charge to the 
congregation. 



PKESBYTEEIAN CIIUKCir, JAMAICA. 225 

to Jamaica, had been marked with signal success. He 
took charge in Brooklyn of an infant chnrch, having 
20 members ; at his departure, after three years, the 
church had increased to 150 members. Mr. Oakey's 
ministry at Jamaica has been blessed to the edification 
of the church, and a steady annual addition to the 
number of its communicants. He, too, bears testimony 
to the uniform kindness of the people to himself and 
his family. The following is an extract from his tenth 
anniversary sermon, preached May, 1860, taken from 
the Long Islarid Farmer^ of that date : 

"There have been added to the church, during the 
past ten years, 179 members. There have been 135 
baptisms. The Pastor has solemnized the rite of 
marriage 98 times, and officiated at 270 funerals. He 
has delivered, during the ten years, about 2,000 ser- 
mons and other religious discourses. Of the whole 
number of communicants, but 49 have died during 
the period. Of this number several were over 90 
years of age ; 6 over 80 years ; 22 over 70 ; 31 over 
60 ; leaving but 18 under 60 years of age ; of these 
but four were under 35 years." 
10* 



226 HISTORY OF THE 



CHAPTEE IX. 

STATISTICS OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN' THE UNITED STATES — INFLU 
ENCE OF A SINGLE CHURCH — MEN DIE, TRUTH ENDURES — THE LIFE OP 
SOCIETY — ERROR AND SIN TRANSMITTED — LOSSES AND GAINS, OR THE TRAN- 
SCIENT AND PERMANENT IN HISTORY — SIGNS OF THE TIMES — THE MISSION- 
ARY SPIRIT OF RICHARD BAXTER — HOPE FOR OUR COUNTRY IN ITS PRESENT 
TRIALS — PRINCIPLES RECEIVED FROM THE PRESBYTERIAN FATHERS — LOY- 
ALTY — RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION OF YOUTH — FREEDOM OF CONSCIENCE — 
CHOICE OF RULERS — HOW WE MAY BEST SERVE THE FUTURE — KING DAVID 
— ABEL — THE CHAIN OF EXPERIENCE — MR. AMOS DENTON — FAITH AND 
PRAYER. 

I'N concluding this volume, it will be proper to glance 
at what the Presbyterian Church, in its several 
branches has become, in this country, since the church 
whose history has been sketched in the preceding 
pages, was established ; and at the duty imposed on 
those who are charged with the conservation and dis- 
semmation of the principles maintained at such cost, 
in a former age. 

In the United States there are now more than -Q.ye 
thousand five hundred Presbyterian ministers, without 
including those of the Reformed Dutch Church ; more 
than eight thousand churches ; and more than seven 
hundred and seventy-five thousand communicants ; — 
being considerably more than double the number of 
communicants, churches and ministers in the several 



PKESBYTERIAN CHURCH, JAMAICA. 227 

branclies of the Presbyterian Cliurclies in Great 
Britain and her Provinces.* In the branch of the 
church, known as old- school, there are, according to 
the last reports to the General Assembly, two thousand 
seven hundred and sixty-seven ministers, five hundred 
and forty-five candidates for the ministry, three thou- 
sand six hundred and eighty-four churches, haying 
more than three hundred thousand communicants. In 
the branch, known as new-school, there are one thou- 
sand five hundred and fifty ministers, two hundred 
and eighty candidates, one thousand four hundred and 
seventy-eight churches, with nearly one hundred and 
thirty-five thousand communicants. The Presbyterians 
have church property of larger value than any other 
denomination — the Methodists excepted, the two being 
very nearly equal in amount, it being, according to 
the census returns of the United States in 1850, more 
than fourteen millions and a half, and furnishing one 
church for every 4,769 of the total population. The 
educational interests of the country, in the higher sem- 
inaries of learning, have to a large extent been in the 
hands of the Presbyterian Church and her ministers. 

Of course it is impossible to estimate correctly the 
influence of a single church, however clearly may be- 
long to it the honour of being the first of its own name, 
established in the country, in laying the foundations of 
that which has grown into so vast a superstructure. It 
is difficult, indeed, to trace the influence, in promoting 
true religion, of the church at Jamaica, in this its own 
peculiar fields. ^Numerous evangelical churches have 
grown up around it, several of them, for more than a 

* Wilson's Almanac for 1860. 



228 HISTOKY OF THE 

century, sharing with it in Christian lal)ours. Large 
Presbyteries now occupy the territory, including the 
two great cities adjacent, where there was not a single 
church of the Presbyterian name at the time religious 
worship was commenced in this place. Kor is it much 
easier to estimate the amount of good done when we 
limit our view to the confines of the congi'egation 
itself. 

Godly men, one generation after another, who la- 
boured for the establishment and preservation of this 
church, have passed away, but the church remains. 
Truth and righteousness did not take their departure 
from the earth with those who loved and defended 
them in the past. The same great fundamental prin- 
ciples which were so dear to holy patriarchs, prophets, 
apostles, and our j^ious forefathers are in the custody of 
their successors in the faith. The same faith by which 
Abraham was justified, justifies ev^ery believer. The 
law of the ten commandments, which came by Moses, 
is the law of the Christian Church. Even that knowl- 
edge, which is the result of experience, is not entirely 
lost, but has been transmitted in institutions, customs 
and laws ; or stands recorded for our instruction in hu- 
man biography. Society, like the individuals of which 
it is composed, has its own peculiar life and growth, 
which goes on, whilst one generation passeth away, and 
another cometh. JSTo gulf ever divides one generation 
from its predecessors, or from those which follow it. 
Tlie isolation of any single one, except by a mere form 
or figure of speech, is impossible. They may be dis- 
tinct links, yet they belong to one great chain, stretch- 
ino* across the aofes, and transmit from one to another 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, JAMAICA. 229 



a subtle and powerful influence. The coming one im- 
bibes the life, and puts on the growth of that which is 
passing away before it wdiolly disappears. 

Not only truth and righteousness, but error and sin, 
are transmitted from one generation to another. If the 
evil which men do died with them, long since would 
the fountain of supply have been exhausted, and the 
moral desert would be now blooming as the rose. 
Error survives, because of the deceivable character of 
man, and the imperfection of his teachers. It is truth 
misconceived ; or, it is truth perverted ; or, it is truth 
absolutely denied ; and, because of this necessary rela- 
tion to truth, it lives and will live, until the deceiver 
shall cease to employ it, or those who have been his 
dupes, shall be secured against his wiles. Let it not 
be supposed that the highest civilization of itself can 
ever expel error from among men, or withstand the 
corruption of the human heart. A Divine power and 
instrumentality are requisite for this great Avork. Just 
as Christianity, in the purity of its doctrines, and lives 
of its disciples, is brought to bear on the mass of evil 
in human society, will the work of exterminating it 
advance. And here, too, let us thankfully acknowd- 
edge the progress which has been made. The light 
w^hich began to shine on the hill of Zion, more than 
eighteen hundred years ago, already shines with glad- 
dening beams on many lands, giving joyful presage 
that it will yet penetrate all the dark j)laces, and fill 
the earth with glory. 

This view of losses and gains, as exhibited by a 
study of the past, is suited to check vanity, whilst 
it forbids despair. If we have any advantage over 



230 HISTORY OF THE 

those wlio have gone before us, it is because we come 
after them. They have removed obstacles out of our 
path. If we had to contend with their difficulties, W' e 
should accomplish no more, peradventure, not so much 
as they. If we had lived when they did, we should 
have been the slaves of their ignorance and prejudices; 
no more enlightened and charitable than they. We 
are to take into consideration the age in which they 
lived, and judge them by their light, not ours. Can 
we hope to equal the greatness of their efforts in the 
difficulties they encountered, in contending with the 
difficulties that meet us, and in removing them out of 
the way of those who shall come after us ? 

We might w^ell despair, wlien taking into account 
the slow progress which has been made for so many 
generations, if the entire work of bringing the world 
to the point where it now stands, had been committed 
to any single one of them ; as we should certainly be 
presumptuous, if we supposed that all which remains 
to be accomplished has been committed to the one 
now on the stage. Each one has its allotted work; and 
if we perform not ours, we may fall far behind many 
that have gone before us. 

The period in which we live has been thought, by 
some profound minds, to belong to an era which bears 
'' marks of the fulness of time," as if there could be 
no great future beyond it, except that glorious con- 
summation to w^hich Prophecy has long pointed, and 
the Gospel so clearly tends. The ancient world lacked 
that perfection of moral and spiritual truth with which 
the Gospel has furnished us. The providence of God 
has opened to us doors which were effectually barred 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, JAMAICA. 231 

and sealed against our fathers of two hundred years 
ao-o. " Could we but go among Tartars, Turks, and 
heathens," says Eichard Baxter, in his personal Narra- 
tive, " and speak their language, I should be but little 
troubled for the silencing of eighteen hundred ministers 
at once in England, nor for all the rest that were cast 
out here, and in Scotland and Ireland ; there being no 
employment in the world so desirable in my eyes as 
to labour for the winning of such miserable souls; 
which maketh me greatly honour Mr. John Eliot, 
the apostle of the Indians in Kew England, and 
whoever else have laboured in such work."* Look in 
whatever quarter we may, we not only descry doors 
wide and effectually opened, but the nations that are 
without the Gospel, effete ; and we descry no gifted race 
which seems endued with power to impress new ele- 
ments on the history of the world. Christian nations 
must be, as has been said, ''the last reserve of the 
world " to do God's work. And because it is God's 
work, and because they are in possession of the truth, 
as it is in his Son, the truth w^hich makes men free, it 
shall be done. We have not the least ground for des- 
pondency, as to the final result. The delays and 
defeats, which vex us, are but a temporary adjourn- 
ment, or perhaps the mysterious means employed for 
the hastening on of the day of promised peace and 
rest. 

The trials, through which the Christian nation, to 
which we belong, is now passing, should be looked 
upon hopefully, rather than in the spirit of dejection. 

* Narrative Part I. conclusion ; written 1664. 



232 HISTORY OF THE 

Considering the long period during which God kept 
this great continent hidden from the rest of the world, 
and how it was opened just as soon as it was ready for 
occupation, and there were men ready to occupy it ; 
and how the most enlightened kingdoms were sifted, 
for the precious seed with which to sow the virgin soil, 
we can not yield to the fear that He is about, at so 
early a stage in its history, to give the nation np to 
destruction. If the shadow upon the dial of our pro- 
gress has seemed of late to be going back,* we can 
not believe it is the symbol of approaching dissolution, 
but rather of a prolonged and useful existence. The 
civil wars in England, two centuries ago, involved 
sufferings of which the bloody pages of its history can 
give us but a feeble idea ; they ended in the beneficent 
revolution of 1688, deciding the struggle which had 
been kept up, for weary ages, between the monarchical 
and popular elements, in favour of the latter. God is 
sorely chastening us ; but what son is there whom the 
Father chasteneth not? What greatness or eminent 
virtue is to be attained by individuals or nations, ex- 
cept in the school of afliiction ? May He grant that 
our present grievous troubles, like the afflictions of his 
own children, shall prove to be not judgments but 
chastisements, which afterwards yield the peaceable 
fruit of righteousness ! 

But it merits our most serious inquiry what it is we 
have received from the past, worthy to be transmitted 
to those who are to come after us ; what it is we have 
been put in charge of specially for the future. We 

* II Kings XX. 9-11. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHrRCH, JAMAICA. 233 



have inherited something more than the estates of the 
dead — the houses they built, the acres they cultivated 
— to wit, the jprinciples they defended^ and the iininu- 
nities and privileges^ which it cost them untold lahoiirs 
and sufferings to wring from the grasp of Tyranny. 
The measure of our indebtedness to them is the measure 
of our obligation to hand down the legacy we have 
received, to those who have in it an equal heirship with 
ourselves. 

What have we received from our Presbyterian 
fathers ? We have received the principles of loyalty 
to the civil government. They even sustained a gov- 
ernment which oppressed them. They were opposed 
to the violent measures which resulted in the execution 
of the first Charles, and were in favour of the restora- 
tion of the second. They were opposed to the usurpa- 
tions of the military power and the Protector. They 
were opposed to whatever was in contravention of the 
fundamental law of the land, whether it appeared 
in the Charleses or Cromwell. They were support- 
ers of the government under the ancient con- 
stitution of the land. Whilst they were ready to 
yield to the civil authority all due honour and sub- 
mission, in matters temporal, in aifairs concerning 
the commonwealth, they claimed the privilege of 
choosing their own ministers, and demanded that they 
should be ordained by their own acknowledged spirit- 
tual rulers ; and persisted in their claim and demand 
in spite of disabilities, confiscations, and the sword. 
If we would prove ourselves worthy scions of such a 
stock, we must never relinquish Christ's headship in 
the church ; and in the State, we must abide firmly by 



234 HISTORY OF THE 

the Constitution, in all its parts, and the government 
administered, according to its provisions. 

" Think well throusli whom 



Your life-blood tracks its parent lake." 

The strictest discipline in morals^ and religions in- 
struction of youth ^ was another of the principles of our 
forefathers. The Bible and the Catechism were em- 
ployed in the family and in the school, as well as in the 
house of God, to impress on the minds of their children 
the principles which should govern their conduct to- 
wards God and man. These principles, submission to 
the powers that be in the state, freedom of conscience, 
the choice of rulers by the suffrage of the people, were 
transplanted by them to this land. They were admira- 
bly qualified by their love of liberty, their respect for 
law, and their fear of God, to lay the foundations of 
empire. May we, their descendants, be faithful to the 
trust committed to us, and deliver it unimpaired to the 
rightful heirs ! They lived in times of civil commo- 
tion, but their spirit of uncharitable dogmatism and in- 
tolerance, which was the spirit of the age they lived in, 
has passed away. God forbid that, in these dark and 
bitter times which have come upon us, that fell spirit 
should be revived ! Let us abhor that which was evil 
in them, whilst we cleave to that which was good. 

In fine, if we would know how best to serve the fu- 
ture, it is by serving our own generation well. In cast, 
ing ourselves forward, to live for posterit}^, it is not ne- 
cessary to lose sight of the present interests of the 
world. We are not to " stop," as has been said " to 
dry up the fluids of present vitality, that we may em- 



PKESBYTEEIAN CHUKCH, JAMAICA. 235 

balm ourselves as mummies for posterity ; yet wliilst 
striving chiefly to act in the present, we should draw 
our bow with such tension as to strike within the veil 
of the great hereafter." Let our plans be for immedi- 
ate, and if well devised, they will be for prospective 
usefulness. ]S^o man ever did better for men, in all 
time, than that Prince and Psalmist of Israel, the 
psalmist of God's people, of every name, of every suc- 
ceeding age, in every land, who, " after he had served 
his own generation, by the w^ill of God, fell on sleep." 
His tongue was silenced, and his right hand forgot its 
cunning, when the sleep of death fell on him ; but his 
songs are echoed and re-echoed, and will continue to 
be, until they mingle with the hymns of the millennial 
morning. It is said of the very first one of our race 
who died, that he " yet speaketh." His voice comes 
sounding to us across the abysm of the past, telling us 
not so to magnify the present as to lose sight of the fu- 
ture, and commending to us that faith which, gives a 
present realization to things hoped for, and demonstra- 
tion of things not seen. It enabled him to seize hold 
of that great sacrifice to be made for sin in the distant 
future, of which the blood that stained his own altar 
was the type. 

It is by this faith we may link ourselves to the gi- 
gantic chain of the experience of thousands of years. 
For it begets in all who possess it, like courage and 
hope, and leads to a deportment corresponding to the 
great and solemn revelations which are addressed to 
the understanding and the heart. 

It constrains to a course of conduct which speaks 
after death has palsied our tongues and done its work 



236 msTOEY OF the 

on our poor bodies. The writer can truly say, and 
has often been constrained to say, tliat he never saw 
the life of faith more beautifully exhibited than it 
was in Mk. Denton, a former elder of this church, 
and to whom the first edition of the preceding his- 
tory was dedicated. Always cheerful and hopeful, al- 
ways prayerful and spiritual, always about his Master's 
business, always ready to speak a word in season to 
him that was weary, and to contribute out of his mod- 
erate means to the needy in a measure beyond many 
of those who have the resources of wealth, let me 
express the hope that he has and will continue 
to have many to follow him as he followed Christ. 
What though disease which had long been wasting his 
bodily strength, at length commenced its ravages on 
his mind and overshadowed him in his last sickness 
with a rayless cloud ? How great and joyful must have 
been the good man's astonishment when, having closed 
his eyes for ever on the darkness of earth, he opened 
them on the bris^htness of heaven !* 



* Mr. Denton departed this life August 9th, 1857, aged 63 years, 5 months 
and 8 days. The following sketch of him was published by the present 
pastor, Rev, Mr. Oakey : 

Mr. Denton was born in the town of Jamaica, March 1st, 1794. A child 
of the covenant by a pious mother, be was early taught the obligation and 
practice of true religion. 

The subject of our notice united with the Presbyterian Church in October, 
1S16. His consistent piety and devoted zeal pointed him out as well quali- 
fied to fill the office of ruling elder. Accordingly, having been previously 
called to this office by the voice of the church, he was ordained thereto on the 
8d of June, 1819. How well he filled that office they who knew him most in- 
timately can best testify. It is due to his memory to say that for 38 years, 
except when sickness intermitted his labours, he served the church as an elder 
with an afiection, a faithfulness, a devotion of piety, a pure consistent chris- 
tian character seldom surpassed, not often equaled. And though for awhile 



PRESBYTERIAN CIIUKCH, JAMAICA. 237 

It is by faith we receive the great propitiation. It is 
by faith that the unseen things of eternity become 
living and influential realities. It is Christ in our 
prayers like the angel of the Lord, ascending in the 
flame of the burnt sacrifice* of Israel's great champion 



laid aside from active duty by physical disability, yet to the last his interest 
was in and for the church. 

Some of the traits in his character may be summed up in a few words, 
Jle had a tender conscience. He feared nothing so much as sin. He was 
very susceptible to anything in his own person or in the church that might 
offend the Divine Master or wound his cause. He was of a hmnhle mind. 
He never was obtrusive in his manner. He never arrogated to himself su- 
periority ; nor was he dogmatic in the statement of his opinions. His dis- 
position was rather conciliating, confiding, childlike ; more like those of 
whom the Saviour said, " of such is the kingdom of Heaven." He teas 
charitable vpon principle ; he was liberal according to system. If he was ab- 
sent on collection days, his contribntion nevertheless came. And that contri- 
bution Avas a fair representative of his worldly circumstances, for he felt it to 
be a 2Jrivil-e(/e to "give according as the Lord had prospered him. He was 
desirous of doing good to the souls rf men. Many can testify to his efforts in 
the sick chamber, and by personal conversation with the impenitent, to lead 
them to Jesus. And some who have united with the church traced their 
convictions to his conversation, or to books given them by him. " They 
that turn many to righteousness shall shine as the stars for ever and ever." 
He was strong in his faith in God. However little faith he may have had in 
hi?nself, he never lost hold of his faith in God. He never permitted him- 
self to question the wisdom or righteousness of the Divine proceedings* 
And in this respect, like Job, he kept his integrity to the end. And though 
his disease, reaching the brain, produced great mental suffering, partially 
thereby suspending the full enjoyment of his hope, yet in his life and char- 
acter the example and power of a godly life speak out, justifying the appel- 
lation, if it may be applied to any one within the range of our knowledge, 
of a good man and full of the Holy Ghost. And while friends gather around 
his grave, the church mourns his loss, and the impenitent have lost a friend, 
than whom no one felt a more tender interest for them than our departed 
brother. 

But he is gone. "We can only mourn our loss, and tender our condolence 
to the afflicted relatives, and in the language of the apostle, exhort them 
" that they sorrow not, as others which have no hope. For if we believe 
that Jesus died and rose again; even so them also which sleep in Jesus 
will God bring with him." 

* Judores xiii. 20. 



238 PEESBYTEKIAN CHUKCn, JAMAICA. 

which brings them near the throne of the Loed of all 
the ages and kingdoms of the world. It is a great en- 
couragement when we remember we approach the same 
gracious being who heard the prayers of our own 
parents and ^Jicestors, who have passed beyond the 
shadows amidst which we are moving to the inheri- 
tance of the promises. Our hearts are moved when Ave 
think how they prayed for their children's children, 
and we are blessed ; how they prayed for Christ's cause 
and it was strengthened, and his work revived. Are we 
wrestling as they did to obtain the everlasting prize ? 
and for a blessing on those who are to come after us ? 



ADDENDA. 



I. 

A list of the Towne Estate of Jemaica. 

















s 








a 




m 




ANNO 1683 


o 


^ 
>* 


H 

r^ 




III 


o 






H 
>* 


1 


5'. 




ESTATES 




2 


1 





I— ( 




o 
2 


5 


CO 

4 


3 


r— 1 

3 


52 


2 


£ .s. d. 


Capt. Carpenter 


186 00 00 


John Rodes Senr 














4 


2 


5 


2 


2 





40 


1 


120 00 00 


Thomas Smith sen 





1 


1 





2 


3 


3 


3 


2 


2 


45 


2 


145 00 00 


Jonathan Deine, 


1 














2 














18 


1 


58 00 02 


John Everit 


2 
2 
1 


















4 
4 


3 
4 

5 


1 
4 



4 
2 

2 


2 

2 

1 





1 


30 
42 
33 


1 

2 
1 


104 00 00 


Joseph Smith 


170 00 00 


Thomas Bayles 


119 00 00 


Thomas Wigens iun. . . 

















2 





1 


1 





8 





022 00 00 


John Wio'ens 




1 














2 

1 


1 
1 












1 











1 
1 


036 00 00 


Girsham Wigens 


041 00 00 


Edwav^Hig-bee 


1 














3 


2 


2 


2 


1 


30 


1 


092 00 00 


Joseph Thurston 


3 










2 


3 


1 


5 


1 


1 


46 


2 


164 00 00 


William Foster 


2 














4 


2 


2 


4 





35 


1 


116 00 00 


Samuell Smith 


2 











6 


6 


2 


3 


3 





50 


3 


204 00 00 


Nicholas Everit 


1 











4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


2 


50 


2 


176 00 00 


Daniel Whithed 


2 














6 


2 


3 


1 


2 


45 





118 00 00 


Clem Salmon 



1 















4 


1 
6 



3 














10 

70 


1 
1 


033 00 00 


W^illiam Creed 


160 00 00 


Peter Stringham 


1 














3 


1 











12 


1 


061 00 00 


Beniamin Coe 


1 
2 

















1 


4 
3 


1 
1 


1 




1 

2 






27 
10 


1 
1 


085 00 00 


Samuell Messenger. . . . 


080 00 00 


Nathaniell Lynas 

















1 


4 





1 





10 





032 00 00 


John Oldfield 



















4 

4 


4 
6 






2 
1 


2 







36 
25 


2 



124 00 00 


George Woolsey iun. . . 


081 00 00 


John Man 


2 

I 
















2 


3 

4 



3 


4 

2 


2 
2 


1 

2 


22 
24 


2 


111 00 00 


Sam Mathews 


108 00 00 


John Foster 







1 
















2 



1 
1 
1 


2 
4 





3 




1 





2 



8 
22 
14 





047 00 00 


Jane Foster 


066 00 00 


Richird Jones 


037 00 00 


Jonathan Mills 


2 











2 


6 


1 


3 


3 


3 


16 




119 GO 00 


Jonathan AVood 





































018 00 00 


Jonas Wood 




1 
1 
1 


1 























1 


2 
2 
2 

2 




2 
1 


4 
1 
2 
1 



1 
1 
3 








5 

15 

4 

8 





051 00 00 


John Wood 


055 00 00 


Elias Bayles 


040 00 00 


John Smith Jr 


065 00 00 


Samuell Denton 














2 


4 


1 


1 


1 





6 




064 00 00 


Alexander Smith 

















2 





2 


1 





13 




047 00 00 


Zachariah Mills 


1 











2 


2 


2 


1 


1 





19 




083 00 00 



240 



ADDENDA. 



Rate list, etc. — Continued. 



ANNO 16S3 



AbeU Galle 

Fulke Davis 

^"amuell Davis 

John Hindes 

Richard Denton 

Nehemiah Smith 

"Wait Smith 

John Smith Sen"" 

John & Jos. Ludly. . . . 

John Carpenter 

Samuell Mils 

Nath Denton iu 

Sam Deine Sen 

Sam Deine Jun 

John Deine 

Nath Denton Sen 

George Mills 

George AVoolsey Sen . . 

"Widow Ashman 

John Rowlifson & Fred. 

Thomas "Wellin 

John Bayles 

Sam Ruscoe 

John Hanson 

Derick Powleson 

Cornelius Barnson 

Rich Everit 

Hugh Forde 

Thomas Smith iun . . . . 

"William Bringscel 

Edw Burrows 

Caleb Carman 

John Rodes iun 

Tho Foster 

John Carman 

Tho AVoolsey 

John Freeman 

Beniamin Jones 

"William "White 

Hope Carpentor 

Randolph Evans 

Barnet Caterlin 

John Foster 

Jerem Hubard 

Daniel Denton. 



03 








B 

M 




« 

>> 




> 


< 


CO 

< 


1,=^ 


CO 


^ 


1—1 


o 


o 


yt 


•M .-H 


OD 


t-? 


a 


2 











2 


4 


2 


3 


6 


21 



















2 





j 2 





8 



















3 





2 


1 


11 




1 














1 


1 


1 





1 


6 




2 


































1 











4 


4 


3 


2 


1 





22 
















4 


4 


1 


2 


2 





3G 




1 


1 











3 





2 


1 


1 


26 




1 


1 








6 


3 


2 


3 


1 





3n 


2 


1 











2 


2 


2 


1 


2 





13 




1 











2 


4 


2 





2 





30 




1 











2 


3 


2 


1 


3 





15 




2 











4 


6 





2 


3 





34 


































4 




1 














1 














5 




2 











4 


6 





1 





1 


55 



















2 





1 








4 




2 











4 


6 


2 


4 








36 


2 


1 











4 


3 








2 





21 





1 


1 











4 





3 


3 





16 


2 

















5 





3 


2 





30 





2 














3 





3 


8 





22 













ft 





2 














16 



















8 


2 


6 


3 


1 


14 




2 








(\ 





6 





3 


4 





22 




1 














2 














10 




1 





























10 




1 














































1 


2 














9 




1 














2 








1 





3 



















1 





1 


1 





5 




1 








D 


6 


5 





4 








19 




2 














3 


2 


1 


1 


1 


9 






















2 


1 




























2 



















1 





























10 




2 





1 








3 


4 


1 


1 


1 


6 




1 








1 


2 


1 











2 


6 




1 














1 














3 




1 











2 


1 





1 


1 





4 











































































1 




















4 




























2 














6 




2 














2 


1 

















ESTATES 
£ ,s. d. 



098 00 00 

039 00 00 
050 00 00 
048 00 00 

042 00 00 
116 00 00 
110 00 00 
0S6 00 00 
151 00 00 

078 00 00 

103 00 00 
087 00 00 
1?.9 00 00 
0-22 00 00 

040 00 00 
153 00 00 
034 0.~i 00 
168 00 00 
()75 00 00 

104 00 00 
065 00 00 
098 00 00 
014 00 00 
118 00 00 
107 00 00 
050 00 00 
022 00 00 
030 00 00 

043 00 00 

044 00 00 
032 00 OD 
198 00 00 

079 00 00 
032 00 00 
028 00 00 
040 00 00 
089 00 00 
053 00 00 
038 00 00 

055 00 00 
009 00 00 
018 00 00 
046 00 00 
034 00 00 

056 CO CO 



ADDENDA. 



241 



II. 



Beturn of Marriages Christenings and Burials in tJie town of Jamaica^ 
for Seven Years preceding 1688. — Doc. Hist. III. 197. 



Capt. Carpenter, 
Joseph Smith, 
John Oldfield, 


MARRIAGES. CIIRI 

. 3 

1 

. 1 


STENINGS. BU] 



1 

2 


^lALLS 






Mr. Woolsey, 
Will fFoster, 


1 

. 1 







1 
1 


Samll Smith, . 


3 


2 





John Everett, 


. 


3 ... 





Zachary Mills, 
Alexander Smith, 




. 




4 


1 




Rich Jones, 





1 





Edward 


. 


2 





Nehemiah Smith, . 


... 


. ... 


. 1 


John Ileines, 


. 1 


1 ... 


1 


John Carpenter, 
Saml Mills 


... 
. 2 ... 


3 ... 
2 ... 






Nath Denton Senr . 


3 ... 


... 


. 


John Rodes, 


. 


3 ... 


. 


John, .... 


... 


1 ... 


. 


Nath Denton, 
George Woolsey, . 
Tho : Smith Sen"", 


. ... 

... 

. 1 ... 


4 ... 
. 3 ... 
. 2 ... 


. 1 
. 1 
. 1 


Tho : Smith Jun^, . 


... 


. 1 ... 


. 1 


J ohn Smith, 


. ... 


. 2 ... 


. 


Rich : Rodes, 


... 


. ... 


. 1 


Ralph Hunt, 


. 1 ... 

... 


. ... 
. 2 ... 


. 

. 1 


Derrick Poulson 


.0 .. . 


. 3 ... 


. 1 


Rich Everett . 


1 . . . 


. ... 


. 


11 









242 ADDENDA. 








MARRIACES. CHRISTEXINGS. BUI 


1IALLS 


Samll Mathews, . . . 1 





Nicolas Everett, . . . 1 . 




4 


1 


Jonas Wood, .... . 




4 


1 


ffrederick . . . . . . 




3 





John BayUe, .... 1 . 










John Hanson, . . . . . 







1 


EHas BayHe, .... . 




3 





Abell Gale, .... 1 . 







1 


Jonth Dean, . . . . . 




... 


1 


Samll Dean, .... 3 . 




... 


1 


Nath Lynas, . . . . . 




4 ... 





Wait Smith, . . . . 




3 ... 





Danll Denton, Jun", . . . , 




... 


3 


Joseph Thurston, . . . 1 . 




8 ... 


1 


John Wood, . . . . . 




2 ... 





Mr. Whitehead, ... 




... 


1 


Mr. White, . . . . . 




... 


. 2 


Hope Carpenter, ... 




. 1 .. . 


. 1^ 


Danll Denton Sen' . . . - 




- ... 


— 


Tho: Wellen, . . . - . 




- ... 


— 


Will Creed . . . . - 




- ... 


— 


John ffoster, . . . . - 




. - ... 


. - 


John Man, ... . — 




- ... 


- 


Will Sallierd . . . . - 




- ... 


. - 


Fulk Davis, . . . . - 




- ... 


— 


Mr. fFreeman, . . . - 




- ... 


. - 


Samell, . . . . - 




- ... 


- 


Jonth: Mills, . . . - 




— ... 


. - 


Beniemin Coe, . . . . - 




- ... 


. - 


Tho : Wiggins, . . . - 




. - ... 


. - 


Widdow, . . . . - 




. - ... 


. - 


Edward Higbee, . . . - 




- ... 


. - 


* The remaining figures of the MS. ar 


e ob' 


iterated. 





ADDENDA. 



2^3 



Widdow Davis, ... . - 

Samll Denton, . . * - 

AViddow Messenger, . . . - 

Rich: Wright, . . . - 

Peter Stringam, . . . - 

Jeremiah Hubbard, . . - 

This is what we can Remember hath hap'n'ed within 7 
years. 

ffor y^ number off horse & ffoot & how armed & provi- 
ded an account is ah-eddy given by y^ Military officers : 
By order from y® Commissioners 

By Danll Denton Clerk 
To Maior Thomas Willet, Sheriff. 



III. 

Rate List for £51 of Jamaica feb 4, 1708-9. 





£ 


s. 


d. q.tv 


Cornelius Baise 


.. 


3 


3 


Widow Coe 


.. 


3 


6 3 1 


John Carpenter, Jr.. 


.. 


3 


8 2 


John Brass 


.. 


3 


Oil 


Andrew Gaile 


.. 


4 


10 2 


Daniel Coe 


.. 


6 


4 2 2 


Nathan'l Smith 


.. 


2 


12 4 


John Cokefair 


. 


8 


114 


Joseph Coe 


.. 


5 


3 13 


John Mills 


.. 


4 


5 11 


Jonan Mills, Sr 


.. 


4 


1 1 1 


Jona" Mills, Jr 


.. 





2 


Powel Amberman . . . 


.. 


4 


5 2 2 


Samuel Scitmore. . . . 


.. 


4 


6 3 3 


Daniel Whithead. . . . 


.. 


3 


9 


John Cleare 


.. 


4 


9 


John Talman 


.. 


1 





Eliacam Hedajer 


.. 





5 


John Hendrickson , . . 


.. 





3 


Johanas Eldertson . . . 


.. 





3 


Christian Snedicer. .. 


.. 





3 


William Johnson. . . . 


.. 


7 


10 


Charles Randall 


.. 





]0 


Richard Everitt 


.. 





4 



£ s. d. q.w 

William Cornell 7 00 

Gershom Wiggins 6 9 3 1 

Simum Bloome 5 10 2 

John Bleuw 5 822 

William Colder 3 333 

Samuel Higbie 4 10 13 

Thomas Thurston 4 

John Coe 5 

William Bloodgood 12 

Justice Mastin 120 

John Gray 500 

Anthony Waters 17 5 2 3 

Johanas Bruer 5 9 13 

Obadiah Wilkins 1 11 2 

Richard Betts 10 

Hope Rodes 3 6 22 

Jonan Dean, Jun 4 10 1 3 

Benjamin Smith 4 304 

Nicolas Everit, Jr 2 10 

John Hanson 17 6 12 

Hanse Bargin 2 911 

Tunis Hanson 200 

WilliamCreed, Sen.... 9 713 

Widow Okly 2 904 



2U 



ADDENDA. 



Hate List, etc. — Continued. 



John Garison 

John Rodes 

Mrs. Woolsey 

William Ludlum 

John Gaile. . 

John Morehead 

John Wright 

Adrian Hegeman 

Nathaniel Higbe 

Sam'l Denton (Smith). . 

Elias Dousihtv 

Daniel Smith". 

Thos. Welling 

Sam'l Smith (red hd).. 

Jos. Carpenter 

Nath'l Denton, Jr 

Sam'l Bavlnvs, 

Wm. Creed, Jr 

Thos. Whithead 2 

Capt. Geo. Woolsey.. . . 

John Smith, Jus 

Thos. liumphres 

Rem Dnrland 

Garret Durland 

Peter Garason 

Jacob Ramson 

Johanas Williamson. . . 

John Snedicer 

John Lamberson 

Theodorus Pulehemus.. 

Jacob Colver 

Eldert Lucas 

Jehonas Bukout 

HendrikLot 

Jacob Johnson 

Dow Johnson 

John Deane 

Samuel Deane 

Hendrick Brass 

Tunes Huff. 

Peter Hendrickson.. .. 

Garitt Johnson 

Garitt Clason 

John Okey 

John Weson 

Samuel Durling 

Stephen Stephenson... 

Benj. Thurston 

Benj. Wiggins 

Wm. Carpenter 

John Probasco 

Elias Baylies 

Samuel Carpenter 

Wm. Brinklev 



s. 


d. q.io 





7 


7 


10 1 1 


1 


9 


5 


11 2 


16 


8 


2 


4 2 2 





7 00 


1 


2 


7 


1 1 3 


5 


10 





7 


5 


12 2 


7 


3 3 3 


7 


11 3 1 





2 


6 


2 


7 


7 4 


9 


10 1 1 


15 


1 1 3 


7 


3 1 1 


10 


11 2 


1 


4 


9 


11 4 


9 


9 4 


8 


5 2 2 


10 


7 


8 


12 


7 


1 


7 


10 2 


19 


7 13 


1 


6 


12 


5 2 4 


1 


4 


IG 


5 2 2 


o 


7 13 


12 


2 1 3 


4 


13 1 


4 


7 4 


4 


2 2 2 


2 


2 





4 2 


8 


11 2 4 


16 


10 4 


12 


4 2 





7 1 1 





7 2 


8 


2 2 2 


18 


6 


5 


6 


4 


11 


8 


4 11 


5 


6 1 1 


8 


13 1 





5 3 1 



Jacob Lowese 

Jos. (Jldtield 

Sam'l Thurston 

Hope Mills 

Dan'l Bayles 

John Messenger 

Abm. Lot 

David Forman 

Wait Smith, Jr 

Nathan Smith 

Nicolas Stillwell 

Peter White 

Justice Robt. Reade... 

Josiah Wiggins 

Sam'l Smit'ir(Cord) 

Ebenezer Smith 

Jonan Dean, Jr 

Nath'l Denton, Jr 

Daniel Dean 

Samuel Clows (Clerk; . . 

Saml Mills, Jr 

Thos. Howel 

John Foster (Comber). 

GabrillLuff 

Jos. Smith 

James Denton 

Widow Goldin 

Zachariah Mills 

John Cai'man 

Sam'l Mills, Sr 

Jos. Ludlum 

John Ludlum 

Jas. Lewis 

Waite Smith, Sr 

Nehh Smith, Sr 

Neh'' Smith, Jr 

Capt. John Carpenter. . 

Daniel Bull 

Thomas Smith, Jr 

Abell Gaile 

Thos. Gaile 

Nehh Gaile 

Wm. Moss 

Jonan Waters 

Doc Beekman 

John Smith, Jr 

Jos. Burton 

Sam'l Fisch 

Hope Carpenter 

Jonas Wood, Jr 

Timothy Wood 

Thos. Wigsins 

Charles Williams 

John Woolsey 



8. 


d. q.w 


1 


11 2 


7 


2 2 2 


3 


11 1 3 


5 


6 2 


4 


13 


2 


8 


8 


10 2 


1 


10 3 1 


3 


3 


2 


6 2 4 


5 


10 2 


5 


10 2 2 


2 


5 2 


9 


4 3 3 


6 


9 3 3 


o 


1 1 1 





2 


10 


3 1 


4 


2 11 


1 


6 


6 





2 


6 


1 


4 


3 


11 


11 


5 2 2 





3 3 3 





12 


5 








10 


4 


8 13 


3 


8 


8 


8 





5 


9 


7 2 


4 


11 2 4 


2 


9 1 3 


6 


3 2 4 


1 


8 


4 10 3 3 


g 


8 1 4 


o 


6 4 


2 


3 


3 


2 4 


11 





3 


4 2 


4 


2 2 4 


o 


5 2 4 


4 


8 


7 


10 3 3 


10 


10 


1 


10 1 1 


6 


4 4 





11 


5 


11 1 3 



ADDENDA. 
Rate List, etc. — Contimied. 



245 



Hend'k Hegeman 

Thos. Bums 

John Burns 

Sam'l Denton 

John Foster, Jr 

Wm. Jones 

Charles Smith 0, 

Thos. Woolsey 

Jonas Wood, Jr 

Solomon Carpenter 

Thos. Smith (Cord) 

Richard Oldtield 

Wm. Oldfield ... 

John Pearce 

Frederick Van Lew 

John Everitt 

David Waters 



11 


5 2 4 


4 


11 


1 


4 


1 


4 


6 


5 3 1 


5 


3 2 


1 


8 


5 


5 1 1 





2 


'2 


5 


3 


10 


13 


6 2 


8 


2 4 





5 4 


17 


10 2 2 


7 


8 


5 


13 3 



Sam'l Smith, Sr 

Mrs, Whithead 

Doct. Ocqnart 

Francis Sawyer 

Jnstice Everitt 

Noah Smith 

Thos. Petit 

George Cimbal 

Justice Whithead 2 

Joseph Fanton 

Andrew Mariner 

Widow Hinksman 

Widow Hadlock 

Thos. Waters 

Amos Smith 

Edward Hare 



6 


3 3 1 


4 


9 11 


2 








7 


9 


10 1 3 





2 


2 


6 13 





2 


1 


10 2 4 





2 


1 


8 4 





3 


3 


2 2 


6 


2 4 


5 


4 2 





4 2 



The above rate being £51 IGs Hd, whereof £50 os Id to be paid to Col. 
Abm. Depeyster, Treasurer of the Colony, and the remainder £1 135 8d to 
remaine to y® townes vise made by us 

Tnos Waters ) ^„,^„^„„ 
. o c Assessors. 

Amos Smith ) 

Town Records, III. 58 to GO. 

Eemarhs on the foregoing List. 

The Whitheads were the two richest, and now not one of the name can 
be found hereabouts. 

The denominations of money are, £. s. d. qrs. and wampum. I suppose 
5 wampums were a farthing. 

We have here all the taxable inhabitants of the town of Jamaica. 

We learn there were two doctors, one Bloodgood and one Urquhart, per- 
haps ihe/uther of the Rev. Mr. Urquhart. John Urquhart occurs in 1696. 

We see the odd affixes to persons of the same name, as Smith, Cord, i. e., 
cordwainer or shoemaker ; Smith, Bed Jid, i. e., red haired, red head ; Foster, 
Comb, whether it means wool comber, or what, I can't guess ; Smith, Pond, 
who lived at Beaver Pond ; Sam'l Denton, Smith, i. e., blacksmith. 

Dan'l Bull was the one who caused the riot in Jamaica, while McNish 
looked on and enconraged the non-payment of church dues to Poyer^ 
He was supervisor. — Doc. Hist. III. 285. H. 0., Jr. 



246 ADDENDA. 

lY. 

LETTER OF THE EEV. GEORGE HALE. 

Pennington^ N.J.^ February 5th, 1862. 
Bev. J. M. Macdonald, D. D. 

Dear Sir, — The township of Hopewell, in which the 
village of Pennington lies, was originally settled about the 
year 1700, and principally by emigrants from Long Island. 
These emigrants were the founders of the First Presby- 
terian Church of Hopewell of Avhich lara now the pastor and 
which formed part of the old "congregation of Maiden- 
head [Lawrence] and Hopewell" mentioned as early as 
1709, in the minutes of the Presbytery of Philadelphia. 

Some of these were from Jamaica. Within view of the 
spot where I am now writing, is the farm conveyed (as the 
parchment deed before me states) on " the 17th of Novem- 
ber, 1699, to Edward Burro wes of Jamaica on Long Island." 
This land was first occupied by his son Thomas Burrowes, 
who took an active part in favor of the " old side " in the 
controversy which agitated the Presbyterian church in 
1737-8, &c. In the call for the services of the Rev. John 
Guild in 1739, are found his name and those of his five 
sons. Three of his descendants have been elders of this 
church, and one of them is the Rev. George Burrowes, 
D. D., now of San Francisco, California. 

Opposite to the farm of Thomas Burrowes, on the north 
side of the road, is the land purchased by George Woolsey 
also of Jamaica, and now in possession of his descendant 
of the fourth generation, George Woolsey, a deacon of 
this church. 

Adjoining the farm of Thomas Burrowes is land once 
the property of John Muirheid, who was married to 



ADDENDA. 247 

''^Eebekah Bailey'''' at Jamaica, November 22, 1706. Their 
oldest child Jane, was born August 29, 1710 and "bap- 
tized by Mr. George McN"ish." It is recorded that all their 
other children, seven, were baptized in infancy. Two of 
his posterity, each bearing the name of their ancestor, 
" John," have been ruling elders of this church. 

A portion of the last mentioned tract was bought by 
John Carpenter of Jamaica, and occupied by him and three 
generations following, each of the four bearing the name 
" John " the third being for many years a ruling elder in 
this church, and the fourth dying unmarried just as he had 
reached manhood. Between the farm of Mr. Carpenter, 
and a line fence, which is but a few rods distant from here, 
is the purchase of John Welling^ also of Jamaica, two of 
whose grandsons have been ruling-elders, and a great 
grandson a deacon of this church. 

In addition to the above, Thomas Smith, John Everit, 
Eldad Davis, Jonas Wood, Caleb Carman, Samuel Everit, 
and Andrew Foster, are believed to have immigrated 
hither from Jamaica, Long Island. 

Two of the early settlers married daughters of the Rev. 
John Prudden, once pastor of the Presbyterian church of 
Jamaica : — viz, Nathaniel Moore of Newtown, the husband 
of Joanna Prudden, and Elnathan Baldwin, (of the Hemp- 
stead Baldwins) the husband of Kezia Prudden. 

From Hempstead came John Mott, John Johnson and 
William Cornwell. 

From Newtown, came Ralph Hunt, whose son Nathan, 
was long a ruling elder here, and whose daughter Charity 
became the wife of the Rev. John Guild, the pastor for 
nearly fifty years of this church. In this family there have 
been at least three ministers of the Gospel, five ruling 
elders, and numerous professors of religion who have been 
pillars of this church and a blessing to other Presbyterian 



248 ADDENDA. 

churches. John Titus also was from Xewtown. Through 
his seven sons and two daughters, most of whom settled 
in this vicinity, he has become the ancestor of a posterity 
more numerous probably than that of any early inhabitant 
of this county. Seven of his descendants have served the 
people as ruling elders and three as deacons, besides those 
who have been office-bearers in other churches. 

Ephraim Titus, one of the original settlers from New- 
town, was a ruling elder here ; and through the marriage 

of his two daughters, one to a Phillips of Lawrence, and 
the other to a Green, of Ewing, his descendants are nu- 
merous, — among whom may be mentioned the Rev. Enoch 
Green, once pastor of the church of Deerfield, New Jersey. 

Other immigrants, who came directly from Newtown 
hither, were Timothy Titus, John Hunt, Sackett Moore, 
Robert Blackwell, John Burroughs, John Reed, William 
Read, John Keetcham, Benjamin Keetcham, Andrew 
Smith, John Smith, Jonathan Sticklin, Thomas Combs, 
John Field, Gershom Moore, Simon Sackett, Jonathan 
Furnian, Samuel Furman, and doubtless others. 

It is probable that the family of Stevenson, of Amwell, 
on the north, Reeder, Scudder, Severance, Reed, Sackett, 
Fish, &c. of Ewing, Avith those who bore the name of 
Hunt, Smith, Davis, Phillips and Lawrenson of Lawrence, 
were also originally from Newtown, Long Island. 

There is no evidence, either documentary or traditional, 
that the Christian people who settled the region, occupied 
by the churches of Lawrence, Ewing, Pennington, Tren- 
ton, and Titusville, were not Presbyterian from the be- 
ginning ; and their Presbyterianism seems to have been 
brought Avith them from Long Island. The first Presby- 
terian record we have of this " people of Maidenhead and 
Hopewell " is in the minutes of the Presbytery of Phila- 
delphia, May 11th, 1709, where "Mr. Smith is ordered to 



ADDENDA. 249 

SCO to them, and confer with them on such matters as shall 
be propomidecl to hhn by them, concornhig his being 
called to be their minister," 

There are some names which denote that the people were 
in part descended from Hollanders, as Iloif, Ringo, De- 
bough, Vanhook, Hendrix, and two at least are of French 
origin, La Rue, and Vannoy, [Huguenots ?] 

If this meagre sketch can aid you in your investigations 

it will be gratifying to, 

Yours as ever, 

George Hale. 



y. 

Showinr/ the Presbyteries with ivhich this Church has been 

connected. 

Tins church belonged to the Presbytery of Philadel- 
phia, from 1711 to 1716. It was set off to the Presbytery 
of Long Island, which was organized at Southami^ton, 
April 17, 1717, and was the first Presbytery constitu- 
ted in the province of Xew York. May 24, 1738, the 
Presbytery of Long Island was united with the eastern 
part of Jersey, under the name of the Presbytery of New 
York, under the jurisdiction of which this church con- 
tinued, until the ministry of Mr. Mills, who became a 
member of the Suffolk Presbytery. On the 20th of May, 
1774, in the S)Tiod of New York and Philadel^^hia, "a 
reference was brought in from the Presbytery of New 
York, praying the advice of the Synod, Avhether the con- 
gregation of Jamaica, on Long Island, whose late minister, 
the Rev. Mr. Mills, belonged to the Presbytery of Suffolk, 
may be taken under their care as they formerly were, and 
had never been dismissed. The Synod allowed that the 
11* 



250 ADDENDA. 

above congregation be taken under the care of the Pres- 
bytery of New York." (Mmutes of Synod, p. 454.) Ac- 
cordingly, by the last named Presbytery, Mr. Burnet Avas 
ordained here in 1774. But Mr. Faitoute says, that at the 
time he came here a dispute had existed some time, whether 
this church belonged to the Presbytery of Suffolk or the 
Presbytery of Xew York; the Synod, in 1789, decided 
that it belonged to the Presbytery of New York, which 
body proceeded to install Mr. Faitoute. In 1790, the 
Presbytery of Suffolk was dissolved, and a new one formed 
under the original name of the Presbytery of Long Island, 
and this congregation Avas attached to it. It was organized 
at Jamaica, November, 1790. Dr. Buell was appointed to 
preach. In 1809, the minister and congregation of Ja- 
maica requested to be detached from the Presbytery of 
Long Island, and placed under the care of the Presbytery 
of New York, which request was granted. This church 
has been attached to the Presbytery of Nassau since Nov. 
7, 1855, at which date said Presbytery was organized. 

— •♦« 

YI. 

Catalogue of the Ministers of the Church. 

Zechariah Walker, Elihu Spencer, D. D., 

John Prudden, Benoni Bradner, 

William Woodruff, William Mills,^ 

George Phillips, Matthias Burnet, D. D., 

Jeremiah Hobart, Georire Faitoute,^ 

John Hubbard,^' ' Henr> R. Weed, D. D.,' 

Francis Goodhue,*^ Seymour P. Funck,^ 

George McNish,^ Ehas W. Crane,' 

Robert Cross, James M. Macdonald, 

Walter Wilmot,'' ' Peter D. Oakey. 
David Bostwick,^ 

1 Ordained when settled here. ^ Died pastors of this church. 



ADDENDA. 251 

YII. 

Elders of the Church, 

Mr. McNish, at the meeting of Presbytery in 1716, gave 
reasons for not bringing an elder with him, which were 
sustained. At the first meeting of the Synod of Philadel- 
phia, in 1717, John Rodes (Rhodes) was present as an 
elder, who was, I have no doubt, from Jamaica. In 1737, 
Philip Tanner was present in Synod as an elder, who 
may have been from Jamaica. Daniel Smith, an elder of 
this church, was present in 1720. He died on the 15th 
day of October, 1754, having been born in 1663 or 1664. 
By his last will and testament he gave the Register, which 
is now in use by this church. Elias Baylis was present 
for the first time in Synod in 1734. As we have no Re- 
cords of Session, and no Register extending back of the 
middle of the last century, it is probably impossible to 
form a complete list of the Ruling Elders of this church. 
With the exception of Messrs. Rhodes and Tanner, re- 
specting whom there may be some doubt, the following 
are known to have been Ruling Elders in this church : 

John Rhodes, Elias Baylis, 

Philip Tanner, Joseph Skidmore, Esq., 

Daniel Smith,^ Daniel Baylis,^ 

Sam'l Smith, Esq.' Sam'l Smith, Jr. Esq.' 

1 Acting as Elders in 1744. 

2 Daniel Baylis, is supposed to have come from England. He had five 
sons, who were all elders of Presbyterian churches. Isaac was an elder of 
the Huntington church; Daniel, of the Goshen Church ; Oliver and Elias, 
of the Huntington church ; Thomas was an elder of the Jamaica church. 
Several of his grandchildren are at this time officers of Presbyterian 
churches. Thomas Baylis, an older, and Abraham Baylis, a deacon of the 
Second Presbyteiian church in Brooklyn, and Daniel Baylis, one of the 
elders of the church in Jamaica, are of this number. 



252 



ADDENDA. 



Increase Carpenter, 
Xehemiali Smith, 
Nicholas Smith, 
Samuel Denton, 
Benjamin Tliurston, 
Benjamin Everitt, 
Richard Creed, 
AVilliam Ludlam, 
Thomas Baylis, 
Abraham Burtis,' 
Benjamin I. Smith,^ 



Hon. Eliphalet Wickes,* 
Amos Denton,^ 
Xathan Shelton, M. D.,^ 
Charles S. Lord,^ 
John Carpenter,^ 
Xathaniel Carpenter,^ 
Jas. H. Reeve,^ 
Daniel Baylis,^ 
Hon. James Rider,* 
Laurens Reeve,^ 
John D. Shelton, M. D.,^ 



Daniel Smith, 
EHas Baylis, 
Samuel Denton, 
Nicholas Smith, 
Michael Skidmore, 



VIII. 
Deacons. 

Othniel Everitt,® 
Laurens Reeve,'' 
James Rider,'' 
Wra. L. Denton,^ 
Latham M. Jas^^G^ar.^ 



IX. 

Trustees of the CJinrdi. 

Benj. Thurston, 1791 David Lamberson, 1791 

Benj.Everett,Esq.Pres. 1791 Daniel Ludlam, Esq., 1791 

Jacob Carpenter, Pres. 1791 Daniel Smith, 1791 

Nicholas Everitt, 1791 Wm. Ludlam,Esq.Pres.l791 



1 Elected Feb. 23, 1817. 

2 Elected June 3, 1819. 

3 Elected May 13, 1821. 

4 Elected Feb. 21,1847. 



5 Ordained Oct. 18, 1857. 

6 Ordained Jan. 13, 1819. 
^ Ordained Sept. 22, 1833. 



ADDENDA. 



253 



Stephen Herriman, 1791 
Epliraim Baily, 1791 

Daniel Iligbie, 1793 

Joseph Robinson, 1793 

Bernardiis Hendricksonl793 
Nehemiah Everitt, 1794 
EHphalet Wickes, Esq., 1795 
Samuel Mills, 1796 

Benj. Everitt, 1798 

James Denton, 1802 

Simeon Smith, 1802 

Henry Mills, 1805 

Othniel Smitli, 1805 

Dan'lLudlnm, Jr.Pres. 1805 
Benj. N. Smith, 1805 

John Rhodes, 1810 

Richard Creed, 1813 

Thomas Baylis, 1817 

David Lamberson, Jr. 1817 
Daniel Smith, 1817 

Michael Skidmore, 1818 



Gen. Van WyckWickes, 1 827 

David Bergen, 1827 

John Rhodes, Jr., 1827 

Daniel Baylis, 1827 

Laurens Reeve, Pres., 1829 

Samuel Higbie, 1829 

Nich's S. Everitt, 1830 

Thomas Smith, 1831 

James Baylis, 1831 

James Herriman, 1833 

Benj. Bergen, 1833 

Daniel Baylis, 1837 

Amos Denton, 1842 

Wm. Ludlam, 1843 

Hon. James Rider, 1845 

Jacob Bergen, 1849 

John B. Smith, 1859 

JohnD.Shelton,M.D., 1860 

John J. Armstrong, 1860 

Isaac S. Hendrickson, 1861 

Waite S. E. Ludlam, 1861 



John Rider, Pres., 



1824 



264: 



ADDENDA. 



X. 

Number of Communicants annually reported as far back as 
can be ascertained. 

[Up to the year 1 826, the year ends on the first of Oc- 
tober; from 1827 to 1861, on the first of April.] 



YEAR. 


TOTAL 
IN COM. 


TEAR. 

j 


TOTAL 
IN COM. 


YEAR. 


TOTAL 
IN COM. 


YEAR. 


TOTAL 
IN COM. 


1807 


46 


1 1821 


184 


1835 


328 


1849 


420 


1808 


47 


1822 


193 


1836 


325 


1850 


419 


1809 


49 


1823 


196 


1837 


316 


1851 


445 


1810 


51 


1824 


201 


1838 


328 


1852 


456 


1811 


53 


1825 




1839 


327 


1853 


464 


1812 


58 


1826 


197 


1840 


392 


1854 


470 


1813 


55 


1827 


263 


1841 


380 : 


1855 


484 


1814 


54 


1828 


262 


1842 


373 ! 


1856 


480 


1815 


53 


1829 


270 


1843 


369 1 


1857 


493 


1816 


118 


1830 


276 


1844 


368 1 


I 1858 


504 


1817 


147 


1831 


278 i 


1845 


404 I 


1859 


513 


1818 


160 


1832 


333 I 


1846 


403 


1860 


519 


1819 


169 


1833 


338 


1847 


417 


1861 


529 


1820 


177 


1834 


335 


1848 


419 







In 1793, there were fifty-eight communicants. In 1762, 
there were but twelve, whose names are thus given by the 
Rev. Mr. Mills : Benjamin Hinchman ; Xehemiah Denton ; 
Deborah Denton, his wife ; John Carman, and his Avife ; 
Samuel Denton ; Dea. Elias Baylis, and his wife ; Mr. 
(John) Messenger ; Obadiah Smith, and his wife ; Eliza- 
beth Smith, (Justice Smith's wife.) 

It is proper to state, that in tlie above list there is a 
number wlio liave been long absent, and their places of 
residence being unknown they have not been reported 
to Presbytery since 1854. 



ADDENDA. 



255 



XI. 

List of Ministers ivho have gone forth from this church to 
l^reach the Gospel. 

The following Ministers, either bj baptism or com- 
munion, have been members of the Jamaica Church. 
They are given without reference to the order of their 
licensure ; the date of their connection with the church 
extending back about thirty years ; there being no re° 
cord preserved of any who may have studied for the 
Ministry previous to that date. 



Rev. 


Charles S. Lord 


Entered on 
Ministry. 




Thomas S. VVickes 


1816 




Daniel Higbie . 


1836 




William B. Reeve 


1836 




Frederick W. Shelton 


. 1847 




Frederick M. Noll 


1837 




Jeremiah S. Lord, D.D. . 


. 1840 




Samuel L. Lamberson . 


1829 




Nicholas E. Smith, D.D. 


. 1845 




A lirnhnm T^vmipi^i 






William Mack, D.D. 


. 1831 




Thomas Wickes . 


1834 




Henry Wickes 






John Wickes 






Geo. F. Hendrickson 






Martin Ryerson . 


1844 




John Hall 






Charles Furman . 






James Smith . 






John H. MiUs . 





256 



ADDENDA. 



Entered on 
Ministrv. 



Rev. Wilson Phraner . . . .1850 
" E. N. Crane . . . . 1852 
" Benjamin S. Everett . . .1858 
" Joseph T. Duryea . . . 1858 
" Sam'l Hendrickson (cord) Mission- 
ary to Liberia. .... 

There are also two young men now in course of pre- 
paration for the gospel ministry. 



XII. 

List of Vestrymen^ imder the Act of 1G93, {cis far as can he 
ascertained) from 1702 to 1722, chosen hy the Parish 
of Jamaica^ arranged alphabetically . 



Berrian Peter 1714-22 

Nicholas 1717 

Jno 1702 

Bass Abm. 1716— not present 
Bloom Barent 1716 — not 

present 
Bayles Elias 1714-18 

Sam'l 1708 

Burroughs Thos & Jos 1709 

Jas 1712 

BuUDan'l 1708-18 
BettsDan'l 1720 
Bloodgood W'" 1702 
Brinckerhoft* Derick 1720 
Carpenter Jno 1709 

Hope 1702-09 

Jos. 1714 



Sam'l 1705 

Coe Jno 1702-19 

— David 1709-20 

— Robert, 1705 

— Sam'l 1709-19 

— Jona. 1714 
Cornelius Ehas 1 709 — erased 
Dean Sam'l son of Jona. 1720 
Denton Xath'l 1702-9 
Everet Jno 1705-20 

Kich. 1713 

Fitch Sam'l 1712-19 
Fish Sam'l 1719 

- Jona 1713-20 
Furman Josiah 1716 

Jona. 1712 

Glean Anthony 1709 



ADDENDA. 



257 



Glenn W" 1702 
Gale Jno 1717 
Hazard Thos 1709-20 
Jas 1709 

Nath. 1713-18 

Jona. 1705 

Ilougton Jno 1713 
Hii^bie Nath. 1715 

Sam'l 1705 

Huff Peter 1714-20 
Ketcham Jos 1716 
Ketcham Sam'l 1709 
Lawrence W"' 1710 

Dan'l 1705 

Thos 1718 

Ludluni Henry 1716 
Messeno;er Jno 1720 
Mills Zach. 1709 
Moor Gershoni 1709 
Moss W"^ 1714 
Monfort Peter 1715 
Morrell Jos 1713 
Oldfield Rich. 1714-18 

W" 1712 

Petit Thos 1716 
Roe David 1717 
Renne Jas 1714-18 
Reeder Jacob 1714 
Ryder Jurian 1713 

Stephen 1713-18 

Sackett Jos Jr. 1712 



Jos 1702 

Skidmore Sam'l 1709 
Smith Dan'l 1710-20 

Eben. 1712 

Nehemiah Jr. 1702-22 

Sam'l (Scoon) 1715 

Nathan 1716 

Jeremy 1717 

Amos 1712 

Thos 1702 

SkillmanThos 1717 
Titus Silas 1712-19 

Content 1702 

Talman Jno 1705 
Thurston, Benj. 1710 

Sam'l 1712 

Van Liew Jno 1712 

Van Wyck Jno 1716— not 

present 
Waters Anthony 1705-10 

Jona. 1710-17 

Thos 1713 

Woolsey Geo 1709 
Wood Timothy 1714 

Jonas 1720 

Woodward l^ath. 1720 
Wright David 1702-9 

Henry 1705 

Jona. 1709-19 

WilletThos 1702 



25S ADDENDA. 

XIII. 

Cotemporary Ministers of Jamaica, 

DUTCH REFORMED CHURCH. 

1702-5 Ministers from N. York and Kings Co. 

1705-41 Bernardus Freeman* 

1705-41 Vincentius Antonides* 

1741-48 John Henry Goetschius 

1742-54 Johannes Arondeiis* 

1754-60 Thos Romeyn 

1766-72 Hermanns L. Boelen 

1775-6 Sol. Froeleigh, D.D. 

1781-4 Martinus Schoonmaker* 

1785-97 Rynier Van Xest 

1792-1824 Zach. H. Kuypers 

1802-50 Jacob Schoonmaker, D.D. 

1835-49 Garret J. Garretson 

1851- JohnB. Aliger 

CHURCH OF ENGLAND. 

1702 Patrick Gordon — Died before induction. 

1 704-9 AV"^ Urquhart 

1709-32 ThosPoyer 

1732-55 Thos Colgan 

1757-66 Sam'l Seabury 

1769-90 Joshua Bloomer 

1790-95 W^Hammel 

1796 (2 months) Chas Seabury 

1797-1 802 Elijah D. Rattoone 

1803-4 Calvin White 

1805 Geo. Strebeck 

1806 Andrew Fowler 

1807 John Ireland 

1808 Edmund D. Barry 

1809 Timothy Clowes 
1810-30 Gilbert H. Sayres 
1830- W" L. Johnson, D.D. 

* Resided in Kings Couutj. 



ADDENDA. 259 

XIY. 

The First Indian Deed for the Toivnship 7ioiv called Jamaica, 
referred to on page 26. 

Be it known unto all men by these presents that we 
whose names are underwritten, have sold and set over from 
ourselves, our heirs, executors, administrators or assigns 
unto Mr. Richard Odell, Nicholas Tanner, Richard Ogden 
and Nathaniel Denton, their associates, heirs, executors, 
administrators or assigns a certain tract of land beginning 
at a great swamp lying on the west side of Rockeway 
neck, and so running westward to a river lying on the east 
side of a neck of land which Mr. Coe hath hired of the 
Indians, which river is called by the Indians, Wauwee- 
bheag, the north line running near unto or about 
the path that goes from Hemsted to Midlburroug,* 
with all the uplands ct meadowing within the aforesaid 
bounds, with all privileges & appurtenances thereunto be- 
longing. In consideration whereof the aforesaid Mr. 
Richard Odell, Nicholas Tanner, Richard Ogden, Nathan- 
iel Denton & their associates shall give unto these whose 
names are underwritten, two guns, a coat & a certain 
quantity of powder & lead. In witness whereof we have 
subscribed our hands this 13th of September Anno 
Domini 1655. Their marks. 

Witnesses. rackquakek + 

DANIEL DENTON EUNNASUK + 

KODGER + LINAS AUMERHAS + 

CASPEROUW + CAUMENUK + 

ADAM, or CHACHANAT + 

ACHITTERENOSE + ASKASETONE + 

WAUMETOMPACK 4 
MANGUAUOPE + 
* Newtown. 



APPENDIX 

CONTAINING AN 

ACCOUNT OF THE CELEBRATION OF THE BICENTENNIAL 
ANNIVERSARY OF THE 

JAMAICA, L. I., 

HELD ON THE 7th, 8th and 9th OF JANUARY, 1863. 

PREPAKED BY THE 

COMMITTEE OF AREANGEMENTS. 



APPENDIX. 



PRELIMINARY ARRANGEMENTS — OPENING EXERCISES — MURAL TABLETS — SER- 
MON BY DR, MACDONALD — INTERLOCUTORY MEETING OF MINISTERS IN FORMER 
CONNECTION WITH THE CHURCH — SERMON BY REV. J. M. KREBS, D. D. — 
SERMON BY REV. W. P, BREED — COMMUNION — LETTERS FROM DR. WEED 
AND OTHERS — CONCLUDING ADDRESS BY THE PASTOR, REV. P. D. OAKEY — 
"new YORK observer" " PRESBYTERIAN " 

AT a meeting of the Session of the First Presbyterian 
Church, Jamaica, L. I., held August 31st, 1861, 
the Moderator having stated that on January next 
would occur the two hundreth anniversary of the 
founding of the church, it was unanimously 

'''' Resolved^ That from a sense of gratitude to God for 
his preserving care over us as a church for so long a 
period of time, the occasion should be celebrated with 
appropriate services ; and that the Trustees and Deacons 
be invited to meet with us on Wednesday, September 
4th, at 3 o'clock p. m., to take measures for carrying 
the same into effect." 

The Elders, Trustees and Deacons held a meeting in 
the Lecture Room, September 4th, the Pastor in the 
chair. The meeting was opened with prayer, and 
Latham M. Jaggar appointed Secretary. The following 
Pesolutions were adopted : 

^' Hesolved^ That it is highly proper, in thankful re- 



26i APrENDIX. 

membrance of God's goodness, and due to tlie history 
of the past, tliat the Bicentennial Anniveraiy of this 
church should be suitably observed. 

Resolved^ That the Pastor, Laurens Reeve and John 
D. Shelton, M. D., be a committee to make all neces- 
sary arrangements." 

Also on motion of the Pastor, the following preamble 
and resolution were adopted : 

" ^Vheyeas, The Rev. J. M. Macdonald, D. D., when 
pastor of this church, published its history to the year 
1847 inclusive, therefore 

'^Ecsolved, That the Rev. Dr. Macdonald be invited 
to preach the historical sermon." 

It was also voted to erect mural tablets to the 
memory of those who had been pastors of the church. 

John J. Armstrong was subsequently added to the 
committee. 

The following invitation was printed and circulated 
through the mail and by the press : 

Deak Sir: 

With tlie close of the present year a period of two 
hundred years will have elapsed smee our forefathers 
established divine worship in this j^lace, and laid the 
foundations of the Presbyterian church of which we are 
members, and which has continued to the present time. 
It has appeared proper to us, their descendants and 
representatives, that an occasion so rich with happy 
results and remembrances should not be permitted to 
pass without some suitable commemorative exercises. 
We propose, accordingly, to celebrate it with appropriate 
services expressive of gratitude to God, who has thus far 
helped us. We wish to summon together from far and 



APPENDIX. 265 

near our friends and kindred who have, as ministers or 
fellow Christians, held church relations with us, to unite 
Avith us in a social Christian re-union and a season of re- 
ligious services, to commemorate an event which should 
awaken in every heart grateful emotions. 

Providence permitting, the services will commence the 
Vth of January, at 3 o'clock p. m., with a com- 
memorative sermon by Rev. J. M. Macdonald, D. D. 
Communion services on Thursday afternoon. 

Please let us know, as soon as convenient, if Ave may 
expect the favor of your company. 

Yours very resj^ectfully, 

P. D. Oakey, ] 

Laueens Reeve, >- Committee. 

De. John D. Shelton, j 
Jamaica, L. L, Nov., 1861. 

The following invitation was sent to the different 
pulpits in the vicinity : 

The Presbyterian Church of Jamaica contemplate cele- 
brating their two hundredth anniversary with appropriate 
exercises, commencing on Tuesday, January Tth, at 3 
o'clock p. m., with a commemorative sermon by the Rev. 
Dr. Macdonald. This congregation is respectfully invited 
to participate in the exercises, 

By order of the Session, 

P. D. Oakey, Moderator. 

The following was the order of exercises adopted hj 
the committee : 

'' Services to commence Tuesday, January 7th, at 
3 o'clock p. M., by the Pastor dedicating the mural 
13 



266 APPENDIX. 

tablets, to be followed with the commemorative sermon 
by Eev. Dr. Macdonald. Wednesday morning a 
meeting for free conversation by the ministers present 
who have been born in this church, or who have com- 
menced their religious life or education in connection 
with it. The afternoon to be appropriated to social 
receptions and calls. Wednesday evening a sermon 
by the Kev. Dr. Krebs, of the Presbytery of New 
York. On Thursday morning a sermon by the Hev. 
Wm. P. Breed, of the Presbytery of Philadelphia ;* in 
the afternoon the communion, administered by the 
oldest minister present." 

On Tuesday afternoon, January Tth, at 3 o'clock, a 
very large congregation assembled in the church. 
After the invocation by the pastor the Scriptures were 
read and a very appropriate prayer oifered by Pev. 
N. E. Smith, D. D., of Brooklyn. The Bible used on 
this occasion was the oldest pulpit Bible belonging to 
this church, which has been preserved, being an Edin- 
burgh edition published in 1769, On the fly leaf is 
the following inscription in the hand-writing of the 
Pev. Mr. Burnett : " This Bible belongs to the Pres- 
byterian Church in Jamaica, Long Island. April 20, 
1776." — An important period in American history— 
when Washington was in New York city, preparing 
its defences ; and but a short time before the adoption 
of the immortal Declaration of Independence of the 
United States. 

* The Jamaica Church was one of the original churches of the Presby- 
tery of New York, which was well represented by Rev. J. M. Krebs, D.D. 
The Rev. W. P. Breed was appointed by the Presbytery of Philadelphia as 
their representative, the Japaaica Church being one of the earliest members 
of the mother Presbytery, or, as assertec} by one qualified to judge, '* the 
mother of the motbPF Presbytery." 



APPENDIX. 267 

After prayer the following address, dedicatory of the 
mural tablets just erected, was made by the pastor : 

"To-day dates an epoch in the history of this church. 
The spirit of that history is upon us. The associations 
of the past gather around us. We summon from their 
graves the generations of our fathers according to the 
flesh who have here engaged in the services of the 
sanctuary, and our fathers in the ministry who conduc- 
ted these services. For two hundred years they and 
their descendants, as a united church and congrega- 
tion, have in this place worshipped the God of their 
fathers. But 'your fathers, where are they? and 
the prophets, do they live for ever? ' As sacred to the 
memory of those who here ' laboured in the word and 
doctrine,' as a memento of proper affection for them 
' who being dead yet speak,' as a matter of gratitude 
to God who so early in the history of this country here 
planted this church, and gave to it a succession of able 
and faithful ministers, as in every way fitting the oc- 
casion we celebrate, we this day inaugurate these ex- 
ercises by dedicating these mural tablets to perpetuate 
their names, and cherish the influence, w^hich if living 
they would have imparted. 

"These stones are our Ebenezer — ^liitherto hath the 
Lord helped us. They will be a link, binding the 
present to the past. Their perusal will not fail to 
awaken profitable musings in the reflecting mind, car- 
rying anticipatory thoughts to the grave, and to the 
place where are the spirits of just men made perfect, 
and where the earthly worshipper shall ere long join 
his hallelujahs with the songs of those who have gone 
before. And they will speak with the uniform testi- 



268 APPENDIX. 

mony of the cliurcli's experience that God in covenant 
is a God to them that fear him and their seed after 
them in their generations. The evoked voice of these 
tablets, as read from the spirit of the past, will say to 
the guardians of the Sacred Desk : preach the Gospel, 
the truth as it is in Jesus ; and to the responsibilities 
of those who enjoy Gospel privileges, 'Take heed how 
ye hear.' And the abiding effect which we would leave 
as the engraved sentiment of these stones is in the 
words of Paul to the Hebrew Christians concerning 
their deceased Pastors : ' Remember them which have 
the rule over you, who have spoken unto you the word 
of God ; whose faith follow, considering the end of 
their conversation : Jesus Christ, the same yesterday, 
and to-day, and for ever.' 

" But we turn from the dead to the living. There 
is a connection between the two. As tlie descendants 
by family ties or church relation, of those whose mem- 
ory we revere, we extend to you our cordial greeting 
and welcome. We welcome you to a particij)ation in 
these exercises. Many of you here will revisit the scenes 
of your childhood, and revive youthful impressions and 
friendships. Some of you here began your heaven- 
ward journey, and consecrated yourselves to your life- 
lons: work in the service of God. Here at the altar 
of your early consecration may you receive a fresh 
baptism for your holy work. And your souls mingling 
with kindred spirits, and communing with thoughts of 
the past, be sweetly bathed afresh with the light of 
Divine Love, and spiritual joy. We welcome you to 
our homes and hearts. Mingle your prayers and 
praises with ours. "We have looked forward to this 



APPENDIX. 269 

season with prayerful interest as a means of grace. 
And now may the Divine influence of the ever blessed 
Sj^irit be shed copiously upon these exercises and their 
participators, and to the triune God of our salvation, 
the Father, Son and Holy Spirit, shall be given the 
glory evermore. Amen." 

The Rev. Dr. Macdonald then preached a very able 
and interesting historical sermon from Eccles. i. 4: 
'' One generation passeth away, and another generation 
cometh ; but the earth abideth for ever." This dis- 
course, which was requested for publication, constitutes 
the main body of this work. 

On Wednesday morning, at half-past ten, a large 
audience assembled in the church, to engage in a con- 
ference meeting of the old friends who had come to 
join in the festive occasion. The pastor stated that this 
was a meeting of the friends from a distance, to be 
under their particular care, and conducted as they 
thought most fitting. He therefore called upon them 
to appoint a chairman from their own number ; where- 
upon Dr. Macdonald was selected to preside. The 
chairman stated that the meeting would be left mainly 
to shape itself. He then called on the Rev. John 
Wickes, pastor of the Congregational Church of 
Brighton, I^. Y., to offer prayer. The presiding officer 
said that there were three persons there who had been 
acting elders of this church more than forty years. He 
would call on one of these, his venerable friend. Dr. 
Nathan Shelton, to address them. The Dr. made 
some brief and appropriate remarks, telling of his 
hearing fifty years ago of one of the female members 



270 APPENDIX. 

of this churcli who was very much in prayer, and on 
one occasion kneeled down at bedtime to pray, and be- 
came so engaged that when she closed, to her surprise 
it was daylight. 

Following the Dr. was the Rev. J. Wickes, son of 
Yan Wyck Wickes, Esq., a former resident of the vil- 
lage. He told of his love for the place and congrega- 
tion, and though this was not the place of his spiritual 
birth, yet it was here at that altar that he was dedica- 
ted to God in baptism by his pious parents. He gave 
his testimony to the fidelity of God to his covenant, 
and found verification of this in the experience of his 
father's household. God hath brought one after anoth- 
er of them into the fold ; and parental faith and 
covenant vows with the baptismal seal had not been 
in vain. 

Dr. Macdonald then, by a happy reference to the 
Kev. Elias W. Crane, a departed Pastor of blessed 
memory, introduced his son, the Rev. Elias N. Crane, 
of New Yernon, N. J., who addressed the audience in- 
terestingly, referring to the happy days of his youth ; 
especially to the precious privileges of the Sunday 
School, and the faithful superintendent, who for more 
than thirty years has presided and labored and prayed 
there. He read also an old paper on which w^ere the 
names of the officers appointed at the organization of 
the first Temperance Society in Jamaica, in the year 
1827, thirty-five years ago. They were as follows : 

President — Yan AYyck Wickes. 

Vice Presidents — Eliphalet Wickes, Kathan Shelton. 

Secretary — ^Elias W. Crane. 

Treasurer — James Rider. 



APPENDIX. 271 

Managers — J. Itliodes, Jr., C. Smith, L. Keeve, G. 
Creed, N. Carpenter, W. J. Johnson M.D., D. Bergen 
and M. W. Fox. 

Mr. Crane was followed by Eev. B. S. E veritt, of Black- 
woodtown, N. J., who appeared as the descendant of 
the first founders of the church, as the representative 
of the rural district, and being also one of the two last 
that have gone forth from the membership of the 
church to preach the Gospel ; having been in the minis- 
try but three years, and consequently, as he looked at 
his audience saw very few unfamiliar faces. He, too, 
added his testimony to the inestimable value of Sab- 
bath School instruction and the sure blessing of God 
that will follow fidelity on the part of parents to their 
covenant obligations. 

The next speaker was the Rev. Dr. Mcholas Everitt 
Smith, (altogether a Jamaica name) of Brooklyn, N. Y. 
He spake of the old stone church that stood in the 
Main Street, where now Union Hall Street enters it. 
He exhibited a diagram of the church and told how his 
father (now ninety-four years old) saw a man who bet 
he could ride on horseback at full speed in at the west 
door and out of the east of that old church, and how 
the bettor actually performed the feat. 

The next speaker was the Kev. Mr. Breed, Pastor of 
the West Spruce Street Church, Philadelphia, who 
came as the representative of the Old Mother Presby- 
tery of Philadelphia, and gave its congratulations to 
all on this interesting occasion, and though he came 
here a stranger yet he found his heart so warmed and 
touched by the interesting exercises to which he had 
listened that he really felt as one of them, a member 



272 APPENDIX. 

of the same liouseliokl, having with them a common 
Saviour and Father. 

Rev. Dr. Krebs, of Rutgers Street Church, 'New 
York city, came to represent the Presbytery of ^ew 
York, and the Rev. Wm. B. Reeve, that of Long Ishmd, 
each of which made brief and engaging remarks. The 
services closed by the reading of letters from Rev. Dr. 
Phillips, of I^ew York city, and the Rev. Dr. Henry R. 
Weed, of Wheeling, Ya., the oldest living pastor of the 
church, and others, w^ith a brief address and prayer by 
the Rev. Daniel Higbie, (another child of the church,) 
of Orange County, N. Y. 

LETTER OF KEV. H. K. WEED, D. D. 

Mr. Laurens Reeve, Wheeling^ Nov. 11 th, 1861. 

My Dear Friend, — Your favour of the 20th Septem- 
ber, was duly received and its contents awakened me- 
mories of great interest in my early ministry. To no 
period of my life does my mind recur with greater 
l^leasure than to the time I spent in the dear old 
church of Jamaica, and should I be so happy as to 
find my final home in our heavenly Father's house, I ex- 
pect to meet many there Avhom I was permitted in the 
ardor of my youth successfully to point to " the Way, the 
Truth, and the Life." Later events, too, I have witnessed 
of a soul stirring character in your congregation, that liave 
left an indelible impression on my mind. Indeed, the 
history of that church is one of great interest from early 
times. Its old records and the traditionary accounts cur- 
rent among the elder members in my day, were such as 
pertain to no other church in our connection, and fully 
justify the commemoration you contemplate. I trust the 
occasion wiU be profitable to all concerned, and redound to 



APPENDIX. 273 

a new display of that glorious grace that has eminently 
distinguished the history of your venerable old church. 

Let me say, in conclusion, that while I feel flattered by 
the invitation to attend, and by the kind remembrance of 
all surviving friends among you, my age and infirmities 
forbid me to indulge the hope of being with you. 

Please give assurances of my aifectionate regard to all 
inquiring friends, and believe me. 

Very truly yours, 

H. E. Weed. 

LETTER OF KEV. THOMAS WICKES. 

P. D. Oakey, ETC., Marietta, Ohio, Jan. 2f/, 1862. 

Gentlemen, — I received your kind invitation to partici- 
pate in the celebration of the 200th Anniversary of the 
founding of the Presbyterian Church of Jamaica. Be assured 
that it would afford me the highest gratification to be present 
with you on this most interesting occasion, meeting again 
those whom once I knew so well, and with them reviewing 
all the previous memories of the past, and the goodness of 
our God. Never shall I forget Jamaica, though for many 
years separated from it. It is my birth-place in a double 
sense, the scene of my natural and spiritual birth. I re- 
member its Sabbath School, where one of your number 
was my loved teacher. I remember its sanctuary and its 
consecrated place of prayer. I remember some of its pre- 
cious revivals of religion there experienced, for Avliich I 
have such reason to thank God and rejoice. 

The first minister whom I recollect was Dr. Weed, now 
labouring Avithin 80 miles of me at Wheeling, Avhere he is 
finishing his earthly work by a pastorate of more than 25 
years. I well remember the grief that was awakened by 
the announcement of his intention to leave. It made a 
strong impression upon my youthful mind. 
13* 



274 APPENDIX. 

Mr. Nettleton came in 1826, and with him came the Spirit 
of God in mighty power. Those scenes I remember well. 
It was the first outpouring of the Spirit of which I knew. 
It was not however until the revival of 1831, that I was 
brought to a knowledge of Christ, and enabled to devote 
myself to his service. With the history of the church for 
the last 25 years or more, I have not been so familiar. 
With sincerest pleasure however would I be with you on 
the coming week, were it in my power, and participate in 
all the interests of the occasion. You have my sympathies 
and prayers as one of the spiritual children of that church 
honoured also of Christ, with the work of the ministry, 
and a pastorate over the Congregational Church in this 
place of 22 years, the close of the present month. 

May the Lord abide with you still, making that church 
his joy and crown, from which a multitude of faithful ones 
shall be raised up to be found worthy of Christ, at his 
coming and kingdom. 

Yours very sincerely in the bonds of Christ, 

Thomas Wickes. 

LETTER OF EEV. W. W. PniLLIPS, D.D. 

Rev. and Dear Bro., New York, Jan. 3o?, 1862. 

I thank you for the invitation which has been sent me, 
to be present at the celebration of the 200th Anniversary 
of your church. It would gratify me very much to accept 
it. I have found however that, as I am situated, it will not 
be in my power to be with you. It appears from our re- 
cords that the church at Jamaica did at one time very 
reluctantly, and against their consent furnish the 1st 
church in New York, then in Wall Street, one of their most 
acceptable pastors. Rev. D. Bostwick. Your church has 
been a remarkably favoured one, and furnishes a most in- 
teresting history. How many precious souls have there 



APPENDIX. 275 

been gathered into the fold above ? What an instance of 
faithfulness on the part of our common God, to preserve a 
people called by his name and to dwell with them, giving 
them tokens of his presence, and displaying the riches of 
his grace for 200 years ! Yet it is not strange, since he has 
made with them an everlasting covenant ordered in all 
things and sure. May his presence abide with you ever- 
more, and your experience of his past favours be as the 
first fruits only of what is in reserve for you. 

Affectionately and truly yours, 

Rev. p. D. Oakey. W. W. Phillips. 



LETTER OF THOMAS S. WICKES, ESQ. 

Laurens Reeve, Esq. Poughkeeime^ Jan. 1st, 1862. 

Dear Sir, — I had the favour of receiving a few days since, 
a circular, to which your name with others was appended, 
inviting me to be present at Jamaica on the 7th inst., to join 
•with others in celebrating the first founding of the Presby- 
terian Church in that place. The design seems highly 
appropriate, and did my health permit, I should be very 
happy to participate in those services. As it is, I cannot 
at present leave my home. 

Many associations connect me with the Jamaica Presby- 
terian Church. I delight to think of those days of mercy, 
which God has shown so abundantly there — of the many 
honoured names, written upon the history of that church, 
whose memory is blessed. 

God grant that the recollections of the past may be full 
of cheer and encouragement for the future. 

With sentiments of kind regard and Christian fellow- 
ship, I remain, yours, 

Thomas S. Wickes. 



Y6 APPENDIX. 

EXTRACT OF A LETTER FROM REV. E. N. CRA:NE. 

Rev. p. T>. Oakey : JVeiv Vernon, Dec. 11th, 1861. 

DearBro.,— * * * * * * * 

As you may suppose, the occasion would be one of great 
and peculiar interest to me. Most of my father's ministerial 
life was spent at Jamaica, and there he rested from his 
labours, and lies in the graveyard beside my mother. 
There I Avas born and baptized and passed my childhood 
and early youth. There I, and my three sisters and a 
brother professed our faith in Christ and united with God's 
people, and there I made one of my earliest eiforts to 
preach the Gospel. Well do I love Jamaica and the old 
church, though so little associated with them of late years. 
My heart will ever pray for the peace and prosperity of 
Zion there. Ever may her " walls be called Salvation and 
her gates Praise." Yours fraternally, 

E. N. Crane. 

In the evening the Church was again crowded, 
when Dr, Ivrebs delivered the following Exordium and 
Sermon ; 

EXORDIUM REMOTUM. 

It was formerly the custom in the Reformed Dutch 
Church, at some time in the service previous to the 
sei'moji, to prepare the way for it by what was called 
the " Exordium Remotum." I shall take the liberty, on 
the present occasion, of following the example. Under 
other circumstances, I would not presume to offer the 
suggestion which I now design to throw before you. 
I hope to be justified at this time, speaking in the midst 
of your rejoicings, and welcomed among you as almost 
one of yourselves. 



APPENDIX. 2T7 

Two passages of Scripture I commend to yom* con- 
sideration. 

" Moreover, I will appoint a place for my people Israel, and will plant 
them, that thej may dwell in a place of their own and move no more." — 
2d Samuel vii. 10. 

"Enlarge the place of thy tent, and let them stretch forth the curtains of 
thine habitations : spare not, lengthen thy cords, and strengthen thy stakes : 
For thou shalt break forth on thy right hand, and on thy left." — Isaiah liv. 
2, 3. 

Home^ Peace^ Increase. Tliese are tlie elements of 
blessing indicated by tliese passages. Precious to us 
as individuals, as families, as a people, as citizens or 
as Christians, as a civil community or as a Church. 
Dear is the hearth-stone and the homestead where God 
setteth the solitary in families ; and goodly and pleas- 
ant is it for brethren to dw^ell together in unity, sitting 
in peace under their own vine and fig-tree and none to 
make them afraid. Sweet, too, to go to the house of 
God in company with them who are likeminded, heirs 
of like precious faith, the associates of our childhood, 
the guides, the acquaintance with whom we took sweet 
counsel together, the familiar friends w^hose counten- 
ances greet us in the walks of life, w^hose sympathies 
are cherished amid the associations of worship and 
communion in the same holy truths and songs of j)raise 
and labours and cares, in the same sanctuary and en- 
joyments of the same ministrations. Dear, too, to 
patriotism and piety the contemplation of the j^urposes 
and promises of security and enlargement in reference 
to the people to whom we belong, an inheritance both 
for possession and for communication, a prosperity 
wdiich grows within our borders and around them, till 
the wilderness and the solitary place are glad for us 



278 APPENDIX. 

and the desert rejoices and blossoms as the rose. Thus 
does Jehovah promise Israel, and thus, especially, He 
declares His purposes in regard to the security and en- 
largement of that holy nation, the generation which 
He has chosen and ordained to be a royal priesthood 
to minister the sacrifices of His praise, and to make all 
men see what is the fellowship of the mystery which 
from the beginning of the world hath been hid in God 
who created all things by Jesus Christ, to the intent 
that now unto the principalities and powers in heav- 
enly places might be known by the Church the mani- 
fold wisdom of God, 

Here, too, is an implication of the interest we ought 
to take in all that relates to this great cause and of our 
personal obligation to promote it : an obligation which 
rests not on ministers only, but on all the people of God. 

This interesting anniversary may be used, I think, 
to suggest large illustration of the duty and the priv- 
ilege to which you are come who have entered on the 
inheritance transmitted to you by two centuries. Other 
men have laboured, and you have entered upon their 
labours. Your heritage is a responsibility. By ac- 
cepting it and improving it you will shew yourselves 
worthy children of worthy progenitors. I recognize 
gladly, and congratulate you while I recognize, the 
prosperity you enjoy and the service and success of 
those whom you have sent forth to till other fields, of 
which we have had example to-day in your sons who 
have returned to tell you of their ministries elsewhere, 
and in the reports that have been brought you from 
others whose blessing also comes back to you. For a 
recompense in the same, be ye also enlarged. 



APPENDIX. 279 

This commemoration is well. But does it not become 
you to make the occasion monmnental f Whether you 
should engage in the work of Church extension in one 
form rather than in another, you are better able to 
judge than I am. But I have heard that the place in 
which you worship is too strait for your increasing 
numbers. Why should you not signalize your grate- 
ful zeal hy erecting on this sacred spot another edifice 
of more enduring material^ more tasteful and conven- 
ient^ and of ampler accommodation^ while the building 
-in which we are now assembled may be removed and 
still devoted to kindred uses ? 

Do not be startled at this hroad hint. Do not too 
readily conclude against it by alleging that this house 
will answer all your need for a good while to come. 
You may think so : others will not accept your decision. 
Your pleasant village is growing. It is attracting re- 
sidents from the neighbouring metropolis. It is des- 
tined to be girdled with tasteful villas and to be en- 
larged with new accessions. Already you are compelled 
to deny or to restrict the accommodation of those who 
desire to worship with you. You cannot long afford to 
act upon a narrow and short-sighted policy. The 
overflowing population will seek accommodation else- 
where — and it may be, for such things have been — 
you may And organizations and churches growing up 
altogether separated from you, with fruitful rivalries 
and jealousies, which might be prevented forever by a 
timely provision for the increasing numbers who are 
now desirous only to be joined with you even as they 
are in the Spirit, joying and heholding your order and 
the steadfastness of your faith in Christ, Now, there- 



280 APPENDIX. 

fore, thank God and take courage. The joy of the 
Lord is your strength. 

SUBSTANCE OF SERMON. 
"The joy of the Lord is your strength." — NEHE^fIAH viii. 10. 

To be sorrowful under calamity is neither unnatural 
nor unsuitable, — especially to be sorry for our sins. 
Yet, is it consistent with cheerfulness in view of the 
grace that saves. Grief may be indulged immoderately 
and untimely. Upon the return of the Jews from cap- 
tivity and the restoration of their worship, they were 
glad ; but as they listened to the law they felt their 
sins, tlieir hearts sunk, and they wept aloud. They 
were dissuaded from this excess, and were reminded of 
all the mercy which had forgiven their sins and restored 
them to the privileges they had inherited from their 
fathers, and they were exhorted to give themselves up 
to holy festivity and to display kindness to the destitute 
as a token of tlieir prosperity and gratitude ; and it was 
added, "Neither be ye sorry, for the joy of the Lord is 
your strength." 

The joy of the Lord. God is often said to rejoice 
over His people. His delight is in them. They are to 
Him a holy satisfaction ; as are faithful children to 
their parents. And if this were what is meant by the 
"joy of the Lord" in the text it would be equally true 
as a declaration of tlie cause of our strength and the 
element of our joy, our safety and defence. 

But it is rather used subjectively, to express that joy 
which we have from the Lord and in Him. Since it is 
God's joy in His people in saving and blessing them 



-'"^"^^ APPENDIX. 281 

Avliicli furnishes joj to their own souls. And tin's aiFec- 
tion of theirs is the "joy of the Lord," because (1) It 
comes from God. He imparts it — He produces it. It 
is His gift through Jesus Christ, and it is the work o 
the IIolj Spirit. It is divine in its nature, like that 
wdiich God liimself feels in objects that are good. It 
arises from a sense of the mercies of God — all His 
favour in redemption, in the blessings of His covenant, 
His kindlj providence, all the portion He has pre- 
pared for his people. (2) AYe have this joy i?i God. 
"We joy in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, by 
whom now we have received the atonenient [or the 
reconciliation]." By virtue of our reconciliation to 
God, Jehovah becomes our portion, our dependence, 
hope and trust and love. Once it Avas not so. The 
Christian did not then know God, nor Jesus Christ. 
He was opposed to God ; he was jealous and afraid of 
God ; he saw no form nor comeliness in Christ ; He 
trusted in himself, and looked for his portion in his 
fleshly idols. 

A change has come. He has become acquainted 
with God, and is at peace. He has fellowship with the 
Father and with His Son. Jesus is precious. The love 
of God is shed abroad in his heart by the Holy Ghost. 
He delights himself in the Lord, in His supremacy and 
holiness, in His law and grace, in His holy providence 
and exceeding great and precious promises. He walks 
Avith God. He looks to Him to sup])ly all his need 
from the riches of His glory in Jesus Christ, and his 
hope of heaven is that there he shall be for ever with 
the Lord. — As Ascqj^h, '^^Vhom have I in heaven but 
thee, and there is none upon the earth that I desire be- 



282 APPENDIX. 

side thee;" or as Davidj "Thou art fairer than tlie 
children of men;" or as the Churchy "Thou art the 
chiefest among ten thousands and altogether lovely." 

This joy is our strength. It fortifies the believer in 
his attachment to the great truths of the gospel. Men 
without an experimental knowledge of the doctrines of 
grace, disparage and deny them. But let one feel 
those truths in their effects upon the heart; let him 
realize his guilt and his depravity, and cry out in 
anguish, " What must I do to be saved ? " let him 
realize the grace and power of Christ to save him ; 
let him taste the" joy and peace of believing and the 
attraction of the love of God shed abroad in his heart 
by the Holy Ghost ; let him bask in the light of the 
knowledge of the glory of God by Jesus Christ, and 
adore with grateful wonder the sovereign mercy which 
begot him anew by His resurrection to the lively hope 
of the immortal inheritance ; — let him feel all this, and 
you have before you a man to whom all the truths of 
the gospel are precious and nourishing as the very 
life of the soul. You cannot make him relinquish 
them. He knows whom He has believed ; and the joy 
of his salvation anchors his soul fast to all the counsel 
of God. 

It is an element of our growth in grace. " Unto you 
that fear my name shall the sun of righteousness arise 
with healing in his wings : and ye shall go forth and 
grow up as calves of the stall." Diseased by sin and 
enfeebled, we begin the Christian life in weakness : we 
are as those who are recovering from sickness, while 
the genial influence of the sun and the sweet breath of 
heaven animate the convalescent and impart life and 



APPENDIX. 283 

bounding joy and invigorate all the powers. A merry 
heart doeth good like a medicine. Let the Christian 
be joyful in the Lord. All liis faculties shall work in 
harmony ; his soul shall grow in knowledge, love, and 
purity and power. Even as when the circulation flows 
buoyantly through the veins, the blood briskly fulfils 
its course, health mantles the cheeks, the spirits bound, 
the limbs play, the activje powers develope in healthful 
and vigorous growth ; even as the skipping heifer fat- 
ted at the stall furnishes an image of happy life re- 
joicing in the freedom as well as the fatness of the 
open pastures. 

This joy is our support under trials. A wounded 
spirit who can bear ? It is weak and wasted, and in- 
capable of exertion and of hope. But if the heart be 
joyous — if it knows the joy of the Lord, it regards 
affliction as light, and patience performs its perfect 
work. Joseph in the prison, Daniel in the den of 
lions, the Hebrew children in the burning fiery fur- 
nace, Paul and Silas bleeding in their midnight dun- 
geon, David in the valley of the shadow of death, — all 
have supports and comforts, and they learn even to glory 
in their tribulation, which was producing the peaceable 
fruits of righteousness and begetting hope that should 
never be ashamed nor confounded. "Thy statutes are 
my song in the house of my pilgrimage." 

This joy is our guard and defence against tempta- 
tion. The heart that is destitute of it is exposed and 
open to the fascinations of sin, and in its vacant or 
troubled hours has no resort but worldly and sinful 
recreation. But the Christian has meat to eat the 
worldling knows not of. Thus preoccupied and forti- 



284 APPENDIX. 

fied lie oj)poses his godly joy to tlie incantations of tlie 
charmer that wonld allure him to transgression. The 
joy of the Lord has an expulsive power, and it meets 
the full tide of temptation and rolls it back : 

" God is my all-sufficient good, 
My portion and my choice ; 
In liim my vast desires are filled 
And all my powers rejoice. 

" In vain the world accosts mine ear 
And tempts mine heart anew, 
I cannot buy your bliss so dear, 
Nor part with heaven for you." 

"There be many that say, Wlio will shew us any good? 
Lord lift thou up the light of thy countenance upon 
ns. Thou hast put gladness in my heart more than in 
the time that their corn and their wine increased." 
" We will remember thy love more than wine." 

This joy is our wealth, enabling us to make sacrifice's 
of worldly ease and possessions, at the call of duty. 
Men who brood over their sorrows become terribly 
selfish. They have little thought for the woes of 
others. Morose and churlish they do not, cannot, under- 
stand, how it can be more blessed to give than to re- 
ceive. But a joyous, is apt to be a lavish spirit. It takes 
a pleasure in doing good. It will divide its crust with 
the famishino^, and rise at midnio^ht to comfort the 
weary. It has always enough for contentment, yea, 
enough and to spare. It may be poor, but it makes many 
rich — with a cup of cold water, a kind look, a tear, a 
prayer — all it has to give. It loves to do good just 



APPENDIX. 285 

in proportion as it is like God. The ever-blessed 
God is the most bountiful giver in the Universe. 

This joy is our energy and efficiency in duty, and 
a source of our help and success in enterprize. Grief 
and fear depress a man, and hide from his view all 
encouragements. There is always a lion in the way. 
Moses cannot rouse his countrymen in Egypt ; they 
hearkened not to him for anguish of spirit and for cruel 
bondage. The disciples cannot watch with their Lord, 
but sink into sleep for overmuch sorrow. David says, 
"Eestore unto me the joy of thy salvation, then will 
I teach trangressors thy ways, and sinners shall be 
converted unto thee." And he resolves, " I will run 
the way of thy commandments when thou shalt enlarge 
my heart." Joy disposes a man to action like the bub- 
bling and bounding life of a healthful, happy child. It 
sees encouragements and finds resources. It is ready 
for service. It can testify of God's faithfulness and 
love. It has good success : as when God honoured 
the praises of his people, and gave Jehoshaphat the 
victory over the Ammonites — for when he encouraged 
Judah to believe in the Lord their God, and the 
singers went out before the army, not playing dead 
inarclies^ but singing, " Praise the Lord, for his mercy 
endureth forever," so that when they began to sing 
and to praise, the Lord set ambushments against their 
enemies and they were smitten. 

Finally, this joy is the strength of God's people in 
their dying hour. It removes the bondage and the 
fear of death. See, — the timid woman, who has appre- 
hended the parting with beloved friends, and shrunk 
from the thought of judgment, finds supports and 



286 APPENDIX. 

comforts in the presence of that Friend who sticketh 
closer than any brother and in the assured hope of 
entering upon the joy of the Lord forever. The little 
child, that trembled with vague fear of the cold 
church-yard and the dread mysteries of the world 
beyond the grave, is more than consoled with the 
sweet promises of the Good Shepherd who folds the 
lambs in his bosom, and expects with sweet hope the 
call of that dear voice which said, " Suffer the little 
children and forbid them not to come unto me, for of 
such is the kingdom of heaven." 

" Jesus, the vision of thy face 
Hath overpowering charms ; 
Scarce shall I feel death's cold embrace, 
If Christ be in my arms. 

" Then while ye hear my heart-strings break 
How sweet my minutes roll ; 
A mortal j)aleness on my cheek, 
But glory in my soul." 

' Would you then be strong in the faith, useful, bene- 
ficent, pure, comforted in life and death, rejoice in the 
Lord always. So, too, shall you honour your religion 
and commend it. Of all persons in the world, a 
Christian is the most obliged and has the best right to 
be happy. Sulky and sullen tempers only disgust and 
repel. Cheerfulness is a hymn of praise ; and whoso 
offereth praise glorifieth God. But guard against losing 
this joy. Sin makes broken bones, and hides God's 
countenance. Grieve not the Holy Spirit. But follow 
on to know the Lord, then shall thy goings be as the 
morning. The path of the just is as the shining light 



APPENDIX. 287 

tliat shinetli more and more unto the perfect day. 
Let the superiority of the Christian's portion be appre- 
ciated and sought after. Tlie true Christian is not that 
moping, melancholy, feeble creature the thoughtless 
worldling deems him. He has joy, he has strength, both 
in acting and suifering, while you despond and lie 
inactive : and he is honouring his Maker and enjoying 
Him, while you are vainly dreaming of selfish, earthly, 
sinful pleasure. What is the mirth of fools? " I said 
of laughter it is mad. There is no peace to the 
wicked." But how shall we get this true joy? " We 
joy in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom 
now we have the atonement." Let the Christian al- 
ways resort to Him. In Him the most sorrowful abject 
may find comfort. Let the sinner turn from the paths 
of sin. "Ho every one that thirsteth, come ye to the 
waters. Why spend ye your money for that which is 
not bread, and your labour for that which satisfieth 
not ? Come unto me all ye that labour and are heavy 
laden, and I will give you rest." He will give — salva- 
tion is free in Christ ; He will give rest — O, the 
precious repose for the sin-burdened and sin-weary — 
rest! rest! rest in the bosom of God! joy! joy 
forever ! 

Come then — ^let not conscience make you linger — 
nor of fitness fondly dream — think not of buying the 
gift of God — of offering a price for the grace of the 
Lord Jesus Christ. Come thus to the mercy-seat : 

" Just as I am, without one plea, 
But that thy blood was shed for me, 
And that thou bidst me come to thee, 
O Lamb of God I come." 



288 APPENDIX. 

On Thursday, at half-past nine a.m., the friends assem- 
bled in the Lecture Room to spend an hour in prayer 
and conference, having reference especially to the 
World's concert of prayer, which was that week being 
observed by the Evangelical churches. Here the Kev. 
"Wilson Phraner, (another child of the church,) of Sing 
Sing, N. Y., made some appropriate and forcible re- 
marks. 

At half-past ten, a large assembly gathered in the 
church to listen to a Sermon from the Rev. William P. 
Breed, of Philadelphia. 

SERMON. 

" Wherefore, seeing we also are compassed about with so great a cloud of 
witnesses, let us lay aside every weight, and the sin which doth so easily 
beset us, and let us run with patience the race that is set before us, looking 
unto Jesus, the author and finisher of our faith." — Hebrews xii. 1, 2. 

The more strictly doctrinal portion of this epistle 
terminates with the eighteenth verse of the tenth chap- 
ter, and the hortatory begins with the next verse. 

In the first exhortation faith is thus mentioned. 
" Let us draw near with a true heart in full assurance 
of faith." In the thirty-eighth verse, this faith is de- 
clared to be the principle of spiritual life. " The just 
shall live by faith." 

In the first verse of the following chapter, faith is 
defined. "I^ow faith is the substance of things hoped 
for and the evidence of things not seen." The rest of 
this chapter consists of a list of illustrious examples of 
the power and achievements of this faith in the sphere 
of practical life, as in the experience of Abel, Noah, 
Enoch, and the rest. And our text is a rational and 
forcible exhortation, based uj)on what has gone before. 



APPENDIX. 289 

*' Wherefore, seeing what faith is, and what it has done 
let lis, committing ourselves to its influence, run the 
race set before us, looking unto Jesus." 

In a passage so opulent in treasures, the chief diffi- 
culty lies in making such a selection of points for a 
single discourse as to avoid, on the one hand, crowding 
and thus confusing the vision, and on the other, omit- 
ing those whose prominence and importance are essen- 
tial to any other than a merely fragmentary view of 
the text. 

A little attention however in this case obtrudes uj^on 
the view as the most prominent object, ''The race set 
before us," with a cloud of witnesses on the one hand, 
and Jesus, faith's author and finisher, on the other, as 
stimuli to the racers. Each one of these three objects 
therefore, demands more or less of our attention. 

First, Look at The Cloud of Witnesses. 

The rhetorical figure of a cloud as a type of multi- 
tude, could hardly fail of frequent recurrence in the 
literature of all nations. Accordingly, Homer writes 
of "a cloud of Infantry." Livy says, " The King 
hurled a cloud of horse and foot upon the foe;" and 
Isaiah asks, " Who are these that fly as a cloud, and 
as the doves to their windows ?" 

Kor is the figure less impressive than it is apt. Who 
has not gazed with rapt interest upon a cloud in a 
summer afternoon— black but comely ! At first no 
bigger than a man's hand, it rises and spreads its sable 
wings till at length they cover and darken half the he- 
misphere, and pile their cumulative masses up to the 
skies, the very type of majesty and multitude ! 
13 



290 APPENDIX. 

And noY\" suppose every constituent atom of that va- 
pory mass replaced by a glorified spirit, Abraliam, 
Isaac, Jacob, David, Samuel and the Prophets : You 
are compassed about with a great cloud of witnesses ! 
Now listen to the exhortation — " Ye candidates for 
eternal bliss, blood-bought, blood-washed, vow-laden, 
think that all those celestial eyes are fixed uj^on you, 
watching the banner of the cross committed to your 
hands to see whether it is waving in victory over a 
prostrate, or trailed in the dust beneath the feet of a 
triumphant foe ; watching for the ark of God entrusted 
to your custody, to see if it be safe within its peaceful 
curtains at Sliiloh, or whether it has fallen into the 
hands of heathenish Philistines ! 

Beyond all doubt such an exhortation were quite in- 
telligible, and to every true cliild of faith, spirit-stirring. 
Still, we are persuaded tliat this view by no means ex- 
hausts tlie meaning of the sacred writer. Had it been 
his chief aim to impress it upon us, that we were the 
objects of constant celestial scrutiny, there was a truth 
to this effect nearer home and much more effective. 

For indeed there is One tliat watclies us day and 
night, at home and abroad, scanning our thoughts, sift- 
ing our motives, making record of our ends and aims, 
and this, not as a mere spectator, but as a gatherer of 
testimony for the judgment-seat of Christ ! " Whither 
shall I go from thy Spirit ? or whither shall I flee from 
thy presence? If I ascend up into heaven thou art 
there ! If I make my bed in liell, behold thou art 
there ! If I take the wings of the morning and dwell 
in the uttermost part of the sea, even there shall thy 
hand lead me and thy right hand shall hold me !" 



APPENDIX. 291 

Nay, my brethren, those bright hosts are summoned 
in clouds around lis, as witnesses of another kind ! 
They are witnesses u])on the standi giving testimony ! 
And the point of their testimony is the validity of a 
scriptural. Christian faith, and its power to bear its sub- 
jects through all life's toils, trials, and temptations to 
the very end ! Thus they declare, it did for them, thus 
we are to infer it w^ill do for us. 

Under its inspiration Noah, amidst the sneers and 
jeers of his cotemporaries, built a great ark, to shield 
him and his from an overflowing flood, beneath a sky 
undarkened by a threatening cloud, and upon a conti- 
nent that since the world began had neither known nor 
feared aught of overflowing floods ! 

By faith Abraham set out with his family and flocks 
to go, he knew neither why nor whither, " on a fools 
errand " as his heathen deriders Avould say, and at the 
bidding of a groundless fancy. 

And what shall I more say ? For the time would 
fail me to tell of Gideon, and of Barak, and of Samson, 
and of Jephtha ; of David also and Samuel, and the 
prophets ; who through faith subdued kingdoms, 
w^rought righteousness, obtained promises, stopped the 
mouths of lions, quenched the violence of fire, escaped 
the edge of the sword, out of weakness w^ere made 
strong, waxed valiant in fight, turned to flight the 
armies of the aliens." 

And now saith the Spirit, in the presence of this 
cloud of worthies, bearing such testimony to faith's ex- 
haustless and invincible power, let us, with a faith like 
theirs in origin — like theirs in kind, and, if we will Be- 



292 APPENDIX. 

loved, like theirs in degree also, — let us run the race 
set before us, looking unto Jesus ! 

In the Second place consider, " The Race set before 
Us." 

1. These words may be considered as pointing to the 
Race set before the Whole Christian Church. 

Uttered centuries ago, the exhortation still rings in 
the ears of the church of Christ, urging her to apply 
herself with all diligence to the solution of the great 
problem assigned to her of discipling the nations ! As 
Moses set up the brazen serpent where every bitten Is- 
raelite in the camp could see it, so the church is to bear 
the cross onward and upward, from height to height, 
" Excelsior !" her constant motto, until, with redoubled 
emphasis and significance, the cry may ring forth from 
its lips — " Look unto me and be ye saved all ye ends of 
the earth." 

How this problem has been understood and prac- 
tically treated by the church is significantly hinted in 
certain statistics attributed to Sharon Turner. During 
the first century, he tells us the church gathered under 
discipleship half a million of souls. The second century 
made this half million, two millions. The third century 
increased the number to five millions ; the fourth to 
ten ; the fifth to fifteen ; the sixth to twenty ; the 
seventh to twenty-five ; the eighth to thirty ; the ninth 
to forty ; the tenth to fifty ; the eleventh to seventy ; 
the twelfth to eighty; the thirteenth, the dark thir- 
teenth reduced the number to seventy-five ; the four- 
teenth, regained the lost ground, and restored the 
number to eighty ; the fifteenth advanced it to one 



APPENDIX. 293 

hundred ; tlie sixteenth to one hundred and twenty- 
five ; the seventeenth to one hundred and fifty-five ; 
the eighteenth to two hundred, and the nineteenth, 
thus far to three hundred millions ! 

]^ow, whatever may be said of the character of this 
nominal Christianity in the mass, and admitting that 
these figures can only be approximatively accurate, yet 
is there enough in this general view to encourage and 
exhilarate the soul, and assure us from the lips of his- 
tory itself, that the day is drawing on when the millen- 
nial bells will announce that the kingdoms of this 
w^orld have become the kingdoms of our Lord and of 
his Christ! 

And it by no means weakens this assurance to bear 
in mind that no other religious system in the world 
can lay claim to anything like such a population in any 
sense under its sway, excepting perhaps that of the 
Buddhists — that not one of all these false systems of re- 
ligion is aggressive — that palsied with age, they all feel 
the discouraging premonitions of coming dissolution — 
further still, that every one of these great systems is 
assailed and penetrated at many a point, by our religion 
which, though so many centuries old, is yet in the dewy 
morning of its youth, and last, but not least, the grasp 
with which Christianity has seized the reins of power 
among the nations. Treaties between high contracting 
parties, legislation in Congresses and Parliaments, and 
the great thoughts that pervade our literature and rule 
the age are mainly what they are by reason of the re- 
ligion of Jesus ! 

Away then Avith apologies for the tardy growth of 
Christianity! The mushroom may spring up in a 



294 APPENDIX. 

night, but yonder oak, tliat hardly bows its prond 
head to the tornado, has been gathering strength for a 
century ! And assuredly the steady growth of a plant 
through more than eighteen hundred years, demon- 
strates a vitality that must strike its roots down, till 
they take the very planet in their embrace, that must 
lift its top into eternal sunshine, and spread its branch- 
es until all the nations find shelter beneath and food 
upon them ! 

2. In the solution of this general problem, there is 
also A Race set before each geneeation of Chris- 
tians. 

And before us, as members of the generation living 
in the middle of the nineteenth century, there lies a 
large and important work of Aggression and Defence. 

Our generation is j^eculiarly one of Christian Aggres- 
sion. ]^ever before were all barriers so prostrated in 
the church's path. But a few years ago a potent di- 
rector of the British East-India Company declared that 
he would more willingly send fifty devils to India than 
fifty missionaries. And now where is the power of 
that company ? Once a Governor-General of India for- 
bade the Christian missionary to set foot on Indian soil, 
and what became of him ? Like Julian the Apostate, 
breathing out his life on Parthian plains, he too had 
reason to cry — " 0, Galilean thou hast conquered !" 
One and the same vessel bore him in disgrace from 
Madras to Ceylon, and returning, carried from Cey- 
lon to Madras the missionaries he had persecuted ! 
And now what a vast, unforbidden chorus of Macedo- 
nian voices calls thence in our ears ! A grand and im- 



APPENDIX. 295 

pressive truth is set to music in the immortal lines of 
Heber : 

" From Greenland's icy mountains, 

From India's coral strand ; 
Where Afric's sunny fountains 

Koll down their golden sand ; 
From many an ancient river, 

From many a palmy plain, 
They call us to deliver 

Their land from error's chain." 

And never were men so our brethren and neigh- 
bours as they are now. Who is my neighbour ? He 
to whom I may send a message, and in half an hour 
receive reply ! But he may live in New Orleans or 
Nova Scotia. If our fellow men, two hundred miles 
away are starving, are they sufficiently our neighbours 
to oblio^e us to send them bread ? But Ireland is near- 
er to day than was such a community twenty years 
ago. 

Beloved, the triumphs of the human intellect, under 
the blessing of God, have laid the heathen world on 
the doorstep of the Christian church ! 

But a work of Defence also lies before us. For we 
have a foe of immeasurable cunning and immeasurable 
malice, immeasurable resources, and terrible energy. 
" The devil is come down unto you, having great wrath, 
because he knoweth that he hath but a short time." 

Ours is a day in which the current sets strongly in 
for tlie cold, cheerless shores of Unbelief. The grim 
divinities of Doubt and Denial, exhumed for the thou- 
sandth time, are again set upon their pedestals, and all 



296 APPENDIX. 

tlie world called on to fall down before them. " Wq 
seem to be slowly coming round tln'ongh sublime b)'- 
wajs of intellectual superiority and sentimental faitli, 
to the old mean era of cavilling and criticism, the age 
that linds humbug in every thing — the puny, debased, 
narrow age of unbelief." The Church even has been 
menaced with invasion. The Christian world has re- 
cently been startled by the discovery of a conspiracy 
in the bosom of the venerable Church of England, to 
pour poison into the "pure water of life that flows out 
from the throne of God and of the Lamb." 

Further, this is a day of unusual cultivation, pride 
and power of intellect ; and marshalled on the side of 
the foe are found no little solid learning, profound re- 
search and keen logical acumen. Besides these are 
troops of sciolists, whose smattering of knowledge and 
overweening self-conceit render it harder to convince 
one of them than "seven men that can render a 
reason." 

Whole universities, too, lend their power to the un- 
hallowed work of undermining the faith once delivered 
to the saints. IS'ever was the infidel library so well re- 
plenished. Volume after volume, the ever-recurring 
Quarterly instinct with Infidelity, and furtive scraps in 
the omnipresent magazine and newspaper, allure and 
ensnare the unwary, satisfy and fortify the sceptic, and 
form a barrier behind which the ribald wag their heads 
and affect to defy the armies of the living God. Even 
Science has been suborned to lie against the Holy 
Ghost, and the stars in their courses to fight on the 
side of Sisera. And that no stone might be left un- 
turned, an imbecile necromancy has been evoked, 



APPENDIX. 297 

and, in its mntterings, Paul under the rapping table 
made to contradict Paul at the Areopagus. 

I^ow the race set before the Christians of this gen- 
eration is, in the midst of all this, and in spite of all 
this — the enemy coming in like a flood — not only to 
save the cross, but to give it the victory ; not only to 
retain the ground already won but to add new king- 
doms to its sway. 

3. Then there is A Race set befoee us as American 
Christians. 

Ancient History furnishes us with examples of two 
classes of nations; those w^hich, destitute of true re- 
ligion, have assailed it in other nations, and those which, 
once having it in possession have become apostate. 

The doom of the former was thus written b}^ Moses. 
(Gen. xii. 3.) "I will bless them that bless thee and 
curse him that curseth thee." And Ezekiel (xxv. 12, 13) 
records particular applications of this law\ " Thus saith 
the Lord God, because that Edom hath dealt against 
the house of Judah, by taking vengeance, and hath 
greatly offended. Therefore, thus saitli the Lord God, 
I will also stretch out my hand upon Edom, and I will 
cut off man and beast from it ; and I will make it deso- 
late from Teman ; and they of Dedan shall fall by the 
sword." 

And Babylon and Nineveh and Egypt, where are 
they ? 

But it fares worse Avith apostate nations ! When the 

unclean spirit, once gone out of man, returns again, the 

last state of that man is worse than the first. " So," 

said the Saviour, " shall it be u»to this generation." 

13* 



298 APPENDIX. 

And so it was with that generation — for under the 
whole heaven hath not been done as was done upon 
Jerusalem. 

But our country must be ranked, if with either, with 
the apostate. It has never been tlie assailant of reli- 
gion ; on tlie contrary we have been from the first a 
Christian nation. The first act of Columbus, after leap- 
ing upon these western shores, was to set up a cross. 
The first sounds the wolves and Indians heard on our 
I^ew England coast from the lips of the white man, 
were sounds of prayer and praise to the Triune God. 
The name of Jesus has been invoked in our Congresses 
and great political assemblies from the first to this 
hour. Appeal was made to Him on the battle field 
before the conflict and in thanksgiving for victories. 
Our legislation, so far as it has borne at all upon re- 
ligion, has been Christian in its character. High au- 
thority has declared Christianity to be a part of the 
common law of the land. The Sabbath is distinctly 
recognized and annually days of devout thanksgiving 
to Almiglity God are appointed in nearly all our com- 
monwealths. In our land Gospel institutions have 
sprung up like willows by the water-courses. Revivals 
of religion, like that of Pentecost, have been enjoyed. 
Church edifices stud our territory from limit to limit. 
From our shores the most successful of Christian mis- 
sionaries have gone to bless the heathen world. And 
this day we behold an army of five millions of com- 
municants enrolled under the banner of evangelical 
religion ; and as the Sabbath sun moves in majesty 
from the Atlantic to the Pacific, he sends down his 
beams upon more than four millions of children in 



APPENDIX. 299 

Sabbath-schools, grouped around more than four hun- 
dred thousand teachers ! Our land furnishes a home 
for some thirty thousand or thirty-five thousand minis- 
ters of the Gospel, who preach, with more or less regu- 
larity, in some sixty thousand houses of worship, of 
various classes; sometimes a school-house, sometimes 
a court-house, and sometimes a church edifice, built for 
the purpose. Bible societies, tract societies, colporteur 
agencies, and other societies — Christian and benevo- 
lent, (supported by an annual voluntary contribution 
for all religious purposes of from twenty to twenty-five 
millions of dollars) make up a world of hallowed ac- 
tivities that set the broad seal of Christianity upon our 
national character, and make it impossible for us not 
to be either permanently Christian or basely apostate. 
The only alternative left us, is either, with hands at 
once impious and ungrateful, to tear up the deep-rooted 
cross and cast it into the sea, and thus hang the mill- 
stone of divine wrath about our nation's neck ; or to go 
forward, ploughing and planting, until at the name of 
Jesus tlie whole aggregate Republic shall bow the knee 
in heartfelt devotion ! 

The race set before us then, as Ainerioarh Christians 
is, at whatever cost, to make our land a tabernacle of 
Immanuel. Infidelity and wickedness in every form 
must be met and thwarted. The emigration from other 
lands must be Christianized ; the neglected youth must 
be gathered into Sabbath-schools, and in every valley, 
on every hill-side, and along all w^ater-courses Gospel 
ordinances must be enjoyed. 

While Alexander w^as thundering at the gates of 
Tyre, the terrified inhabitants, fearing lest their god 



300 APPENDIX. 

slionld desert them, assembled in the puhllc square, 
and there had the statue of Apollo cliained to his 
pedestal. 

The folly of the heathens may teach us wisdom. 
We must secure the permanent residence of Immanuel 
in our midst, or we are lost. We must bind him fast, 
not with iron chains, but with the bands of a man — 
the ties of love for a Christian people. 

4. Again there is A Kace set before rs as 
Presbyterian Christians — Christians holding as dis- 
tinctive tenets the equality of the clergy, the coopera- 
tion of the Ruling Elder in the government of the 
church, and courts of review and control. 

With our sister-denominations we have no quarrel. 
God forbid ! We bid " God speed " to as many of any 
name as " sensible of their lost and helpless state by 
sin, depend upon the atonement of Christ for pardon 
and acceptance with God ; such as desire to renounce 
their sins, and are determined to lead a holy and godly 
life." There is room for all and work for all. 

Still, will any chide us for entertaining the con- 
viction that there lies a peculiar race before a church 
like ours in a land like ours; a church, between whose 
form of government and that of the nation analogies 
so striking exist — both enjoying in felicitous counter- 
poise the right and privilege of free thought and pri- 
vate judgment on the one hand, with the predominance 
of an ultimate, venerable and potent authority on the 
other ; a church historically and notoriously not one 
whit more Kepublican in the form of its government 
than in its spirit and tendencies ; always ready in her 



APPENDIX. 301 

clergj to bless and praj for, and in her membersliip to 
carry and fight under the banner of Republican liberty, 
and hence always looked on with cordial disfavour by 
high monarchists. " You are aiming at a Scot's Presby- 
tery," snarled King James at the Hampton Court Con- 
ference in 1604, "which agrees with monarchy as 
well as God and the devil. Then Jack, and Tom, and 
Will, and Dick shall meet and censure me and my 
council. Then Will shall stand up and say it must be 
thus; then Dick shall reply and say nay, marry but 
we will have it thus." 

In this, this Scottish Solomon only followed Queen 
Elizabeth who " hated Presbytery because it held 
principles inconsistent with allegiance to her crown." 
And in this he was followed by Charles the First, who 
wrote : " Show me any precedent wherever any Pres- 
byterial government and regal was together without 
perpetual rebellions." And Dryden has left his testi- 
mony in no very amiable lines : 

" So Presbytery and its pestilential zeal, 
Can flourish only in a commonweal." * 

A church always taking high ground in favour of 
general education, under a gov^ernment whose very life 
depends on general education as one of its essential con- 
ditions; a church embracing such a proportion of hio-li 
character, talent, learning, zeal and piety — before this 
church we say there is a peculiar and honourable race 
set by her Master, and well will it be for her and for 
the world if, like true children of Issachar, they "have 

* >Smythe's "Ecclesiastical Republicanism." 



302 APPENDIX. 

understanding of the times to know what Israel ought 
to do." 

The race it has already run demonstrates that her 
race is only just begun. While Louis XIY. was filling 
France with profligacy, and emptying her of citizens 
and wealth; while the Marlboroughs and Peterboroughs 
of England were winning renown for her abroad, and 
at home, amidst bitter and endless wranglings of Whig 
and Tory factions, Swift, Pope, Addison, Steele, and 
others were filling her libraries with a brilliant and 
deathless literature ; while the American colonies were 
harassed with controversies with their selfish old 
mother for their riglits, and their borders tormented 
with the miseries of a savage warfare, God, in his quiet 
but resistless providence, was moving on, sowing the 
seeds of Presbyterianism on these western shores. 
Two hundred years ago signs of Presbyterian vegeta- 
tion here and there appeared. At Jamaica, in Mary- 
land, 'New York and Philadelphia, churches sprang into 
existence. 

About 1695, weekly religious worship began to be 
held in a litte stocking-store with a sign above the 
door, " C & X Jones," on the northwest corner of 
Chestnut and Second Streets. Nine Baptists and per- 
haps as many Presbyterians (Presbyterians in reality 
if not yet in name) and a few Episcopalians, formed 
that seminal congregation. 

Since that day of small things how many precious 
souls have gone from these churches with so humble 
an origin, to join in the song of Moses and the Lamb 
on high! And to-day Philadelphia rejoices in some 
two hundred and seventy Evangelical churches, num- 



APPENDIX. 303 

bering perliaps one hundred tliousand communicants. 
Of these cliurches seventy are Presbyterian, thirty-three 
Okl-School, eighteen E'ew-School and nineteen of other 
names. 

And you heard in the sermon two days ago. what an 
aggregate of Presbyteries, of ministers and of com- 
muning members are now arrayed under the two 
Assemblies in our land, equipped with a noble array 
of schools, colleges and theological seminaries, and 
with a powerful machinery for the propagation of the 
truth in fields domestic and foreign. 

Before the Presbyterian Church, thus endowed, there 
is set a race which includes at least the duty of de- 
monstrating to the world the superior efficacy of our 
ecclesiastical system in spreading the Gospel among 
men, in subduing sinners to King Emmanuel, in de- 
veloping all the graces of piety, and training the 
branches of the messianic vine to the production and 
maturing of all the rich " fruit of the Spirit, love, joy, 
peace, long-suffering, gentleness, goodness, faith, meek- 
ness, temperance." 

FmALLY. There is a Pace set befoke us as In- 
dividual Christians. 

There is a race set before each believer peculiar to 
himself, which no one can run either for him or with 
him. 

Of all the thousands of vessels that have left JSTew York 
for Liverpool, no two ever pursued just the same path. 
And of all the Pilgrims that have made the voyage to 
heaven, no two ever followed in just the same track. 



304 APPENDIX. 

The experience of each one was marked with decided 
peculiarities. 

God sets the race before iis, and He never repeats 
himself in nature or in grace. He makes no two stars, 
no two flowers, no two dew-drops, no two grass-blades, 
no two human faces, no two courses of human ex- 
perience alike. 

The race of one lies among the allurements, tempta- 
tions, and sometimes persecutions of wealth and high 
social position ; that of another, through the toils, cares 
and hard trials of extreme poverty. Having supped 
upon his hard crust, hardly earned, the son of penury 
retires to his hard bed to sleep. The early dawn finds 
him again at his task, or in anxious pursuit of employ- 
ment. And so his life wears on to the end. At length 
he dies, and the undertaker hides his poor body among 
the long grass in some obscure nook in the field, and 
soon no one of all earth's thousand millions knows or 
cares that such a human being ever lived and sinned 
and suflfered and died ! 

The race of one is very short, a few brief suns 
bringing it to the close ; that of another runs on almost 
throuo-h the centurv. The race of one lies in the bustle and 
excitement of public life ; of another through paths of 
almost unbroken bodily sickness. To one is appointed a 
race amidst scenes of general Christian defection, and he 
cries out with the prophet, "I, even I alone am left, and 
they seek my life to take it away;" while the career of 
another is like that of a Whitefield, a continued suc- 
cession of revival scenes. One finds his way to bliss 
through the sorrows and glories of martyrdom, another 
through years of fearful bereavement and sorrow, and 



APPENDIX. 305 

another still passes to the cold river's Ycrge, through 
the Dai-k Valley, through the grim horrors of Doubt- 
ing Castle and the merciless beatings of Giant Despair. 
Each one, we repeat, has his own appointed race 
to run. 

Run then, Beloved, the race set before yon! Grieve 
not, envy not, repine not, wish it not otherwise than it 
is. Say with Rutherford, " If it were come to an ex- 
change of crosses I would not exchange my cross with 
any." 

Indeed, there is something both of selfishness and 
folly in the wish that our race were other than it is; 
folly, for we each have ills the balm for which lies 
only in the path markod out for us ; selfishness, for 
some one must run this very course. The religion of 
Jesus must have this particular illustration of its power. 
Heaven's choir cannot lack the song that you are 
learning to sing. The tapestry of grace, weaving here 
below to be the wonder and admiration of the universe, 
cannot lack that particular figure and colour that your 
peculiar experience is adding. Some one must weep 
these tears, bear these burde»s, do these works, and 
you are the only one just qualified for the task. Run 
then with patience and diligence the race that God hath 
set before you ! 

And now, beloved brethren, as we near the close of 
these refreshing exercises, let us all as members of the 
great Church of our Redeemer, as participants in the 
honours and duties of this passing generation, as 
Christian citizens of our beloved America, as Presby- 
terian Christians and as individual believers, each Avitli 
his own salvation to work out with fear and trembling 



306 APPENDIX. 

— let us all, I say, set out anew in the race set before 
us, looking, as we run, on the one eide at the witnesses, 
and on the other unto Jesus ! 

For our text seems to place us, as it were, in a 
parenthesis between the two. First we look at the 
witnesses, as the text commands, and as did the saints 
of old. " Our Fathers trusted in Thee. They trusted 
and Thou didst deliver them. They cried unto Thee 
and were delivered — they trusted in Thee and were not 
confounded." — Ps. xxii. 4, 5. 

But should any be disposed to add with the Psalmist, 
"Yes, but we are very different from our fathers;" "I 
am a worm and no man, a reproach of men and dis- 
pised of the people." "The Patriarchs trusted and were 
delivered, but we have not the faith of the Patriarchs." 
Then look away to Jesus, the author and finisher of 
your faith, and He can increase its power till mountains 
shall flow down at its presence ! 

It is as if two separate divisions of Napoleon's army 
were fighting under his eye, each with his own opposing 
force, the one nearer and the other more remote. The 
remoter one is victorious at the first onset, but the nearer 
one wavers. The officer in command, trembling lest 
disgrace befall his flag, cries to his men, "See how 
your comrades chase the foe!" "Ah," they murmur in 
reply, " we are]_fewer and weaker than they." 

Seeing now that the case is desperate, as a last resort 
he cries, " Behold, your Emperor is looking at you ! " 
Every face is turned, and catching fire from the glance 
of that eagle eye, like a tornado they sweep the enemy 
before them! 

So let us on in the race set before us — looking at the 



APPENDIX. 307 

cloud of witnesses, now more numerous bv hundreds 
of thousands than when this exhortation was penned 
— embracing in addition to the more ancient worthies, 
the blessed army of confessors and martyrs of early 
Christianity, and then the Luthers, Calvins and Knoxes; 
Baxters, Bunyans and Owens ; Tennents and Davies; 
Brainards and Paysons; yes, and others too, whom we 
have known and loved in the flesh ! We saw how they 
lived; we saw how they struggled with ill; with what 
preternatural patience they endured ! Racked with 
pains we heard them cry, " Thy will be done ! " 
Bruised and crushed they still exclaimed, ''We glory 
in tribulations also ! " The dark chamber of adversity 
they made to echo with the shout, " Although the fig- 
tree shall not blossom, neither shall fruit be in the 
vine ; the labour of the olive shall fail, and the fields 
shall yield no meat ; the flock shall be cut off fi'om the 
fold, and there shall be no herd in the stalls : yet will 
I rejoice in the Lord; I will joy in the God of my 
salvation ! " And we saw how they died ! Some as 
the infant falls asleep on its mother's bosom, and some 
as Elijah went to heaven in a chariot of fire ! 

Yes, blessed witnesses, we take your testimony, and 
here before the Triune God, and before the angels, and 
in view of all the toils, and sorrows and triumphs of 
believers in every age, we solemnly promise to heed 
this exhortation, and from this good hour to run more 
resolutely, more diligently, more patiently, the race 
set before us, looking unto Jesus, the author and finisher 
of our faith. Amen and amen ! 



308 APPENDIX. 

The closing services of the Anniversary were on 
Thursday, commencing at half-past two p. m. It was the 
Communion season. Dr. Krebs conducted the exercises, 
assisted by Dr. Macdonald and Rev. Mr. Breed, with 
a few concluding remarks and prayer by the pastor. 
"It was a time the solemnity, the delight, the profit of 
which language fails to convey, and was a fitting close 
to the series of interesting services, such as would be 
appropriate to very few churches in this country." 

The Committee would here acknowledge their ob- 
ligations to Professor Andreu, organist, and the 
choir for the music throughout the Anniversary. 
Their performances aided mucli to enhance the pleas- 
ure and interest in the occasion. 



APPENDIX. 309 



AN APPLICATOEY ADDEESS 



StrBSEQUENTLY DELIVERED 



BY THE PASTOE TO THE PEOPLE OP HIS CHARGE, 



" The Lord our God be with us, as he was with our fathers." — 1 Kings 
viii. 57. 

"Beloved of God, called to be saints; grace to you, and peace from God 
our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ." 

• 

Dear Brethren, — God has favored us. Our recent 
anniversary exercises have left their impress upon 
our minds. The congratulations received ; the satis- 
faction expressed ; the elevated spiritual enjoyment 
acknowledged by all ; the reluctance to leave the place 
where lingered so many sweet and sacred associations, 
and the full heart and tearful eye when those from a 
distance spoke the parting word — all accumulated the 
evidence that it was a "high day" in the annals of our 
Zion, and that we did not mistake the indications of 
Providence calling to its observance. 

But the more important that occasion, and the more 
delightful those services, the greater subsequent re- 



310 APPENDIX. 

sponsibilities do they impose upon ns. They have 
tended to fix the gaze of the religious world upon us. 
They have served to raise this church to the hill top of 
public observation. A more than local interest gathers 
around the place, where, it is believed, God, in his 
all-wise purposes, planted in its continuance, the First 
Presbyterian Church in America. 

For the purpose of retaining these impressions, and 
of appreciating our responsibilities, as they are under- 
stood by the Christian world, and as due to God, I 
would offer for your consideration a few thoughts 
which, it may be hoped, will tend to strengthen the 
iwactical effects of the services in which, as a churchy 
we have been so pleasantly engaged. He who was 
among " the chiefest of the apostles," sought the will 
of God at the throne of grace. And in what way 
can we so suitably express our gratitude to God, and 
our readiness to do his will, as in the form of earnest 
prayer for grace to be equal to our position in the 
world, in the church, and in our obligations to the 
Great Head of the church, who in the past has gone 
before us "in a pillar of a cloud to lead us in the way, 
and a pillar of fire to give us light," and whose Cove- 
nant of mercy has spanned the future with the bow of 
promise % 

Such a prayer I find Solomon offered. With the 
children of Israel he was engaged in dedicating a new 
temple to the service of God. That temple was at 
once a monument of their gratitude and liberality. 
They were children of a blessed ancestry. God had 
led their fathers through a "waste and howling wilder- 
ness." They had been "brought forth also into a large 



APPENDIX. 311 

place," and safely settled in the land the Lord had 
given them. By the good hand of the Lord npon 
them, temporal and spiritual prosperity, in a dis- 
tinguished manner, had marked their career. How 
much is all this like our own nation ! King Solomon 
could say with Asaph — and we might also almost 
literally adopt the same language — "Thou hast brought 
a vine out of Egypt ; Thou hast cast out the heathen 
and planted it. Thou preparedst room before it, and 
didst cause it to take deep root, and it filled the land. 
The hills were covered with the shadow of it, and the 
boughs thereof were like the goodly cedars. She sent 
out her boughs unto the sea, and her branches unto the 
river." Descendants of parentage so highly blessed of 
God ; enjoying the worship of the true God for so many 
successive generations; living to see the church of their 
father spread from river to sea ; assembled in a new 
house of worship, the most splendid the world ever saw : 
well might the Children of the Covenant, so greatly 
favored, through the mouth of the Royal Preacher 
offer the prayer, ''The Lord our God be with us, as 
He was with our fathers." 

This prayer may certainly be considered relevant to 
the condition of our church and congregation at the 
present time. God was with our fathers. Brethren, 
if you call to mind the difficulties incident to the 
settlement of a new territory, the hardships, the pov- 
erty, the sickness, the dangers, the weakness of even 
good men, the proneness of all to error, and to all this add 
a persistent effort of the Colonial Government to destroy 
this church in its form of worship and doctrine, there 
will be no room to doubt the fact of God's special 



312 APPENDIX. 

providence with the early founders of this chnrch. 
Amid all these pressures would this Church have sub- 
sisted for two hundred years without divine inter- 
ference and preservation? Believe it who ma}^ We 
say with adoring gratitude : The Lord Jehovah was 
with our fathers. They paused before they commenced 
the toils and trials of the wilderness, and at the thres- 
hold of all sanctuary enterprises with Moses prayed, 
" Now, therefore, we pray thee, if we have found 
grace in thy sight, show us now thy way, that we may 
know thee: and consider that this nation is thy people." 
And God answered their prayers : "My presence shall 
go with you, and I will give thee rest." The spirit the 
fathers manifested ; their inclination to the service of 
God; "their coming together in a church way;" their 
uniform regard for the ordinances of God's house ; the 
fruits of their labors and prayers which are this day 
present to our consciousness, all attest the same truth — 
God loas with our fathers. 

T[\Q,\Y faith in God,, and their seal for his cause bear 
the same testimony. "Abraham believed God," and 
one of the greatest evidences of his faith was, at the 
call of God, to go from his "country," his "kindred," 
and his "father's house," into a strange land. The 
early settlers of this countrj^ did this very thing. They 
left their "country," their "kindred," and their "father's 
house." Conscience was trammeled, liberty of worship 
was suppressed, and under the light of the guiding star 
of Faith and Hope, they said farewell to childhood's 
early scenes, launched their bark upon the boisterous 
deep, and with a cheerful voice sang as they sailed : 



APPENDIX. 313 

" His call we obey, like Abram of old, 
Not knowing our way, but faith makes us bold ; 
For though we are strangers, we have a good guide, 
And trust in all dangers, the Lord will jDrovide." 

But their faith and zeal led them to do more than 
this : they made jprovision for the future. They were 
men of the covenant. The blessings which they en- 
joyed they wished to transmit to their children and their 
children's children. The more religion a man has the 
less selfisli he is, and the greater will be his sympathies 
for others. And especially will those in covenant with 
God feel upon them the binding force of parental 
obligations, and the duty of providing for the spiritual 
welfare of their children, after their own heads shall lie 
low in the bed of death. JS^o man liveth to himself. 
Not for themselves alone did our fathers brave the 
dangers of the deep; not for themselves alone did they 
fell the ancient forest; not for themselves alone did 
they build houses of worship — they had faith in God. 
They saw this great wilderness peopled with a multi- 
tudinous population — a happy, free and independent, 
people. For them they labored, for them they prayed, 
and for them they established the institutions of the 
gospel- It was faith in the future and in the God of 
the future that gave vigor to their purpose, courage to 
their hearts; and the results of the seed sown has 
evidenced the correctness of their faith, abounding in 
a harvest to the praise of God's grace, the grandest and 
most glorious the eye of the world ever rested upon. 
In our faith in God, in our zeal for his glory, and the 
future welfare of his church, God be with us as he was 
with our fathers. 

14 



314 APPENDIX, 

For the attain meut of this, let the petition of Solo- 
mon be ours. We tnust ])Tay. "We must earnestly, 
habitually pray. The life of the Christian is in pro- 
portion to his closet devotion. If I had to compress all 
I liad to say in one sentence, it would be. Live the life 
ofjyt'ciyer. Prayer is a realization of dependence upon 
God. We stand in our place this day, and, at the foot- 
stool of God's throne, say, Our fathers would have been 
nothing if God had not been with them. None were 
more conscious of this than themselves. Their whole 
history is replete with the evidence that they looked to 
God. Every step of progress was marked by prayer. 
And we w^ould not be their worthy successors in 
church privileges, if, lilvc them, we did not feel that 
our springs are in God. " And we desire that every 
one of you do show the same diligence to the full 
assurance of hope unto the end. That ye bo not sloth- 
ful, but followers of them who through faith and pa- 
tience inherit the promises." 

We claim not perfection for man in his best estate 
while a sojourner on earth. Solomon, in the sentiment 
of his prayer, did not mean to intimate that their fathers 
were exceptions to the common laws of human infir- 
mity, — that David, that Jesse, that Mosc: or Jacob or 
Abraham had never erred. The prophet makes the 
direct acknowledgement " our fathers have sinned." 
But the petitioner meant that as " heirs according to 
the promise " " of like precious faith through the 
righteousness of God and our Saviour Jesus Christ," 
"that ye be like minded, having the same love, of one 
accord^ of one mind." The prayer is as Thou wast with 
our fathei*s, be with us. Thou did&t give them the 



APPENDIX. 315 

grace of self-sacrifice, give us the same grace. Thou 
didst give them the grace of perseverance, so give us the 
same grace. Thou didst give them wisdom, give us 
wisdom. Thou didst give them zeal for thy glory, im- 
part the same to us. What thy providence was to 
them, leading, protecting, controlling, be Thou to us. 
Wherein thy Spirit did work in them, in like manner 
work thou in us. The Lord our God be with us, as he 
was with our fathers. " So that ye come heliind in no 
gift^ waiting for the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ." 

Dear Brethren, " all anniversaries have their force and 
their joy in this, that they are the registry of growth !" 
And as w^e survey the growth of the past, these anniver- 
sary exercises would fail in one of their most important 
effects did they not serve to awaken emotions of grat- 
itude to God who has been with us and our fathers. 
By the mouth of Moses God commanded Israel : 
"Thou shalt remember all the way which the Lord thy 
God led thee these forty years in the wilderness." Me- 
mory of divine favors will inspire grateful thoughts. 
And if as a church we look back two hundred years 
we cannot be otherwise than sensible of God's goodness, 
and our duty of thanksgiving. For such a history, — 
for the characters composing that history — for the 
tokens of the divine presence, radiant with the displays 
of God's saving grace up to this very moment of our 
existence, we have great reason to say with hearts of 
adoring love ; " Lord thou hast been our dwelling 
place in all generations." "Give unto the Lord the 
glory due unto his name." 

It is a scriptural injunction to be " followers of them 
who through faith and patience inherit the promises." 



816 APPENDIX. 

To imitate the virtues of those who have gone before 
us is no less a duty than that of gratitude for their 
godly example. When Paul speaks of '' forgetting the 
things that are behind " he does not mean that the re- 
cord of the past should be effaced from the mind. If 
so, why was the faculty of the memory created? 
Where then would be the rich results, and incom- 
parable benefits of experience ? But I understand the 
apostle to caution us against relying upon the past as 
though nothing further was to be attempted ; making 
the past a pillow to rest our heads upon in ease and 
quietness. If this were the only result, then the past 
would be a snare and sin. If we could orather toerether 

O CD 

before us in one depository, all the virtues of our an- 
cestors, their merit could not be imputed to us. And 
so far from excusing us from the obligations of the 
present they are of no more value than the mouldering 
dust of their lifeless remains. We hold in reverence 
the importance of the past. But the more important 
the historic character of the past, the heavier the weight 
of responsibility resting upon us to sustain its dignity, 
and, by carrying it forward, secure its amplest fruits. It 
is in the rich fruition of their graces in our hearts and 
hopes and labors, that " the memory of the just is 
blessed," and their devotion, love, joy and faith become 
ours. " Know, therefore, that the Lord thy God, he is 
God, the faithful God, which keepeth covenant and 
mercy with them that love him and keep his command- 
ments to a thousand generations." 

Beloved in the Lord, as a church and congregation 
we stand on high vantage ground. The dust of sainted 
generations, of Pastors, Elders, Deacons, Trustees, Mem- 



Appendix. 317 

bers, male and female, are at our feet. " They rest from 
their labors, and their works do follow them." We cull 
from their departed ashes gems of immortal truth to 
enrich our spiritual treasury. They cleared away the 
rubbish and paved a w^ell-beaten path after the " good 
old way" easy and safely for our feet to walk in. They 
"labored, and wq liave entered into their labors." 
And as they made history for us, so we are making 
history for those who are to follow us. In the great 
drama of life every one has a part to act. "And 
though one may have a more splendid and another a 
more obscure part assigned him, tlie actor of each is 
equally responsible." In one hundred years from now 
our descendants will meet to review our actions, as we 
have those of our ancestors. Not one of us shall be at 
that meeting. Long, long before that time each one 
of us shall have gone to his account. Shall we in our 
generation fill a bright page in our church relation ? 
Brethren, the answer of that question is in ourselves. 
" Our fathers had the tabernacle of witness in the wil- 
derness," but their " dust has returned to the earth," 
" their sepulchres are with us unto this day." And as 
we enter upon the third century of our existence, it ap- 
pears to me that every particle of their sleeping dust is 
instinct with life, and from the memory of their cher- 
ished graves, and from their glorified spirits around the 
throne, as a great cloud of witnesses, comes a united 
voice into the living ear of those upon whom the present 
responsibility rests \ ''^ Be faithful to the Past — he true 
to the Present — he just to the Future.''^ And the influ- 
ences of their history, sparkling with rays of light, as 
stars in the milky way, emitted from the Sun of right- 



818 APPENDIX. 

eonsness, converging into one focus, emblazon as upon 
the very face of the heavens — as the express will of 
God — as the teachings of the past, that which must 
ever be the Christian's, the church's motto — Go for- 
ward, 

" 'Tis God's all animating voice, 
Tliat calls thee from on Mgli : 
'Tis his own hand jDresents the prize 
To thine aspiring eye. 

" A cloud of witnesses around 
Hold thee in full survey ; 
Forget the steps already trod, 
And onward urge thy way." 

"Blessed he tlie Lord, that hath given rest unto his 
people Israel, according to all that he promised : there 
hath not failed one word of all his good promise, which 
he promised by the hand of Moses his servant. 

" The Lord our God be with us, as he was with our 
fathers : let him not leave us, nor forsake us : 

" That we may incline our hearts unto him, to walk 
in all his ways, and to keep his commandments, and 
his statutes, and his judgments, which he commanded 
our fathers." — Amen. 



APPENDIX. 319 

From the New York Observer, of Jtinuary 16th, 1862, 

bi-ce:n^tekary commemoratio:n^ 

AT JAMAICA, L. L 

Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday, (January 7, 8 
and 9, 1862,) will long be remembered by the people 
of Jamaica, Long Island. Agreeably to the compre- 
hensive preparations made for the commemoration of 
the settlement and the planting of the Presbyterian 
church at that place two hundred yeare ago, the exer- 
cises were continued through those three days ; and 
the spirit with which they were carried on, would only 
have been satisfied had they continued three days 
longer. It was a " holy convocation to the Lord." 
The dwellings of a hospitable people were thrown open 
for the reception of their guests — their own returned 
children — and for the interchange of friendly greeting 
and intercourse ; and in them was heard abundantly 
the voice of prayer and praise. 

The Commemorative Discourse was delivered on 
Tuesday by the Rev. Dr. Macdonald, now of Prince- 
ton, the predecessor of the present worthy and suc- 
cessful pastor at Jamaica, the Eev. Peter D. Oakey, 
Dr. Macdonald's discourse occupied two hours in the 
delivery, and was heard by the crowded assembly w^ith 
continued inter-est until the close. It did not need his 
own felicitous apology for its length, that it was but in 
the proportion of an hour to a century. It will be 
printed uniform with the author's interesting volume, 



320 APPENDIX. 

"The History of the Presbyterian Church at Jamaica, 
L. I.;" and no abstract, therefore, is given here. It 
was rich in research ; in liistorical detail ; in quaint in- 
cidents of the olden time ; in clear and logical argu- 
ment and proof of tlie antiquity and of the decided 
Presbyterianism of the Church from the beginning, of 
its trials and persecutions, its pastoral succession, its 
seasons of refreshing, its emigrant development and re- 
lation to the history of the Church and the country at 
large, and — ^last, but not least — its opportunities and its 
obligations to preserve and to extend its influence in all 
time to come. 

On Wednesday morning there was a festival of good 
things ; — Dr. Macdonald presided. More than twenty 
ministers have gone out directly from this church, 
especially in its later years ; of these a goodly number 
were present. There were no formal services, each in 
turn came forward and contributed his reminiscence 
and memorial with the simplicity, frankness and unc- 
tion, which had free scope in this famil}' gathering. 
The Pev. Dr. Nicholas Everitt Smith, pastor of the Pe- 
formed Dutch Church in Harrison street, Prooklyn, 
and the Pev. Penjamin S. Everitt, pastor of the Presby- 
terian Church at Plackwoodtown, IST. J., — descendants 
of Nicholas Everitt, one of the original members of the 
church, — were baptized here, although the former of 
them was in infancy removed by his parents to tl)e 
Putgers street congregation, New York, where he 
claimed as his spiritual father the Pev. Dr. Krebs, its 
pastor, now present. The Pev. Mr. Wickes, pastor of 
a church, near Pochester, spoke in behalf of himself 
and of his brother, also a minister. The Pev. Elias N. 



APPENDIX. 321 

Crane, pastor at Kew Yernon, N. J., son of the former 
beloved pastor, Elias W. Crane, and the Rev. Wilson 
Phraner, of Sing Sing, bronght their affectionate tribnte. 
The Rev. Dr. Henry R. Weed, of Wheeling, Ya., (the 
eldest surviving minister of the former pastors of Ja- 
maica,) and others, unable to be present, sent letters. As 
this congregation was first brought into a regular 
" church way," and that way w^as in an important legal 
document referred to "according to the rules of the 
Gospel in this town,"— ^. <?., Presbyterian — it is not a 
child, but the mother even of the " mother Presbytery." 
George MclS'ish, (settled A. D. 1710,) cotemporary of 
Francis Mackemie and John Hampton, (who was im- 
prisoned by the Colonial authorities in the old church 
at Jamaica, for preaching the Gospel,) was one of the 
original members of the Presbytery of Philadelphia, 
(1706-1716,) and was the eighth pastor at Jamaica. 
Mr. McNish and the church of Jamaica were set off 
subsequentl}^ to form the Presbytery of Long Island — 
the first Presbytery in the province of New York. 
Afterwards the congregation becafne a part of the 
Presbytery of ]N"ew York, and in 1855 it was attached 
to the new Presbytery of E'assau. Representatives of 
these Presbyteries were also present : — The Rev. Mr. 
Reeve, of Long Island ; Mr. Wm. P. Breed, of Phila- 
delphia, and Dr. Krebs, of E'ew York. These breth- 
ren also spoke. Mr. Breed could not claim to be a 
descendant of Jamaica, but he also, as well as Dr. 
Smith, recognized as his spiritual father the pastor of 
the Rutgers street Church, (which relation may be 
claimed hj about twenty-five ministers of the Gospel,) 



322 APPENDIX. 

he would feel as if he belonged here too. Dr. Krebs 
had come on behalf of the Presbytery, which, for a long 
time after the foundation of Jamaica, had not yet come 
into existence, as indeed there was no church in New 
York until the beginning of the eighteenth century, but 
was now multiplied into six or seven Presbyteries with 
their many scores of cliurches and pastors. But he 
would not now speak of this. His own churcli was for 
many years familiarly spoken of as the "Long Island 
Clmrch in New York." Many of its members were 
drawn from the Island and from Jamaica, even in his 
own day. And he had been so intimately connected 
with them in intercourse with their pastors and with 
themselves in the enjoyment of their iiospitality, and 
in preaching the Gospel to them in their own place, as 
well as by the marriage of liis own child with the de- 
scendant of one of their oldest families, still numerous 
and dwelling there, that he felt as if he also was their 
kinsman. He spoke with especial eulogy of that man 
of God — the Pev. Elias W. Crane — and enlarged on 
the happy combination of means of grace, in the " home, 
the school, and the church," which God had so signally 
blessed. 

No attempt is made to report these speeches. Pef- 
erence was made to the presence of three ruling elders 
still in ofhce, after forty years' service, and to the Super- 
intendent of the Sunday-school, Mr. Laurens Peeve,"^'^ 
still labouring in that vocation after thirty-three years. 



* [Elder Laurens Reeve has been superintendent of the village school for 
thirty-three years ; Elder John Carpenter was superintendent of the Fos- 
ter's Meadow school for thirty years ; and Elder Nathaniel Carpenter, of 
the Springfield school, for twenty years. — Com.] 



APPENDIX. 323 

The venerable Dr. Shelton was called upon and gave 
some pleasant recollections of the early days, not only 
of fifty-five years ago, but through old people with 
whom he had conversed in his early life among them. 
He was able also to speak of what they had seen and 
told him of nearly one hundred and fifty years ago. 
For three hours this free and unrestrained outgushing 
of the heart went on — some speaking only with tears, 
where the tide of feeling choked utterance — till the 
time itself gave out, and the people, who would fain 
have lingered, were forced to disperse. None who were 
there will ever forget that scene. A volume only could 
describe the interesting details, nor could any written 
record describe the heavenly and tender feelings of the 
scene. 

On Wednesday evening Dr. Krebs preached, and on 
Thursday morning Mr. Breed, and on Thursday af- 
ternoon the Lord's Supper was administered. Thus 
fitly concludes this delightful anniversary. The people 
had remembered their fathers and the grace of God 
that was with them ; and now, crowning all, they kept 
with joy the feast in remembrance of Him "of whom 
the whole family in earth and heaven is named," by 
whose death they and their fathers were made heirs 
together of the grace of life. 

It may be mentioned as an affecting incident, that 
there came also messages and greetings from sick beds 
of members of the church, who felt that they were 
standing on the verge of Jordan ; and that one of the 
more aged members of the church was actually dying,^ 
while we, unaware of that fact, were singing the hymn, 

* Nathaniel Ludlura. 



824: APPENDIX. 

" Come let iis join our friends above," which contains 
these stanzas : 

" One army of the living God, 
To his commands we bow ; 
Part of the host have crossed the flood, 
And j)art are crossing now. 

" How many to their endless home, 

This solemn moment fly ! 
And we are to the margin come, 
And soon expect to die 1 " 

A Guest. 



APPENDIX. 325 



From tbe Presbj'terian, January 25, 1862. 

THE JAMAICA BI-CENTEN^AEY. 

We can liardly realize that any tiling human in 
America can be two Imndred years old. But we have 
just celebrated tlie Two Hundredth Anniversary of a 
Christian chnrch at Jamaica, Long Island, and in all 
probability the oldest Presbyterian church on this con- 
tinent ! That Father Makemie was an adopted son of 
Presbyterianism in America, and not its father, is man- 
ifest from the fact that, long anterior to his arrival in 
this country, this chnrch existed, and witliout doubt as 
a Presbyterian church ; and when, in 1707, he was 
arrested by the amiable Lord Cornbury, he was im- 
prisoned in the old stone church at Jamaica. 

It was about 1655, while Peter Stuyvesant was 
Governor of l^ew York, that seventeen persons, some 
from Hempstead, Long Island, and some from 'New 
England, formed this settlement. They were a vir- 
tuous, godly race. The town records for February 
27, 1658, say : " It is y' day voted by this town that 
no person shall sell, or give to any Indians within, or 
about y^ said town, any strong licker, much or little, 
more or less, upon the forfeiture of fifty guilders." 
The original name of the town was "Yemacah," of 
Indian origin. As early as 1662, public worship was 
regularly established, to which the citizens were called 
by *' the sound of the cliurch-going " drum. And on 
January 22, 1663, it was ''voted by the town that 



326 APPENDIX. 

Abraham Smith shall liave thirty shillings a year for 
beating the drum upon Sabbath days," etc. 

It would seem that longevity has become a con- 
firmed habit with persons and things in Jamaica. The 
church two liundred years old ; three of the ruling 
elders more than forty years in the eldership ; the 
superintendent of the Sabbath-school more than thirty 
years in office, and able to count more than twenty 
ministers of the Gospel who have once been in con- 
nection with his school, and an uncommon number of 
venerable, silver-headed patriarchs in the congregation ! 

The commemorative services were commenced on 
Tuesday afternoon, the Yth inst., at half-past three 
o'clock, with a most instructive discourse of a histori- 
cal character, by the Rev. Dr. James M. Macdonald, 
formerly pastor of the church, and now of Princeton, 
New Jersey. The house was crowded, and at the close 
of the service all withdrew w^ith the deep conviction 
that such an anniversary could not have had a more 
instructive and appropriate beginning. 

On Wednesda}^ morning, at half-past ten o'clock, the 
conorreiration ao^ain assembled for free conference and 
prayer. Dr. Macdonald was called to the chair, and a 
most touching and impressive service it was. Before 
our eyes on each side of the pulpit, was a marble 
tablet, containing the names of all the deceased pastors 
of the church, beginning with Zechariah Walker, in 
1662. Here and there, in the same pew, might be seen 
the grey-haired patriarch, with his white cravat and 
venerable mien, and the son, in the vigor of manhood, 
evidently ready to endure hardness in the service of 
either Church or State, and the flaxen-haired, bright- 



APPENDIX. 827 

eyed grand-dangliter, the flower in the grass beneath 
the aged tree. Children of the church were there 
from a distance, se^reral of whom came to tell the story 
of their labors as ambassadors of Jesus Christ. 

The first who spoke was the venerable Dr. Shelton, 
now more than two score years a ruling elder in that 
church. Among other things, he told of a pious wo- 
man of the congregation in former days, who, one 
night before retiring, bent the knee in prayer at her 
bedside, and when she rose to lay her head upon her 
pillow, to her astonishment, she found the daylight 
streaming into the windows ! She had spent the whole 
night in prayer ! 

Following him, came several *' children of the 
Church," now ambassadors of Christ, with their stories 
of hallowed and touchino: reminiscences. The Rev. 
Mr. Weeks, from the vicinity of Rochester, New York ; 
the Rev. Elias N". Crane, the Rev. Mr. Everitt, and the 
Rev. -Mr. Higbie — all these brethren spoke in the most 
earnest manner of God's faithfulness as a covenant- 
keeping God ; and all bore repeated and explicit testi- 
mony to the value of Sabbath-school instruction, as il- 
lustrated in their own experience. 

As the exercises continued, every heart was moved, 
and tears flowed freely from aged and youthful eyes, 
and when Mr. Laurens Reeve, Superintendent so 
long of the Sabbath-school, was called upon, his emo- 
tions utterly forbade utterance. 

The representatives from sister churches and Presby- 
teries were now called on ; and the Rev. Dr. N. E. Smith 
of Brooklyn, now of the Dutch church, responded in a 
happy address. His father, now ninety years old, was 



328 APPENDIX. 

formerly a member of the Jamaica Church, and could 
narrate many curious incidents in its history. The old 
square stone church stood in the middle of the road, 
and, besides the usual door before the pulpit, had two 
others in the sides of the building, opposite each other, 
and connected by an aisle. One summer Sabbath, 
when the people were engaged in worship, and these 
two doors standing open, a worthless fellow, at a neigh- 
bouring tavern, made a bet that he would ride on 
horseback in at one of these side doors, and out at the 
other — wdiich bet he w^on ! The effect on preacher and 
hearer, of the sudden apparition of a man on horseback 
in the midst of the congregation, may be imagined. 

The Eev. W. B. Reeve, of the Presbytery of Long 
Island ; the Rev. W. P. Breed, of the Presbytery of 
Philadelpliia, the venerable motlier of all our Presby- 
teries ; and the Rev. Dr. Krebs, of the Presbytery of 
ISTew York, made appropriate gratulatory addresses. 

On Wednesday evening, Dr. Krebs preached on the 
text, " The jo}^ of the Lord is your strengtli." Thurs- 
day morning, Mr. Breed preached from Heb. xii. 1. In 
the afternoon, the sacrament of the Lord's Supper was 
celebrated, and it added no little to the solemnity of 
the occasion, to reflect that the generations of two cen- 
turies had refreshed themselves at that table on their 
way to the marriage-supper of the Lamb. This was 
the closing service ; and, altogether, the occasion was 
of a most refreshing and delightful character, and will 
not soon be forgotten by any who were permitted to 
participate in its sweet solemnities. May many a 
godly generation yet enjoy the precious means of grace 
in the venerable old church at Jamaica ! B. 



APPENDIX. 329 

At a meeting of the Elders, Deacons, and Trustees, 
lield January 2Ttli, 1862, the report of the Committee 
of arrangements was accepted and adopted. It was 
" Eesolved that our thanks be presented to the Brethren 
Avho have come to assist in tlie anniversary exercises ; 
that a new edition of 500 copies of the liistory of the 
churcli be published, and that the Rev. Dr. Macdonald 
be requested to complete it for the two centuries of the 
churh's existence ; that a narrative of the anniversary 
exercises be published as an appendix to the same, and 
copies of the sermons preached on the occasion solicit- 
ed for publication." The Committee of arrangements 
w^ere authorized to carry out these resolutions, and 
Latliam M. Jaggar, was appointed treasurer of the 
publication fund. 



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